The Search for Security The League of Nations and International Security
Wilson’s Collective Security <ul><li>At the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson persuaded the delegates to accept the notion of...
Point 14 <ul><li>The last of Wilson’s 14 Points stated that… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A general association of nations must...
League’s Main Objective <ul><li>To preserve the peace of the world! </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter...
The League’s Covenant <ul><li>Constitution of the organization (rules). </li></ul><ul><li>Each member solemnly promised to...
Article 10 <ul><li>Members will respect and preserve political independence and territorial integrity against external agg...
Article 12 <ul><li>Any disputes between members will be submitted to arbitration, and members will not go to war for three...
Membership <ul><li>Open to “any fully self-governing state, dominion or colony.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate membership...
 
Mandates <ul><li>Former colonies of Germany and non-Turkish areas of Ottoman Empire were to be “administered” by various A...
The ILO <ul><li>International Labour Office </li></ul><ul><li>Founded to work in conjunction with League. </li></ul><ul><l...
The World Court <ul><li>15 Judges located at The Hague in Holland. </li></ul><ul><li>Not very successful for two reasons: ...
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League of Nations

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League of Nations

  1. 1. The Search for Security The League of Nations and International Security
  2. 2. Wilson’s Collective Security <ul><li>At the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson persuaded the delegates to accept the notion of collective security to create a new world order. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A community of nations which would guarantee one another’s safety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An attack on one country is an attack on all </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Point 14 <ul><li>The last of Wilson’s 14 Points stated that… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a totally new idea, but Wilson made it popular = founder of the League. </li></ul>
  4. 4. League’s Main Objective <ul><li>To preserve the peace of the world! </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Co-operation (through an international association) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitration (disputes must first be arbitrated before going to war!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Security (an attack on one is an attack on all!) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The League’s Covenant <ul><li>Constitution of the organization (rules). </li></ul><ul><li>Each member solemnly promised to this set of rules… hence “covenant” </li></ul><ul><li>The following are the important rules… </li></ul>
  6. 6. Article 10 <ul><li>Members will respect and preserve political independence and territorial integrity against external aggression. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Article 12 <ul><li>Any disputes between members will be submitted to arbitration, and members will not go to war for three months after the arbitrator’s ruling. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Membership <ul><li>Open to “any fully self-governing state, dominion or colony.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate membership for British Dominions and India. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At first Assembly (Geneva 1920), 43 states were members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19 more states joined over the years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 countries left (Japan, Germany and Italy left, the Soviet Union was kicked out). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States never joined!! </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Mandates <ul><li>Former colonies of Germany and non-Turkish areas of Ottoman Empire were to be “administered” by various Allied powers (under control of the League). </li></ul><ul><li>Mandated territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Some mandates wanted help, powers didn’t want to give it. (French in Syria) </li></ul><ul><li>Other powers wanted to “help,” but the mandates didn’t want it. (Britain in Mesopotamia/Iraq) </li></ul>
  10. 11. The ILO <ul><li>International Labour Office </li></ul><ul><li>Founded to work in conjunction with League. </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate was to help mankind and serve the cause of peace by improving working conditions and raising the standard of living. </li></ul><ul><li>Response to the Communist Revolution in Russia (now the Soviet Union). </li></ul>
  11. 12. The World Court <ul><li>15 Judges located at The Hague in Holland. </li></ul><ul><li>Not very successful for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No teeth (power to enforce decisions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Option out clause (only members who opted in had to submit their disputes) </li></ul></ul>

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