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Imperialism middle east



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  • 1. The Changing Nature of Imperialism The League of Nations The Mandate System The Middle East
  • 2. Define:Imperialism
    • The old definition:
      • The policy of imposing the rule or command of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of obtaining and occupying colonies and dependencies.
    • The new definition:
      • Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.
  • 3. Sykes-Picot Agreement
    • A secret agreement between Great Britain and France, and agreed to by Russia.
    • Defined spheres of influence and control in Middle East for after the expected downfall of the Ottoman Empire.
    • Mostly a trade agreement.
      • Large area set aside for indirect rule through an Arab state or a confederation of Arab states.
  • 4.  
  • 5. Post-War Enemy Territories
    • The Council of the League given responsibility over German and Turkish colonies at the end of the War.
    • Solution: the Mandate system.
      • Colonies became the responsibility of one of the League’s members.
      • Member given the mandate of guiding them ASAP to self-governing status.
  • 6. Mandate Classes
    • Former colonies in the Middle East were considered close to independence.
      • Class A - mandate power to transition.
    • Former colonies in Africa needed “development” before being “ready” for independence.
      • Class B - human rights monitored by League
    • Former colonies in the Pacific (islands) were so “underdeveloped” that “guided” development was unfeasible.
      • Class C - annexed by mandated power.
  • 7. Middle East Mandates
    • Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire.
    • Syria mandated to France
    • Iraq and Palestine mandated to Britain
      • Extended British control throughout Middle East.
      • See map on pg 358.
      • For details on former German colonies see chart on page 33.
  • 8.  
  • 9. What were these “Mandates” about? How did the new concept of imperialism differ from the old?
  • 10. Questions
    • Why was imperialism an important concept in the world of 1919?
    • What did imperialism look like before WWI?
    • How did the nature of imperialism change after the events of WWI?
    • Why might this have changed?