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It is all about choice – andwhat you deem is important Because we can teach you nothing…. Unless you want to learn And if you do not want to be here – you are free to leave – today If you stay – you commit to 9 days of building your post-secondary to be a foundation for the next 6 years What do you want to take away from today? How are we going to do that together?
Rules of Engagement Willbe common to all university classrooms Student code of conduct Expectations for my sessions
2001 Statistics Population Sampled (15 years and older) = 23 901 360 or about 24 000 000 6 173 225 start university = 24% 3 687 650 complete degree = 15% 642 055 complete a masters = 2.6% 128 625 complete a PhD = .5%
Social Role As Defined by Sociologist Talcott ParsonsA Social Role may be defined as a socially expected pattern… of behaviours, responsibilities, expectations, and privileges.
Characteristics of the Successful Student What do they look like? What don’t they look like? How do they behave? How don’t they behave? Divide into 4 groups
CharacteristicsWhat do they look like? What don’t they look like?1. “smart” – glasses, reading 1. Rumpled 2. Scruffy2. Carries backpack 3. Baggy clothes3. Well dressed 4. Intoxicated4. Carries books 5. Parties all the time5. Conservative 6. Bags under their clothing eyes
CharacteristicsHow do they How don’t they Behave? behave?1. Motivated 1. Lazy2. Articulate 2. Disrespectful3. Well spoken 3. Hostile
Age? Gender? Diversity? Who will be in your classes?
Social Role of the Student of behaviour responsibilities – Expectations –and privileges –What are these for a student
Social Role of the Student of behaviour, - doing work responsibilities - studying, completing assignments, attending class Expectations – you will work hard, you will fulfill all class requirements and privileges – access to library, access to funding, access to student services, reduced rates for museums, travel, ability to choose courses, create own time table
Roles Powerfully Impact Upon: Image in eyes of others ~ status & reputation Image in own eyes ~ self-image Acceptance and belonging Associations and relationships Autonomy and freedom Personal growth and development Opportunities Material side of life Lifestyle
What other Social Roles Do You Hold· It is useful to make a list of the roles that you hold in your life.· These may include some of the following common roles:· Spouse, child, parent, sibling, worker, friend, profession, hobbyist, voluntary worker, older person.
Social Roles and LDsConnection Terminology re LD Permanent disability – tied to rights Neurological dysfunction in one or more of the psychological processes related to learning Learn “differently” vs Learning Disability Concept of “passing” Concept of “comorbidity” stopped here
There are both positiveand negative socialroles.List positive social rolesand negative ones
The Social Definition ofDevaluation A person becomes perceived or defined as devalued…1. By being different from others…2. In one or more dimensions…3. Which are perceived as significant by a majority or ruling segment of a society…4. Who value this difference negatively.
Society Devalues Certain Qualities &Conditions
Minority groups WidelyDevalued in Western Society Those impaired in Senses – vision, hearing Body – CP, epilespy, etc Mind – psychiatric illness, intellectual disability Those see as disordered in behavior Activity level – hyperactive, lethargic Self-destructive , substance dependent Sexual orientation or conduct Socially rebellious Lawless, delinquent, imprisioned dissident Wolf Wolfsenberger - Syracuse University Training Institute
Minority groups WidelyDevalued in Western Society The poor Those with few or unwanted skills Illiterate unemployed Those“unassimilated” for other reasons: Age – unborn, newborn, aged Race, nationality, ethnicity religion
So what do we do about it?Minimize devaluation...Maximizevalued social roles…
By paying attention to…the socially expected pattern of behaviours, responsibilities, expectations, and privileges,…of a University Student
We accomplish this through rolecommunicators What are role communicators?
Role Communicators1. The structure & context of the physical environment University Campus vs. separate space
Role Communicators1. The people associated with a person or group, including clients, staff, others
Role Communicators The behaviours that are expected, demanded, shaped, & acted out
Role Communicators con’t.4. The language that is used:a. Direct address to people a. Dr. vs. Sir vs. Missb. Indirect references to peoplec. Names of services processes, including activities, staff titlesd. Facility/service names a. Student Affairs vs. Student, Community and Leadership Development
Role Communicators con’t.5. Other imagery attached to a person or group 1. stereotypes
Awareness/Advocacy Why at present at beginning of program?
STEPS TO LEARNING Senses Processing Memory Expression
Processing* breakdown starting here often defines an LD Visual Processing Auditory Processing Tactile (skin) Kinesthetic Processing (body movement) Speed of processing crucial factor in interpreting information
Concrete Example ofProcessing Rick Lavoie Processing
Breakdown in Pathways General way of explaining what a learning disability is - breakdown or slowdown of pathways that process, interpret, express information
Learning Disabilities:A new definitionLearning Disabilities Association ofOntario (LDAO)2001
“Learning Disabilities” refers to a variety of disorders that affect the acquisition, retention, understanding organization or use ofverbal and/or non-verbal information
These disorders result from impairments in one ormore psychological processes related tolearning,in combination with otherwise average abilitiesessential for thinking and reasoning.
“Psychological Processes” - An evolving list that has focused on functions such as: phonological processing memory and attention processing speed
Learning disabilities are specific not globalimpairments and as such are distinct fromintellectual disabilities.
Learning disabilities range in severity andinvariable interfere with the acquisition and useof one or more of the following important skills: Orallanguage (e.g., listening, speaking, understanding) Reading (e.g., decoding, comprehension) Written language (e.g., spelling, written expression) Mathematics (e.g., computation, problem solving)
Learning disabilities may also cause difficultieswith organizational skills, social perception andsocial interaction.
The impairments are generally life-long.However, their effects may be expresseddifferently over time, depending on the matchbetween the demands of the environment andthe individual’s characteristics.
Common Elements Regardlessof Definition Neurological dysfunction Uneven growth pattern and psychological processing deficits Difficulty in academic and learning tasks Discrepancy between achievement and potential Exclusion of other causes
Now we have a sense of whata LD is How do we assess one?
Traditional AssessmentRely on standardized / formal tests Use scores to compare student’s progress with others “norm-referenced” Tests available in more than 1 form Standard administration Contains grade norms, age norms, percentiles Information on validity of the test
Traditional AssessmentCaveats What are the limitations of the tests you are using Use multiple sources of data when possible to get a more accurate picture