EXPECTED !!!! REGARDLESS OF WHETHER IT … OUGHT VS. IS ROLE OF STUDENT behaviour: attend class responsibilities: hand in assignments on time expectations: study for tests, be responsible for own learning privileges: access to library, student services, etc.
Have students list positive and negative social roles. Ex. Student, homeowner, member, parent vs. eternal child, menace, burden of charity, object of pity. OH: Major Common Socio-historical role perceptions of individuals or groups who are different, devalued, minority or handicapped.
REMINDER: OUGHT VS. IS
Have students list qualities and conditions that they see as being devalued. WRITE THEM ON THE BOARD. Do students think that having a learning disability is seen as a difference that is perceived as significant by a ruling or majority segment of society who value this difference negatively? If not, ask them if they have ever been made to feel bad about having a disability – maybe felt like people thought they are stupid or felt that they themselves were stupid. OH: Minority Groups Widely Devalued In Western Society
Minimize devaluation: Not perceive the difference Perceive the difference in fewer areas Perceive the difference as insignificant by a significant majority of the people. View the difference positively. ALL OF THIS WITHOUT PUSHING OTHER PEOPLE DOWN
OH: Rielle as baby graduate. What is communicated about the role this child is filling or is EXPECTED to fill in the future?
– with typical students typical prof ’s, TA’s, other students, etc. Like typical students but paying even closer attention to behaviour. For a university student, this provides a broad range of choice. This does not restrict individuality but provides guidelines for appropriate behaviour.
4. OH: Examples of equating people with their impairments Indirect references influence people but this can also be influenced by the individual. Facility Names – Project Advance vs. Let the students come up with a name that would enhance a negative image. For example: Slow starters. OH: Why are the Following Facilities Named as they Are?
- non-verbal information – where we don ’t use language – understanding how wood joins together to make a table - puzzles
Norm-referenced – have been administered to large groups of children More than 1 form = can be assessed more than once without being overly – practiced – in situations where might want to assess pre- and post- to determine progress Standard administration – very precise instructions have been to given, and strict criteria for scoring and adminisitration Does it test what it says it does
Diagnostic tests – those that are trying to pin-point the difficulty the student is experiencing as opposed to describing reading level – trying to discover the HOW Writing does not tend to be among the standarized tests as it is much more difficulty to assess this way Notion of batteries – often try to come up with one “package”that will test everything – example with respect to academic tests is the WRAT series – reading out of context, spelling, math
It is all about choice – andwhat you deem is important Because we can teach you nothing…. Unless you want to learn And if you do not want to be here – you are free to leave – today If you stay – you commit to 9 days of building your post-secondary to be a foundation for the next 6 years What do you want to take away from today? How are we going to do that together?
Rules of Engagement Willbe common to all university classrooms Student code of conduct Expectations for my sessions
2001 Statistics Population Sampled (15 years and older) = 23 901 360 or about 24 000 000 6 173 225 start university = 24% 3 687 650 complete degree = 15% 642 055 complete a masters = 2.6% 128 625 complete a PhD = .5%
Social Role As Defined by Sociologist Talcott ParsonsA Social Role may be defined as a socially expected pattern… of behaviours, responsibilities, expectations, and privileges.
Characteristics of the Successful Student What do they look like? What don’t they look like? How do they behave? How don’t they behave? Divide into 4 groups
CharacteristicsWhat do they look like? What don’t they look like?1. “smart” – glasses, reading 1. Rumpled 2. Scruffy2. Carries backpack 3. Baggy clothes3. Well dressed 4. Intoxicated4. Carries books 5. Parties all the time5. Conservative 6. Bags under their clothing eyes
CharacteristicsHow do they How don’t they Behave? behave?1. Motivated 1. Lazy2. Articulate 2. Disrespectful3. Well spoken 3. Hostile
Age? Gender? Diversity? Who will be in your classes?
Social Role of the Student of behaviour responsibilities – Expectations –and privileges –What are these for a student
Social Role of the Student of behaviour, - doing work responsibilities - studying, completing assignments, attending class Expectations – you will work hard, you will fulfill all class requirements and privileges – access to library, access to funding, access to student services, reduced rates for museums, travel, ability to choose courses, create own time table
Roles Powerfully Impact Upon: Image in eyes of others ~ status & reputation Image in own eyes ~ self-image Acceptance and belonging Associations and relationships Autonomy and freedom Personal growth and development Opportunities Material side of life Lifestyle
What other Social Roles Do You Hold· It is useful to make a list of the roles that you hold in your life.· These may include some of the following common roles:· Spouse, child, parent, sibling, worker, friend, profession, hobbyist, voluntary worker, older person.
Social Roles and LDsConnection Terminology re LD Permanent disability – tied to rights Neurological dysfunction in one or more of the psychological processes related to learning Learn “differently” vs Learning Disability Concept of “passing” Concept of “comorbidity” stopped here
There are both positiveand negative socialroles.List positive social rolesand negative ones
The Social Definition ofDevaluation A person becomes perceived or defined as devalued…1. By being different from others…2. In one or more dimensions…3. Which are perceived as significant by a majority or ruling segment of a society…4. Who value this difference negatively.
Society Devalues Certain Qualities &Conditions
Minority groups WidelyDevalued in Western Society Those impaired in Senses – vision, hearing Body – CP, epilespy, etc Mind – psychiatric illness, intellectual disability Those see as disordered in behavior Activity level – hyperactive, lethargic Self-destructive , substance dependent Sexual orientation or conduct Socially rebellious Lawless, delinquent, imprisioned dissident Wolf Wolfsenberger - Syracuse University Training Institute
Minority groups WidelyDevalued in Western Society The poor Those with few or unwanted skills Illiterate unemployed Those“unassimilated” for other reasons: Age – unborn, newborn, aged Race, nationality, ethnicity religion
So what do we do about it?Minimize devaluation...Maximizevalued social roles…
By paying attention to…the socially expected pattern of behaviours, responsibilities, expectations, and privileges,…of a University Student
We accomplish this through rolecommunicators What are role communicators?
Role Communicators1. The structure & context of the physical environment University Campus vs. separate space
Role Communicators1. The people associated with a person or group, including clients, staff, others
Role Communicators The behaviours that are expected, demanded, shaped, & acted out
Role Communicators con’t.4. The language that is used:a. Direct address to people a. Dr. vs. Sir vs. Missb. Indirect references to peoplec. Names of services processes, including activities, staff titlesd. Facility/service names a. Student Affairs vs. Student, Community and Leadership Development
Role Communicators con’t.5. Other imagery attached to a person or group 1. stereotypes
Awareness/Advocacy Why at present at beginning of program?
STEPS TO LEARNING Senses Processing Memory Expression
Processing* breakdown starting here often defines an LD Visual Processing Auditory Processing Tactile (skin) Kinesthetic Processing (body movement) Speed of processing crucial factor in interpreting information
Concrete Example ofProcessing Rick Lavoie Processing
Breakdown in Pathways General way of explaining what a learning disability is - breakdown or slowdown of pathways that process, interpret, express information
Learning Disabilities:A new definitionLearning Disabilities Association ofOntario (LDAO)2001
“Learning Disabilities” refers to a variety of disorders that affect the acquisition, retention, understanding organization or use ofverbal and/or non-verbal information
These disorders result from impairments in one ormore psychological processes related tolearning,in combination with otherwise average abilitiesessential for thinking and reasoning.
“Psychological Processes” - An evolving list that has focused on functions such as: phonological processing memory and attention processing speed
Learning disabilities are specific not globalimpairments and as such are distinct fromintellectual disabilities.
Learning disabilities range in severity andinvariable interfere with the acquisition and useof one or more of the following important skills: Orallanguage (e.g., listening, speaking, understanding) Reading (e.g., decoding, comprehension) Written language (e.g., spelling, written expression) Mathematics (e.g., computation, problem solving)
Learning disabilities may also cause difficultieswith organizational skills, social perception andsocial interaction.
The impairments are generally life-long.However, their effects may be expresseddifferently over time, depending on the matchbetween the demands of the environment andthe individual’s characteristics.
Common Elements Regardlessof Definition Neurological dysfunction Uneven growth pattern and psychological processing deficits Difficulty in academic and learning tasks Discrepancy between achievement and potential Exclusion of other causes
Now we have a sense of whata LD is How do we assess one?
Traditional AssessmentRely on standardized / formal tests Use scores to compare student’s progress with others “norm-referenced” Tests available in more than 1 form Standard administration Contains grade norms, age norms, percentiles Information on validity of the test
Traditional AssessmentCaveats What are the limitations of the tests you are using Use multiple sources of data when possible to get a more accurate picture