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  • 1. CORROSION TESTING – EVALUATION OF LIFE SPAN OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. Department of Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Email: mwalczak@ing.puc.cl Tel. +56-2-354-4627 CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION – CORROSION TESTING: WHAT’S THE DEAL? 2. THEORY – PREDICTION OF DEATH BY CORROSION 3. CASE STUDY – TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS presented at VII ENCUENTRO DE GESTIÓN DE ACTIVOS FÍSICOS Santiago de Chile, 27th Nov 2009 PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 2. (1/3) INTRODUCTION Wroclaw University of Technology Wroclaw, Poland MPI Iron Reseach MPI Coal Reseach Düsseldorf, Germany Mülheim an de Ruhr, Germany ThyssenKrupp, DOC GmbH Dortmund, Germany PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 3. (1/3) INTRODUCTION FROM MAINTENANCE TO CORROSION THE IRON PILAR OF DELHI PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 4. (1/3) INTRODUCTION HISTORICAL STUDY OF CORROSION COST Corrosion 62 2006 (Biezma) PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 5. (1/3) INTRODUCTION CORROSION COST AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT STRATEGIES FOR DEALING DISTRIBUTION OF CORROSION COST WITH CORROSION (USA, average for 1996–1999) P.R. Roberge, 2007 CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CORROSION CONTROL CORROSION PROTECTION www.dr-maiko.com fot. M.Walczak fot. A. Pino PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 6. (1/3) INTRODUCTION CATEGORIES OF CORROSION PROTECTION AFTER GERMAN ASSOCIATION FOR CATHODIC PROTECTION CORROSION PROTECTION PRECAUTION IN THE ELECTROCHEMICAL PREVENTION SURFACE PROTECTION CORROSIVE MEDIUM PROTECTION SURFACE COATING CORROSION CATHODIC MATERIAL SELECTION INHIBITORS PROTECTION (COATING) SUITABLE DESIGN ELIMINATION OF CATHODIC AND STIMULANTS ANODIC PROTECTION SUITABLE PACKAGE (VOLTAGE) AND STORAGE ELIMINATION OF STRAY CURRENTS NON-METALLIC METALLIC PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 7. (1/3) INTRODUCTION AUTOMOTIVE COATING FOR CORROSION PROTECTION CLEAR COAT UV-protection Typical coating thickness 200 µm BASE COAT visual effects FILLER COAT protection aganist www.honda.com stone-chippinng ED-PAINT corrosion protection and leveling ZINC corrosion protection TYPICAL AUTOMOTIVE CORROSION GUARANTEE COSMETIC CORROSION: 5Y PERFORATION CORROSION: 10 Y CONVERSION COATING corrosion protection adhesion IF-STEEL PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 8. (1/3) INTRODUCTION THE PROBLEM OF CORROSION TESTING www.autobild.de for. M.Walczak LOCALIZED CORROSION, E.G. CREVICE DESIRED TEST RESULT GENERAL CORROSION, E.G. ATMOSPHERIC s min h d m y DESIRED LIFESPAN* *corrosion life of a component CATASTROPHIC CORROSION, E.G. SCC www.corrosionclinic.com PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 9. (2/3) THEORY THE PHENOMENON OF CORROSION MATERIAL DAMAGE MODEL OF AN AUTOMOTIVE COATING - ENVIRONMENT + - + + + - + - + - + +- 2 4 3 1 + + - - - - + + + + + - - - - + + + + - + - - - + + + + + O2 PAINT OH - Zn 2+ Cl - OH - OH - O2 Fe 2+ ZINC e- Zn STEEL e- INTACT DE- WHITE RUST RED RUST INTERFACE LAMINATION ANODIC: Me → Me + ne- CATHODIC: Ox + ne- → R for each reaction:   αzFη   (1 − α )zFη  j = ja − jc = A exp  −  − exp  (Butler-Volmer eq.)   RT   RT  PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 10. (2/3) THEORY THE PHENOMENON OF CORROSION MATERIAL DAMAGE MODEL OF AN AUTOMOTIVE COATING - ENVIRONMENT + - + + + - + - + - + +- 2 4 3 1 + + - - - - + + + + + - - - - + + + + - + - - - + + + + + O2 PAINT OH - Zn 2+ Cl - OH - solvent, gas, another material OH - O2 Fe 2+ ZINC e- Zn pH, temperature, aggressive ions STEEL e- flow conditions, second phase INTACT DE- mechanical stress WHITE RUST RED RUST INTERFACE LAMINATION microorganisms spatial variation of above ANODIC: Me → Me + ne- CATHODIC: Ox + ne- → R temporal variation of above for each reaction:   αzFη   (1 − α )zFη  j = ja − jc = A exp  −  − exp  (Butler-Volmer eq.)   RT   RT  PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 11. (2/3) THEORY THE DOUBLE APPROACH TO TESTING LOCALIZED CORROSION, E.G. CREVICE DESIRED TEST RESULT GENERAL CORROSION, E.G. ATMOSPHERIC s min h d m y DESIRED LIFESPAN* *corrosion life of a component CATASTROPHIC CORROSION, E.G. SCC THE CASE OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS TYPES OF CORROSION TESTS IN R&D AND QUALITY CONTROL ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME Kelvin probe stone-chipping salt spray field tests polarization diagrams adhesion alternate clima impedance spectroscopy scratch resistance PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 12. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL POLARIZATION CURVES OPEN CIRCUIT POTENTIAL MEASUREMENT OF CORROSION CURRENT* TEMPORAL STABILITY OF CORROSION CURRENT* *CORROSION CURRENT: icorr = ianodic = −icathodic ANODIC: Me → Me + ne- CATHODIC: Ox + ne- → R PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 13. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL SCANNING KELVIN PROBE THE PRINCIPLE Uext Iac Vibration along z-axis Ref ∆Ψsample Re f passive surface passivated defect ELECTROLYTE active corrosion METAL in the defect CORRELATION BETWEEN ∆Ψ AND THE CORROSION POTENTIAL ECorr = ∆ Ψsample + const. = f ( x, y, t ) Re f Courtesy Prof. G.Grudnmeier Courtesy Prof. G.Grudnmeier PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 14. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL THE PRINCIPLE OF ACCELERATED CORROSION TESTING MATERIAL - ENVIRONMENT + + - + ++ - - +- + - + + - + - - ESTIMATION OF THE - + + + + + ACCELERATION FACTOR - - - - + + - + + + - - - + + + + + STRESSORS solvent, gas, another material pH, temperature, aggressive ions flow conditions, second phase mechanical stress microorganisms spatial variation of above temporal variation of above Uhlig´s Corrosion Handbook Courtesy Prof. G.Grudnmeier PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 15. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL EXAMPLE ACCELERATED TESTS (CYCLIC TESTING) EXAMPLE TEST 1 EXAMPLE TEST 2 EXAMPLE TEST 3 24 Hours 24 Stunden 4 Stunden Salt spray test Salt spray test Salt spray test DIN 50021-SS DIN 50021-SS DIN 50021-SS 4 Cycles 4 Cycles 4 Stunden Alternate condensed water Alternate condensed water Indoor climate DIN EN ISO 6270-2 AHT DIN EN ISO 6270-2 CH DIN 50014 48 Hours 48 Hours 16 Hours Indoor climate Indoor climate Alternate condenced water DIN 50014 DIN 50014 DIN EN ISO 6270-2 AHT 1 CYCLE = 1 DAY, 1 CYCLE = 1 WEEK 1 CYCLE = 1 WEEK PRODECURE: 5 CYCLES AT ONCE AND THEN 2 DAYS RESTING PHASE PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 16. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL CABINETS FOR ACCELERATED CORROSION TEST LIEBISCH TEST CHAMBER DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 17. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL CABINETS FOR ACCELERATED CORROSION TEST EXAMPLE SERIES OF 3 COATINGS IN A SALT SPRAY CYCLIC TEST, GLASS FLANGE ( 1 WEEK = 1 CYCLE) COATING 3 DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH COATING 2 COATING 1 WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5 PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 18. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL CABINETS FOR ACCELERATED CORROSION TEST WALK-IN CORROSION CHAMBER WITH FOR COMPONENTS AND MODULES DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 19. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL OUTDOOR WEATHERING ACCORDING TO VDA 621-414 EXPOSURE WITH 5% INCLINATION TO THE HORIZONTAL LINE, ONCE A WEEK SPRAYING WITH 3% NACL SOLUTION WEATHERING WITH AND WITHOUG SALT WITHOUT LIGHT PROTECTION WEATHERING WITH AND WITHOUT SALT WITH LIGHT AND RAIN PROTECTION DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 20. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL THE MANY REQUIREMENTS FOR COATED STEEL ANTI-GRAFITTI DECORATIVE LOOK ANTI-BACTERIAL ADHESION CORROSION PROTECTION PROCESS- ABILITY EASY TO CLEAN SURFACE TEXTURE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS SCRATCH RESISTANCE SOUND ABSORPTION BRILLIANCE OF THE TO COAT DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 21. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL TEST OF PAINT ADHESION AND DELAMINATION CROSS CUT TESTS AUTOMATIC SCORING AND CROSS CUT EQUIPMENT MANUAL SCORING DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 22. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL TEST OF PAINT ADHESION AND DELAMINATION CROSS CUT TESTS TEST SAMPLE 1 TEST SAMPLE 2 TEST SAMPLE 3 25 Squares with score distance depending 100 Squares with score 64 Aquares with cut distance of 3 on the coatings thickness distance of 1 mm mm and additional diagonal scores PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 23. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL TEST OF PAINT ADHESION AND DELAMINATION CONICAL MANDREL TEST SINGLE IMPACT TEST CROSSOD.312, ESTS M CUT T ACCORDING TO DIN EN ISO 6860 MOD. 490, ACCORDING TO DIN 55996-2 Mandrel ø 3,2 mm – 38,1 mm Radius of curvature 1 mm DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 24. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL TEST OF PAINT ADHESION AND DELAMINATION STONE-CHIPPING TEST AFTER DIN 55996-1 PROCEDURE A bombardment 2 x 500 g / 1 bar / 10 s PROCEDURE B bombardment 2 x 500 g / 2 bar / 10 s PROCEDURE C • bombardment 1 x 500 g / 2 bar / 10 s • corrosion exposure • bombardment 1 x 500 g / 2 bar / 10 s SHOT ABRASIVE chilled cast granules of 4 – 5 mm DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 25. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL TEST OF PAINT ADHESION AND DELAMINATION STONE-CHIPPING TEST AFTER COATING 1 COTAING 2 DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 26. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL TEST OF WET STORAGE THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED VESSEL STORAGE IN 5% NACL-SOLUTION: 40 °C / 40 H (ACCORDING TO BMW) 55 °C / 240 H (ACCORDING TO HONDA) STORAGE IN LAGERUNG IN DS-WATER: 63 °C / 72 H (ACCORDING TO OPEL) 40 °C / 500 H (ACCORDING TO TOYOTA) 32 °C / 240 H (ACCORDING TO FORD) DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 27. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ELECTROCHEMICAL ACCELERATED LONG-TIME TECHNOLOGICAL THE DIFFERENT SAMPLE GEOMETRIES DOC, Dortmunder OberflächenCentrum GmbH PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 28. (3/3) CASE STUDY CORROSION TESTING OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos
  • 29. CORROSION TESTING – EVALUATION OF LIFE SPAN OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. Department of Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Email: mwalczak@ing.puc.cl Tel. +56-2-354-4627 SUMMARY CLEAR COAT UV-protection 1. COMPLEXITY OF CORROSION HINDERS THE FORMULATION OF DETERMINISTIC MODELS Typical coating thickness 200 µm BASE COAT visual effects 2. DOUBLE APPROACH IN ESTIMATION OF LIFESPAN: EXTRAPOLATION + ACCELERATION FILLER COAT protection aganist 3. MATERIALS FOR AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS ARE ACCEPTED PRELIMINARY BUT stone-chippinng VALIDATION IN A LONG TERM TEST IS TYPICALLY REQUIRED IN ADDITION ED-PAINTprotection and leveling corrosion 4. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MATERIALS/COATINGS WITH MULTIPLE REQUIREMENTS ZINC corrosion protection 5. REFERENCE SAMPLES ARE INDISPENSABLE CONVERSION COATING corrosion protection IF-STEEL PUC, Escuela de Ingeniería UC - Ingeniería Mecánica y Metalúrgica 27 Nov 2009 Magdalena Walczak, Dr.-Ing. VII Encuentro de Gestión de Activos Físicos