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Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
Smith sem2
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Smith sem2

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www.excelenciaenmineria.uc.cl …

www.excelenciaenmineria.uc.cl
II Seminario de Excelencia en Minería UC
Antofagasta, 18 de Agosto de 2011

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  • 1. Building the foundations of tomorrow´s professional mine planning engineer<br />Dr. Martin Lloyd Smith<br />Cátedra Planificación MineríaAndronicoLuksic<br />Centro de Minería<br />Pontificia Universidad de Católica<br />msmith@ing.puc.cl<br />
  • 2. Resumen<br />Origins<br />State of the Art<br />Limits<br />Foundations<br />Return of the Renacentista<br />Environment<br />Resource and reserve<br />Geometallurgy<br />Optimization<br />Simulation<br />Tomorrow´s mine planning profession<br />
  • 3. Historical Context of Mine Planning<br />Historically, little exploration data and inadequate means of processing data<br />Miners followed the ore. No planning as we think of it.<br />Focus on immediate operational requirements<br />Ores were simple and grades high. Mine tonnes not value.<br />Diamond drilling, large scale mining and computing revolutionized planning<br />Block models, operations research (OR) and geostatistics<br />Computer graphics and CAD<br />Planning tools graphically and computationally intensive <br />Initially in-house R&D departments for planning software<br />Rapid advances and difficulty managing FORTRAN code results in commercial General Mine Planning packages (GMPs)<br />
  • 4. No data = No planning<br />?<br />?<br />Exploration drilling & computing led to modern mine planning<br />
  • 5. Current State of Mine Planning<br />Mine planning lacks the academic foundations of design-based disciplines.<br />Recent origins in industrial practice and software applications<br />GMPs have transformed mine planning but limit the planner<br />Curriculum focuses on design – not decision making. GMPs focus CAD not OR and logistics<br />Commercial optimisation applications are black boxes to engineers with limited training in the underlying technology<br />While design engineers follow the renacentistas of the Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, mine planners look to GMPs!<br />
  • 6. General Mining Packages<br />Many planning tools integrated key applications<br />Import/export<br />Geologic database management<br />Geostatistics<br />Volume and surface modelling and calculations<br />String-based CAD design<br />Design utilities<br />Open pit optimisation and scheduling<br />Reporting, printing and plotting<br />Shared data file format and folder structure<br />Shared Graphical User Interface and 3D graphics engine<br />Productivity scripting languages <br />Add-on specialist modules<br />
  • 7. GMP Constituent Technologies<br />Database management:<br /><ul><li>Drillhole assay, lithology & survey data
  • 8. Surveys of topography, face position & engineering structures
  • 9. Map data as points and strings
  • 10. Triangulated surfaces and volumes
  • 11. Geologic (block) models
  • 12. Engineering geometries</li></ul>Point and String Handling:<br /><ul><li>Standard CAD functionality
  • 13. Mine design specific functionality
  • 14. Conversion of multiple strings into volumes</li></ul>Pit Optimisation:<br /><ul><li>Lerchs-Grossman algorithm
  • 15. Definition of slopes
  • 16. Economic modelling
  • 17. Selection of pushbacks
  • 18. Reserve reporting</li></ul>Surface and Volume modeling:<br /><ul><li>Triangulation of points and strings
  • 19. Areas and volumes of intersction
  • 20. Block model interrogation</li></ul>Scheduling:<br /><ul><li>Bench sequencing
  • 21. Definitions of constraints
  • 22. Definition of scheduling units
  • 23. Optimisation?
  • 24. Schedule reporting</li></ul>Data Analysis & Geostats:<br /><ul><li>Standard statistics
  • 25. Variography
  • 26. Inverse distance and Kriging
  • 27. Conditional Simulation</li></li></ul><li>Example: OC Mine Planning Process Map<br />surveys<br />Database Management<br />drillholes<br />Alternative Options<br />geology<br />Composite assays<br />xyz points<br />Production targets<br />Raw data<br />Surface & volume modeling<br />Fleet specs<br />Metallurgy<br />Financials<br />Domain definition<br />Production Simulation<br />Cutoff<br />Data analysis<br />Resource Estimation<br />Simple Financial Model<br />Estimation parameters<br />Block model<br />Blending<br />Productivity<br />Capacities<br />Haulage profiles<br />Net values<br />Geologic structures<br />Geologic domains<br />(alternative)<br />Pit Optimisation<br />Schedule Optimisation<br />Pore water pressures<br />Rock strength<br />Geotechnical Analysis<br />Slope angles<br />Nested pits<br />Schedules<br />Coarse bench schedule<br />Freight<br />TCRC<br />Royalties<br />Taxes<br />Scheduling units<br />Working space Ultimate pit shell<br />Full Financial Model<br />GMP<br />Stages<br />Value<br />Specialized scheduling software may provide a superior result<br />External<br />Detailed Design<br />Decision!<br />Road gradient & width<br />Either<br />
  • 28. Programming, Applied maths and Algorithms<br />Financial modelling:<br />Conversion schedules of cost and revenue into measures of value.<br />Simulation:<br />Evaluation of productivity, capacityand feasibility<br />Geostatistics:<br />Estimation, categorisationand ore/waste discrimination<br />Math Programming:<br />Optimisation of mine plans. Options, risk and sensitivity analysis. <br />A mine planner without fundaments<br />Financial Risk<br />Schedule Optimisation<br />Conditional Simulation<br />GMPs<br />Geologic Risk<br />
  • 29. Foundations of Mine Planning<br />Mine planners work with specialists to ensure safe working conditions and continued productivity.<br />Planning is about maximising project stakeholder objectives while meeting all constraints on the production system<br />Geotechnical, metallurgical, environmental and operational constraints<br />Design defines the constraintsand must be optimal with respect to objectives<br />Unlike design, the foundations of mine planning are<br />Engineering economics (cost estimation, financial modelling)<br />Equipment and productivity analysis (simulation)<br />Systems engineering (mathematical programming and others)<br />Must “see the forest for the trees” at multiple levels of detail and decision informed variety of specializations<br />
  • 30. Share holders<br />Government<br />Financial<br />Institutions<br />The larger world:<br />Stakeholder Objectives<br />Indigenous <br />Groups<br />The mine planner seeks to maximise stakeholder value<br />Land owners<br />?!<br />The mine:<br />Limits on Production<br />Access Rates<br />Drainage<br />Capacities<br />Environment<br />Reserves<br />Ground Support<br />While honouring the constraints determined by the deposit and engineering limitations <br />Exploration<br />Blending<br />Ventilatoin<br />
  • 31. Return of the Polymath<br />Mine planning integrates the objectives, decisions and constraints of all aspects of the business. While conducted at many levels of the organisation, planners must have a sound working understanding of a wide variety of professions.<br />With a broader emphasis on sustainability rather than simple profit, the mine planning engineer can no longer focus on being a GMP Top Gun. Rather, there is a pressing need for the return of the renacentista mining engineer with a deep understanding of planning technologies and broad understanding of all issues both technical and of primary interest to stakeholders. <br />
  • 32. Environmental impact and constraints<br />GMP-based planning has a focus of “the mine” in terms of ore and waste production and subsequent concentrate grades but not of other resources and products which directly relate to environmental impact and constraints. We must treat water, air and land (the mining footprint) as a limited resources and treat them as true constraints in the mine plan:<br /><ul><li>Air in terms of ventilation constraints on underground production
  • 33. Dust and smelter emissions as they relate to stoppages in production and smelting
  • 34. The true cost of water usage and treatment
  • 35. Capacity constraints on heap leaching, waste storage and stockpiling </li></ul>Planning must likewise include environmental products such as dust, heat, tailings and acid to be addressed in the mine plan. This is possible using the correct tools.<br />
  • 36. The Geostatiscian-Planner<br />The geostatistician is responsible for the resource estimate. Resources are classified largely according to statistical risk associated with the distribution of data in the neighbourhood of the estimated block. <br />The planner is responsible for the reserve estimate. Reserves are classified solely as a function of intersection of the design with the resource classification. There is no classification according to risk associated with the technical uncertainty associated with the design or plan.<br />Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the mine planner to evaluate geologic uncertainty.<br />Measured<br />Indicated<br />Inferred<br />Waste<br />
  • 37. (b) ESTIMATION<br />(a) SIMULATION<br />Z1<br />Z2<br />Z3<br />Z4<br />Z1<br />Z2<br />Z3<br />Z4<br />Z5<br />Z6<br />Z7<br />Z8<br />Z5<br />Z6<br />Z7<br />Z8<br />Z9<br />Z10<br />Z11<br />Z12<br />Z9<br />Z12<br />Z11<br />Z10<br />Simulation vs Estimation<br />Infinite equally possible realisations of the deposit exist. Using the expected value for mine planning may result in unacceptable error.<br />
  • 38. Some Results – Simulations 1-5 vs. Kriged Fe<br />Simulation 2<br />Simulation 1<br />Simulation 3<br />Simulation 4<br />Kriged<br />
  • 39. Some Results – Probability of Fe Above Cutoff<br />Cutoff = 53%<br />Cutoff = 56%<br />Cutoff = 62%<br />Cutoff = 50%<br />Cutoff = 59%<br />Cutoff = 65%<br />All level 16 at refinement factor = 10<br />
  • 40. Mine to Mill and beyond<br />The mill is the heart of mining operations accounting for most expenses and all revenues. The planner must work towards maximum recovery and throughput with minimum environmental and concentrate penalties.<br />Planning must account for geometallurgical characteristics of the ore, not simply grade and coarse assumptions on processing costs and recoveries. <br />The mine planner must form the bridge between geology and metallurgy, accounting for operational constraints while delivering an optimal blend of ore to the mill. <br />
  • 41. Value<br />CoG<br />Capacity<br />The Role of Optimisation<br />Exact optimisation technologies enable solution of large systems of variables and constraints to a provable optima as defined by an objective function. Not only does this increase project value, it also enables comprehensive evaluation of complex combinations of options on an apples to apples basis.<br />GMPs include some key algorithms (eg., pit optimisation and scheduling), but lack general flexibility and application.<br />Powerful and generally applicable languages and optimisation libraries are available for solving a wide variety of mine planning problems.<br />Value<br />Capacity<br />
  • 42. Simulation, Risk and Robust Planning<br />Planning is being conducted deterministically without consideration of the stochastic behaviour of many inputs (price, exchange rate, cost, capacity, grade, recovery, etc.).<br />Robust mine planning requires greater flexibility in the toolbox used by planning engineers:<br />Conditional Simulation for geologic uncertainty<br />Discrete Simulation for production systems<br />Options analysis within an exact optimisation framework<br />Sensitivity analysis using Linear Programming<br />Probabilistic financial modelling with Monte Carlo simulation<br />Robust mine planning cannot be limited to flexing a few external sources of risk and requires a systematic and intensive analysis of interacting sources of uncertainty. No single commercial platform is available with this capability, but methodologies providing a framework for integrated risk assessment are available.<br />
  • 43. Tomorrow´s mine planning professional<br />Unlike traditional mining specializations, the foundations of mine planning are not based on engineering fundamentals. Instead, planning is based on decision making.<br />However, today´s mine planning engineers are not getting the same background as Industrial Engineers and OR professionals and are too dependant on GMPs.<br />In addition to a broad understanding of geology, mining engineering and metallurgy, mine planners need a high level of competency in OR technologies inclusive of programming skills.<br />Properly prepared, tomorrow’s mine planning professionals will fill a role between mining operations and stakeholders, seeking strategies that respond to multiple objectives and constraints by producing robust and sustainable plans.<br />This will require a renacentista mining engineers with a focus on ongoing professional development. <br />
  • 44. Examples of Mine Optimisation projects:<br />DeBeers Cullinen Mine<br />Draw control optimisation <br />Lisheen<br />Primary through tertiary stope scheduling<br />Cutoff optimisation <br />Century <br />Stage/Bench/Block sequencing<br />Earth moving fleet minimisation<br />Haulage and dump construction<br />XSTRATA Zinc<br />LoM production plan for multiple products<br />Open cut and UG mines<br />Stockpile usage<br />Beaconsfield Gold<br />Alternative reserve scenarios<br />Cutoff grade by stope<br />Development, fill and production schedules<br />OK Tedi<br />Extend OC production scheduling to production panels<br />Inclusive of metallurgical model<br />Fleet size and allocation<br />Dump and stockpile usage<br />Cutoff and stockpile optimisation<br />Strategies for sulphur reduction in mine wastes<br />Olympic Dam UG Expansion<br />High level LoMP production schedule<br />Inclusive of metallurgical model<br />Regional Cut-off grade optimisation<br />Roche/Kogan Creek Coal<br />Pit and production schedule optimisation<br />Blend optimisation<br />Kaltim Prima Coal <br />Multi-pit optimisation<br />Contractor v. owner haulage<br />Mine Reserve optimisation<br />Consolidated Minerals<br />Multi-pit business optisation<br />Development rate/dewatering strategy<br />PRIMO, Greens Creek (Rio Tinto/Hecla)<br />Strategy optimisation (cutoff, methods, reserves)<br />PRIMO, Prominent Hill (OZ Minerals)<br />Strategic and tactical mine plan optimisation<br />Prominent Hill (Oz Minerals)<br />Stockpiling strategy and cutoffs<br />Open pit schedule optimisation<br />Blending, concentrate grade optimisation<br />Multiple underground mines<br />Coldeco– San Antonio project<br />Mine optimisation across alternative mining and processing options<br />Lumana (Barrick)<br />Production schedule optimisation<br />
  • 45. Options for Today´s Planning Professional<br />There is a specific skill set (eg., math programming, geostatistics, simulation) well supported by low cost professional application software. What is lacking is information on application to mine planning. Help is available:<br />Continuing education (short-courses, certification and postgraduate programs<br />External expertise on a mentoring and project oversight basis with on the job training<br />Company sponsored R&D projects with Nationally-based consulting expertise on optimisation and logistics <br />For example: <br />Select a project in which to include optimisation (eg., LoM Schedule)<br />Support with professional consulting (MineSmith Pty Ltd.)<br />Inclusive of 1 week short course in Santiago or on-site using project data<br />Take delivery of LOBOS with project (supplier of Cplex, Gurobi and Ampl)<br />Benefit from continuing education (PUC), support and maintenance (MineSmith)<br />

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