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    • OverviewWhat Is Motivation?Four General Approaches to MotivationGoal Orientation and MotivationInterests and MotivationSelf-SchemasCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Concept Map for Chapter 10 What Is Self-Schemas Motivation Teachers, Teaching, & Educational Psychology Four Interests and Approaches to Motivation Goal Motivation Orientation and MotivationCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Motivation Motivation defined: Internal state Arouses, directs, maintains behavior Intrinsic / Extrinsic Locus of causalityCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Four General Approaches to MotivationCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Behavioral ApproachRewards are consequences of behaviorsIncentives encourage or discourage behaviorsCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Humanistic ApproachesThird force psychologyEmphasis on personal choiceNeedsSelf-actualization / Self-determinationMaslow’s hierarchySee Figure 10.1, Woolfolk, p. 371 and Point▼Counterpoint p. 372Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy Deficiency needs  Being needs Survival  Endlessly renewed Pre-requisite  Whole person  Survival  Intellect /  Safety achievement  Belonging  Aesthetics  Self-esteem  Self-actualizationCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy Self- Actualization Being (growth)Motivation increases Need Needsas needs are met Aesthetic Needs Need to know & Understand Esteem Needs DeficiencyMotivation Belongingness & Love Needs Needsdecreasesas needs Safety Needsare met Physiological NeedsCopyright 2001 by AllynAllyn and Bacon Copyright 2001 by and Bacon
    • Cognitive PerspectiveFocus on thinkingEmphasizes intrinsic motivationPeople are active and curiousPlans, goals, schemas, and expectationsCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Cognitive PerspectiveAttribution theoryPerceived cause of successes or failures Locus Stability ResponsibilityAttributions in the classroomTeacher actions influence student attributionsExpectancy X Value Theory Copyright 2001 by Allyn and BaconCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Attribution TheoryCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Weiner’s TermsLocus Internal /Stability external Stable / unstableResponsibility Controllable / uncontrollableCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Examples of Attribution TheoryInternal locus, stable, controllable: I am good at studying for multiple choice tests, so I will do well on the next Educational Psychology Exam.Internal, stable, uncontrollable: Essay tests are always hard for me, so I won’t do well in American Literature.Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Sociocultural Conceptions of MotivationEmphasizes participation in communities of practiceLegitimate peripheral participationRelate to authentic tasksSee table 10.2, Woolfolk, p. 376 for a comparison of all four approachesCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Goal Orientation and MotivationCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Why Goals Improve Performance Direct attention to the task at hand Mobilize effort Increase persistence Promote development of new strategiesCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Four Kinds of Goals Learning goals / task-involved Performance goals / ego-involved Work-avoidance goals Social goals The need for relatedness They won’t care how much you know until they know how much you care.Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Feedback & Goal Acceptance: Effective Goals AreSpecificChallengingAttainableFocused on the taskSupported by social relationshipsReinforced with feedbackAccepted by the student See Family and CommunityCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Partnerships, Woolfolk, p. 380
    • Reflection QuestionsWhat goal have you set for yourself recently?Did you follow good goal setting principles?How can you improve your personal goal setting practices?How does goal setting affect your motivation?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Interest and EmotionsCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Interest and EmotionsStudent interests linked with success in schoolFantasy to stimulate challenge & interestEnsure that ‘interesting details’ are legitimately tied to learningSee Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 382Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Arousal: Excitement & Anxiety in Learning Arousal: excitement, alertness, attention Curiosity: novelty & complexity Anxiety: uneasiness, tension, stress Anxiety and effects on achievement Coping with anxiety Problem solving Emotional management AvoidanceCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Implications for TeachersKeep level of arousal right for learnersSleepy students? Introduce variety Arouse curiosity Surprise them Wiggle breakSee Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 386Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Self-SchemasCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Beliefs about AbilityEntity viewIncremental viewDevelopmental differencesEffects on types of goalsCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Beliefs about Self-EfficacySelf-efficacy, self-concept, & self-esteemSources of self-efficacy Mastery experiences Vicarious experiences Social persuasionEfficacy and motivationTeacher efficacyCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Beliefs about SelfSelf-determination or other-determinationClassroom environment & self- determinationCognitive evaluation theoryLearned helplessnessSelf-worth Mastery-oriented Failure-avoiding Failure-acceptingCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Reflection QuestionsHow will you deal with a student who is exhibiting learned helplessness?One of your students is avoiding failure by not doing assignments. How will you approach this challenge?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Lessons for TeachersEmphasize students’ progressMake specific suggestions for improvementStress connection between effort & accomplishmentSet learning goals for your studentsModel mastery orientationCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • SummaryWhat Is Motivation?Four General Approaches to MotivationGoal Orientation and MotivationInterests and MotivationSelf-SchemasCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Review QuestionsDefine motivation.What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?How does locus of causality apply to motivation?What are the key factors in motivation according to a behavioral viewpoint? Humanistic? Cognitive? Sociocultural?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Review QuestionsDistinguish between deficiency needs and being needs in Maslow’s theory.What are the three dimensions of attribution in Weiner’s theory?What are expectancy X value theories?What is legitimate peripheral participation?What kinds of goals are most motivating?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Review QuestionsDescribe learning, performance, work- avoidance, and social goals.What makes goal setting effective in the classroom?Do interests and emotions affect learning? How?What is the role of arousal in learning?How does anxiety interfere with learning?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • Review QuestionsHow do beliefs about ability affect motivation?What is self-efficacy and how is it different from other self-schemas?What are the sources of self-efficacy and how does efficacy affect motivation?How does self-determination affect motivation?How does self-worth affect motivation?Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
    • End Chapter 10Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon