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NIS To Support ST&I Information

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This presentation shows how Current Research Systems (CRIS) can help Science, Technology and Innovation public managers in decision making processes. It is based on the Brazilian CRIS projects - …

This presentation shows how Current Research Systems (CRIS) can help Science, Technology and Innovation public managers in decision making processes. It is based on the Brazilian CRIS projects - Lattes, Innovation Portal and others.

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  • 1. NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (NIS) TO SUPPORT DECISION MAKING IN ST&I POLICIES: Brazilian NIS analysis and perspectives
    Roberto C. S. Pacheco; Denilson Sell; Vinicius Medina Kern; José Salm Jr.; Aran Tcholakian Morales.
    • InstitutoStela and
    • 2. Knowledge Engineering and Management Graduate Program Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC
    3rd Background Paper – Regional and international practices for disclosing information related to innovation and social environment impact of business.
    Project “OPENING UP NATURAL RESOURCE-BASED INDUSTRIES FOR INNOVATION: EXPLORING NEW PATHWAYS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN LATIN AMERICA”
    Centro de Gestão e EstudosEstratégicos – Brazil, DF. November - 2010.
  • 3. Agenda
    Goals
    The paper´s goals
    The presentation goals
    What are NIS and CRIS
    Brazilian CRIS (i.e., NIS in ST&I)
    The Brazilian National ST&I System
    Cases: Lattes Platform, Innovation Portal, DCVISA, and others
    New opportunities in decision making in ST&I
    CRIS developed as e-Government 2.0
    Open data and egovernment for a knowledge society
    Conclusions and Next Steps
  • 4. 0. A little bit about us…
  • 5. Academic spin out
    RBS TV, Stela on TV
    Program Bom Dia Santa Catarina
    March 6th, 1996
    The nominee on the most important Brazilian paper
    March 19th, 1996
  • 6. Instituto Stela
    • Non profit organization that works with research and development in the areas of Information Technology and Knowledge Engineering
    • 7. We have a team of 65 researchers. Among them there are professionals with doctorate, graduate and undergraduate degrees in Industrial Engineering, Computer Science, Information Systems, Knowledge Engineering and Management, and others
    2007
    2008
    MISSION
    “Combine scientific and technologic research to generate knowledge for organizational and social development”
  • 8. We have helped to build..
    NationalInformationSystem for InnovationandCooperation
    NationalInformationSystem for EducationEvaluation
    NationalInformation
    System for
    S&T management
    Education
    SciencceAndTechnology
    Innovation
  • 9. Our partners
    Government
    Academic and STI
    Univ. do Minho
    International
    KnewCo
    Firms
  • 10. EGC-UFSCKnowledge Engineering and Management Graduate Program
    • Some of our KE Research areas
    • 11. Strategic Use of Knowledge
    • 12. Knowledge Extraction
    • 13. E-Government and e-Democracy
    • 14. Competency management
    • 15. Organizational Memory
    • 16. Knowledge Modeling
    • 17. Innovation habitats
    • 18. KM and sustainability
    • 19. Distance learning
    • 20. Digital inclusion
    EGC is an Interdisciplinary Program – CAPES Level 5
    Florianópolis, SC
  • 21. 1. Our Goals
  • 22. 1.1 The Paper´s Goals
    To explore the current regional and international practices of disclosure of information related to innovation and economic, social and environmental indicators by agencies and companies in the different countries.
    (ii) a review good practices at the international level on metrics to examine the economic, environmental and social impact of innovation funds
    (i) a review of existing procedures and information systems related to the different instruments in the three countries.
    The analysis of the available information systems and reports and the analysis of international good practices for measuring sustainable performance will allow us to develop initial recommendations for improvement of the current information systems.
    to discuss with the agencies managing innovation funds in the region possible approaches and strategies to improve the quality of the information available.
    Source: Marin, et. al. 2010
  • 23. 1.2 The presentation´s Goals
    To present National Information Systems (NIS) as a means to help developing countries to plan, implement and evaluate ST&I policies.
    To show how Brazil has been created an ST&I information infrastructure that became a decision making asset.
    To analyze current and future trends in e-government and e-democracy that can lead to a new era of strategic planning of ST&I, with potential benefits to NR policies.
  • 24. 2. National Information Systems (NIS)
    What are NIS, CRIS, and e-Government
  • 25. 2.1. What is a NIS?
    National Information Systems (NIS) were first realized as a “‘a coherent array’ of information subsystems with the capacity to intercommunicate” – [Aines, 1968].
    A NIS should be a coherent system that takes many forms. It is not an ultimate computerized information system. Planning is its essential element – not computing – [Lytle, 1978].
    NIS has become an “e-government, or the 'computerization of administrative systems' in other words, has reached the point that one click takes care of everything through the internal affair connection.” [Jung-hyup, 2010]
  • 26. 2.2. NIS in ST&I = CRIS
    In S&T the demand for a NIS was realized as early as 1967, when there were already 300 information services for searching abstracts [Skolnik, 1967]
    In a ST&I system, such "subsystems" are also known as Current Research Information Systems (CRIS) - “any information tool dedicated to provide access to and disseminate research information”[www.eurocris.org]
    “A CRIS records the R&D (Research and Development) activity either funded by or carried out by an organisation, or within a thematic or subject area.
    Typically it covers projects, people (expertise), organisational structure, R&D outputs (products, patents, publications), R&D events and R&D facilities and equipment.”
    [Eurocrisorganisation, 2006].
  • 27. 2.3. How our CRIS were created?
    Each CRIS is developed according to the public authorities world view.
    • World view: gather data to government x promote information society
    • 28. System mission: operation x strategic view
    • 29. Data requirements: govern x society needs
    • 30. System ownership:agency´s x public domain
    • 31. System life cycle: isolated x platform of systems
    • 32. Connectivity: isolated x interoperable systems
    • 33. Methodology: ordinary software engineering x R&D in knowledge engineering
    All current CRIS in innovation funding were based on past public decisions.
    Gather data to decision making in ST&I is more or less difficult according to such decisions.
  • 34. 3. Brazilian CRIS (i.e., NIS in ST&I)
    The Brazilian National ST&I System and CRIS developed as e-Government 2.0
  • 35. 2.1. What is a NST&I System?
    A National Innovation Systems (NIS) is “the system of interacting private and public firms (either large or small), universities, and government agencies aiming at the production of science and technology within national borders. Interaction among these units may be technical, commercial, legal, social, and financial, in as much as the goal of the interaction is the development, protection, financing or regulation of new science and technology”
    (Niosi et al., 1993)
  • 36. 2.2. How one can conceive a NIS?
    NIS conceptual (nonlinear) models
    Jorge de Sábato
    Industry
    University
    Government
    Government
    Companies
    S&Tinfraesrtructure
    Loe
    Leydesdorff
    Henry Etzkowitz
    TheSabato´s triangle
    Triple Helix
    OECD Systemic Model
    Pacheco, et. al. 2010
  • 37. 2.3. How is the Brazilian NIS?
    Services and goods(ex. Pré-sal)
    UFRJ Researchers
    SINAESMEC
    COPPE Research groups (DGP/CNPq)
    coppe
    UFRJ
    Petrobras
    NIT-UFRJ
    CENPES
    Culture
    RNP, Portal Inovação, P. Lattes
    R&D Groups CENPES
    Product and Market factors conditions(ex. Demand for engineers)
    CNPq
    Lei de Inovação
    MCT
    CGEE
    PDP, PIB
    FINEP
    ABIPTI
    MDIC
    Investors
    ABDI
    ANPROTEC
    BNDES
    NIS components (actors)
    Firms
    Environmental aspects
    STI Organizations
    Government
    There is not a formalizes National Innovation System in Brazil. But all components, environmental, structural and mechanisms described in OECD model can be identified.
  • 38. 2.4. How public agents act in the NIS
    Macro process in Public Funding Agencies
    External environment (in and outside the country)
    Line of Action 2
    FUND HUMAN FORMATION
    Line of Action1
    FUND RESEARCH
    Line of Action 3
    FUND INNOVATION
    Line of Action 4
    FUND ST&I DISSEMINATION
    PROGRAMINGANDPLANNING
    FINAL REPORT
    COMMUNICATE
    PUBLIC
    CALL
    EVALUATION
    IMPLEMENT
    FOLLOWING
    Organizational
    PLANNING
    COMMUNICATE
    Public funding agencies have to plan, evaluate, implement, follow and communicate the results of projects.
    Source: SIFAPs 2009
  • 39. 2.4. How public agents act in the NIS
    Linhas de Atuação das FAPs
    FocusofAnalysis
    LINES OF ACTION
    Line of Action1
    FUND RESEARCH
    PROGRAMS
    Line of Action 2
    FUND HUMAN FORMATION
    PROJECTS
    Line of Action 4
    FUND ST&I DISSEMINATION
    Line of Action 3
    FUND INNOVATION
    Source: SIFAPs 2009
  • 40. 2.4. How public agents act in the NIS
    RESULTS AND PRODUCTS
    (Quantative)
    Informationdimensions
    RESOURCES $
    - Public budget
    - Other sources.
    ByTargetinnovationactor
    ByKnowledgearea
    ByEconomic sector
    Inputs
    Outputs
    Detali
    Source: SIFAPs 2009
  • 41. 2.5 How the sources of ST&I information have been created?
    Full Texts and Bibliometric DB
    PUBLISHING
    Relational DB
    Multiple source of compatible information
    • Researchers inform the same data at the levels of:
    • 42. Funding raising
    • 43. Publication
    • 44. Institutional relationship
    FUNDING
    80-90’s
    70-80’s
    Electronic Forms
    Paper Forms
  • 45. 2.5 How to use such sources to yield studies and indicators?
    Homogeneous sources
    Heterogeneous sources
    Questionnaires, Surveys
    Relational Data Bases
    Textual Sources
    Other Sources (ex: Web)
    ST&I Indicators
    Main problems
    • Multiple sources of information
    • 46. Lack of standards
    • 47. Multiple efforts in S&T communities and all innovation actors
    • 48. Waste of public funds
  • 2.6 HowICT can helpustoyieldStrategicInformation (Indicators)
    New Opportunities for ICT
    ICT y Knowledge Management Decision Making, process integration, knowledgemanaging…
    ICT y E-government eGov architectures, public access, user involvement (and requirements)…
    ICT New TechnologiesData marts, knowledge extraction (e.g., data mining)textual retrieval, textual generation…
    New (and not so new) Methodologies (empowered by ICT) Social Network Analysis, Link Analysis, Trend Analysis…
    Indicators, Studies, Analysis…
    HomogenousSources
    HeterogenousSources
    Questionnaires, Surveys
    Relational Data Bases
    Textual Sources
    Other Sources
    • ICT should be applied to existent sources
    • 49. ICT must also be applied to the processes that generates information
  • New Trends for ICT (knowledge society)
    ICT allows tatic support
    Data Warehouse
    Web
    ICT in the operational basis
    OLTP Databases
    2.6. ICT Evolution Regarding the Organizations
    Information outsidethe company
    Knowledge ExtractionInteroperabilityCommunities of PracticeElectronic Government
    ICT as aninstrument toknowledge era
    DSSGISEIS
    Internet, Intranet, Extranet
    94-2000
    90’s
    ICT bringsstrategic support
    Data Marts
    80’s
    InformationSystems
    60’s - 70’s
  • 50. 2.6 BrazilianExperiences
    LattesPlatform
    Innovation Portal
    Merck case
    ABCM studies
    INCT studies
    SINAES andBASIs
    Mauá Project
  • 51. Lattes Analysis Units
  • 52. CV wasitsfirstcomponent
    CV Contents
    Original features (1999)
    • Automatic homepage
    • 64. CV Indicators (for the owner)
    • 65. Export to several formats
    • 66. Import from all CVs available
    • 67. Error verification
  • Cooperationto define Standards
    • 24 Organizations help CNPq and Stela to define Lattes standards
    • 68. Contents
    • 69. Interoperability services
    • 70. Communication of all changes made in the national project
  • Lattes Conceptual Architecture
    CvDeGois
    CvLAC
    CvLattes
    Sistema Grupo
    ScienTI Portals
    GrupLAC
    DM Gr
    DM Proj
    Groups
    Projects
    DM Cv
    CVs
    DM Inst
    Institutions
    SCienTI Directories
    Analysis Systems
    Indicators
    Searches
    Investiments
  • 71. Lattes 10 yearsafter
    • Some Numbers
    • 72. First phases with more than 140 subsystems
    • 73. More than 1.8 million curricula(45 more CVs than the 7 years before Lattes)
    • 74. More than 24 thousand R&D groups(Three times more than the 3 national surveys made before lattes )
  • DynamicDatamarts
    DM Projects
    Proyectos
    What and wheretoinvest
    ?
    S&T Investments
    FudingDatamart
    Projects Systems
    Lattes database
  • 75. Analysing Funding Decisions
  • 76. Analysing Funding Decisions
  • 77. Analysing Funding Decisions
  • 78. Analysing Funding Decisions
  • 79. How to use Lattes to yield Indicatorsa tool for public management
    DM CV
    Curricula
    SpecializedSearches
    Curriculum Data MartSecondary Information Source
    Cv System
    Server OLTP CV DatabasePrimary Information Source
  • 80. How to support industrial and innovation decision making
    Semiconductors
    • 1.238 people working in the area
    • 81. 157 (12,6%) have registered Intellectual Copyrights
    • 82. 2 researchers have 18% of these copyrights
    Pharmaceutics
    • 2.269 people working in the area
    • 83. 438 (16,7%) have registered Intellectual Copyrights
    • 84. 15% have 59% of these copyrights
  • Semantic Analysis
    DM CV
    Curricula
    Analysis Systems
    Curriculum Data MartSecondary Information Source
    Cv System
    Server OLTP CV DatabasePrimary Information Source
  • 85. Example: what have been done in “conhecimento”
  • 86. Lattes Platform Institutionalization
    UNIVERSITIES AND R&D INSTITUTIONS
    • Organizational research policies
    • 87. Research evaluation
    • 88. Researcher carrier plan
  • ScienTI Network
    ScienTI standards
    Methodology
    Reference International standards
    ScienTI systems
    eGov Architecture
    International Network
    ONCYTs
    OICYTs
    GDIs
    Web services models
    ScienTI NetworkInternational Network on Information Sources and Knowledge for the Management of Science, Technology and Innovation
  • 89. SCienTI Network
    Country 1
    Country i
    Country n
  • 90. Example: Researchers in Health By Gender and Age
  • 91. Example: Researcher’s Knowledge Domain Flow
  • 92. Portal inovação
  • 93. History
    2004 (Phase I)
    MCT and the Innovation law
    CGEE and multidisciplinary team
    Pilot project
    2005 (Phase II)
    Research and development
    Implementation
    2006
    Deployment and Operation
    ABDI – Operational management
  • Goals
  • 107. Innovation Portal SchematicView
  • 108. Innovation Agents
    Promotion Agents
    Cooperation Agents
    Taxonomy
    TYPE IMission dedicated to innovation actors
    TYPE IIMission dedicated to Type I actors
    Pessoas Físicas
    Organizaçõesou Programas
    Main Mission: support, finance, regulate, represent, or create innovation actors
    Main Mission: articulate, approximate, foster cooperation among innovation actors
    BNDES
    FINEP
    CGEE
    ABDI
    F. Ind.
    CNI/IEL
    Consultores em Inovação
    ABIPTI
    CNPq
    IELs
    CNA
    F. Agr.
    A. Com.
    IFM
    ANPEI
    CAPES
    FORTEC
    CNC
    Agentes Pol. Industrial (RENAPI)
    MBC
    SEBRAE
    ANPEI
    Ministérios
    Agências Estaduais de Desenvolvimento
    FAPs
    MDIC
    ANDIFES
    MCT
    MEC
    Examples
    ANPROTEC
    Associações Empresariais
    Innovation Parks
    Incubadoras
    Regulatory Agencies
    Org. Venture Capital
  • 109. http://www.portalinovacao.mct.gov.br
  • 110. http://www.portalinovacao.mct.gov.br
  • 111. http://www.portalinovacao.mct.gov.br
  • 112.
  • 113. ABCM Case (2007)
    The Brazilian Academy of Mechanics Sciences and Engineering (ABCM) wanted to show how Brazil is doing in this area at the International Engineering Conference.
  • 114. KnowledgeMapdescriptorsExample: TheMechanicEngineering in Brazil
    Ciências Térmicas
    Refrigeração, Ar Condicionado, Aquecimento e Ventilação
    Mecatrônica
    Mecânica da Fratura, Fadiga e IntegridadeEstrutural
    CiênciasTérmicas
    Bioengenharia
    Dinâmica
    Fenômenos Não-lineares
    Engenharia de Produto
    Mecânicados Fluidos
    Engenharia de Fabricação
    MecânicaComputacional
    Mecânica dosSólidos
    CiênciasTérmicas
  • 115. Mapas de ConhecimentoExemplo: A Engenharia e as Ciências Mecânicas no BrasilBIOMECÂNICA
    Perspectivas 2007 – Exemplo
    Knowledge map in the Biomecânica Commitee
    New Possibilities
    • Planning. What strategic areas we need knowledge maps?
    • 116. Instruments. New indicators based on new information retrieve possibilities
    • 117. Examples:
    • 118. What is being done in graduate and undergraduate research?
    • 119. How research is being done inside an institution?
    • 120. What is the national influence of our institution?
    Livre (sem poda)
    http://www.egc.ufsc.br/observatorio/docs_postados/abcm_engenharia.pdf
  • 121. Mapas de ConhecimentoExemplo: A Engenharia e as Ciências Mecânicas no BrasilBIOMECÂNICA
    BIOENGENHARIA
    Biomateriais
    Estruturas Flexíveis
    DinâmicaEstrutural
    BIOMECÂNICA
    ROBÓTICA
  • 122. MERCK Laboratories (2009)
    Does Brazil have competences in the areas we have interested?
  • 123.
  • 124. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal
  • 125. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal
  • 126. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal
  • 127. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal
  • 128. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal
  • 129. Searching for competences in the Innovation Portal
  • 130. INCT (2008)
    CGEE and CNPq wanted to check whether how each network candidate to the National Institute S&T Program was researching before and check how the funding will foster cooperation.
  • 131. Analysing the network information provided to require funding
    Network information
    Fromeach CV network component, wecreated a tablewith data fromseveralformsofcooperation (coauthorship, supervision, projects, committees)
  • 132. AnalysisTable
    Theproposalhas25 researchers
    From 25 researchers, 2 werepresent in 12 commitees
    From 25 researchers 5 have 4 supervisionrelations
    From 25 researchers, 6 are coauthors in 122 articles
    From 25 researchers, 10 acttoghether in 21 projects
  • 133. AnalysisTable
  • 134. Peoplewho work together
    Supervisionrelationships
    Candidate Network
  • 135. Knowledge Map
    Presents the set of researchers with profile similar to KalilFilho´s profile
    Knowledge Network Map
  • 136. 27/10 - Evaluationbyconsultants
    1/12– snapshot
    05/12 – Begin
    Network hired
    1/12– snapshot
    Impacto do INCT na rede financiada
    2009
    2010
    2008
    2011
    2012
    2013
    1/12– snapshot
    1/12– snapshot
    20/10 – snapshot
    1/12– snapshot
    17/11 – Annoucement
  • 137. 4. Newopportunities in disclosing information in ST&I
    What are e-Government, Web 2.0, and e-Government 2.0
  • 138. 2.3. e-Government
    e-Government is the use of technologies to improve how citizens, employees, partners and government interact and conduct business. [Koh et al. 2005]
    It is difficult even in developed countries 20% eGov: projects fail completely 33% fall short of major goals [Hecks et al. 2000]
  • 139. 2.4. Web 2.0
    Web 2.0 is a concept that realizes the Web as a platform that changes the way software is built from desktop applications to interconnected web services (based on O´Relly, 2005).
    The “focus is on connecting people - not computers” (Ostergaad and Hvass, 2008)
  • 140. 2.4. Web 2.0
    It is different because:
    • Packaged software are replaced by service applications with cost effective scalability, focus in usability (“forever beta” principle) and collective development;
    • 141. Examples: Ajax, XML, Open API, Flash/Flex, Amazon S3, mashups
    • 142. Cooperation wins control. The data sources are richer as more people use, yield and control the contents as a member of a collective intelligent network;
    • 143. Examples: Blog, Wiki, Podcast, RSS, Tagging, Social networks, multi-user search engines and games (folksonomy)
  • 2.4. Web 2.0 (or Web 3.0?)
    Paradigm shift:
    • Web 3.0 takes web to a 3D level, avatar representation and “all media flow in and out virtual worlds”
    • 144. “The important component here is real time collaboration and communication as the paradigm shift.”
    Hayes, 2006
    http://www.personalizemedia.com/garys-social-media-count/
  • 145. 2.5. e-Gov 2.0 = e-Gov + Web 2.0
    " a new compact between government and the public, in which government puts in place mechanisms for services that are delivered not by government, but by private citizens.“  
    TimO’Reilly
    Source: Huffington (2010)
    E-Gov 2.0 emerges by using Web 2.0 to turn eGovernment into collaborative, open, and multi-tech web based services.
  • 146. 2.5. e-Gov 2.0 = e-Gov + Web 2.0
    Source: Drapeau (2010)
    E-Gov 2.0 requires several changes in the way governments elaborate their systems
    E-Government needs to be transformative, multi-leved e tech-enabled
  • 147. 2.5. e-Gov 2.0 = e-Gov + Web 2.0
    Source: Drapeau (2010)
    E-Gov 2.0 needs to be mission-oriented, policy-based and must counterbalance citizen and governmental needs.
  • 148. 2.5. e-Gov 2.0 = e-Gov + Web 2.0
    Linking open Data isa W3C-led effort to make data freely available, by extending the Web with data commons.
    It is done by making openly accessible, and interlinked, RDF Data on the Web.
    W3C, 2010
    http://esw.w3.org/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData
    http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData
    83
  • 149. Anexo
  • 150. Figure web references
    AGENDA - http://www.google.com.br/imgres?imgurl=http://o.castelo.vai.nu/agenda.jpg&imgrefurl=http://o.castelo.vai.nu/2010/02/agenda-cultural-1.html&usg=__lZW-fLMOfcc1FSk4K93rD9alT-E=&h=331&w=500&sz=18&hl=pt-br&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=bpYaerdQVk2U8M:&tbnh=117&tbnw=176&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dagenda%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dpt-br%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1R2ADFA_pt-BRBR398%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D583%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=184&ei=VujeTOveIMT48Aa1gvCJDw&oei=VujeTOveIMT48Aa1gvCJDw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0&tx=136&ty=57
    PAPER GOALS -http://www.google.com.br/imgres?imgurl=http://gphintz.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/goals-dart-bullseye.jpg&imgrefurl=http://gphintz.wordpress.com/2010/01/01/&usg=__pfdwV7eB3TIrOGYsEZXo4zTwEaU=&h=282&w=425&sz=128&hl=pt-br&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=E72zEHXVNM7gtM:&tbnh=129&tbnw=194&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgoals%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dpt-br%26rlz%3D1R2ADFA_pt-BRBR398%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D583%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=701&vpy=83&dur=228&hovh=183&hovw=276&tx=42&ty=104&ei=p-reTLKXNoK88gaYssj-Dg&oei=p-reTLKXNoK88gaYssj-Dg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=13&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0
    NIS - http://www.google.com.br/imgres?imgurl=http://infodom.inet.hr/MMPI/Intranet%2520infrastructure%2520MMPI%2520eCharter.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.epractice.eu/en/cases/echarter&usg=__hrWGW5voyiJnbwXcQOxsQf_1U40=&h=654&w=788&sz=73&hl=pt-br&start=68&zoom=1&tbnid=5L7zxQEwBpoR0M:&tbnh=138&tbnw=166&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2522integrated%2Binformation%2Bsystem%2522%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dpt-br%26rlz%3D1R2ADFA_pt-BRBR398%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D583%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=429&ei=IO3eTLKjIoP88Aa77ugC&oei=DO3eTIG3G8P48Abs6PGLDw&esq=6&page=6&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:68&tx=94&ty=65
    2.1. WHAT IS A NIS - http://www.google.com.br/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/images/CARL_1940s.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/information/carl_history.asp&usg=__xoJ84YurhXjMYMvkGdd4z48yd-M=&h=284&w=407&sz=20&hl=pt-br&start=265&zoom=1&tbnid=nCJNRxFUO-n62M:&tbnh=128&tbnw=170&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2522information%2Bsystem%2522%2Blibrary%2Barchive%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dpt-br%26rlz%3D1R2ADFA_pt-BRBR398%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D583%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C8124&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=565&vpy=285&dur=77&hovh=187&hovw=269&tx=68&ty=141&ei=YPDeTNv8FMKB8gbrpfSuDw&oei=eO_eTIXDOIP48AbGlf2DDw&esq=3&page=19&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:265&biw=1003&bih=583
    2.1. WHAT IS A NIS - http://www.google.com.br/imgres?imgurl=http://www.hcglobalgroup.com/HCGlobal%2520Group/e-government%2520imagen.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.hcglobalgroup.com/&usg=__HvNczhfJhfgDnC-RJ5UOLkWW6-g=&h=460&w=656&sz=87&hl=pt-br&start=444&zoom=1&tbnid=LE2BfSkNB0WCeM:&tbnh=135&tbnw=172&prev=/images%3Fq%3De-government%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dpt-br%26rlz%3D1R2ADFA_pt-BRBR398%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D583%26tbs%3Disch:11%2C14041&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=709&vpy=300&dur=133&hovh=188&hovw=268&tx=154&ty=158&ei=1vDeTLX5KIiq8Aa8rczfDw&oei=zPDeTOycMIT48AaO5MD8Dg&esq=18&page=31&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:444&biw=1003&bih=583
    2.2. NIS in ST&I = CRIS
    http://www.google.com.br/imgres?imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_MQ4KSoPUV-8/S7ItdISzWjI/AAAAAAAAE6Y/WM_MbmIxzUY/s320/main.jpg&imgrefurl=http://pesquisamundi.blogspot.com/2010/03/apresentacao-dos-principais-recursos-do.html&usg=__eGiK0rXk_Vo_vCLHPQY0VwXqhXs=&h=150&w=206&sz=7&hl=pt-br&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=tA5hXZOHUc4WGM:&tbnh=120&tbnw=164&prev=/images%3Fq%3DWeb%2Bof%2BScience%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dpt-br%26rlz%3D1R2ADFA_pt-BRBR398%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D583%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=397&vpy=115&dur=2239&hovh=120&hovw=164&tx=58&ty=39&ei=kvHeTO-PDMH98AaX_pSIDw&oei=kvHeTO-PDMH98AaX_pSIDw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0
    http://www.google.com.br/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sciencenerddepot.com/images/purestock_1574r-0591.medium.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.sciencenerddepot.com/&usg=__y7y_xuleGygFf-PIJse0emBn4h0=&h=300&w=200&sz=43&hl=pt-br&start=151&zoom=1&tbnid=g6WrrIcXkZQ_iM:&tbnh=133&tbnw=96&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dscientific%2Bproject%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dpt-br%26rlz%3D1R2ADFA_pt-BRBR398%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D583%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C4681&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=494&vpy=248&dur=63&hovh=240&hovw=160&tx=75&ty=144&ei=YPbeTNCKO4L98AbNvoCGDw&oei=P_beTIKFB8H38AaCofX0Dg&esq=11&page=11&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:151&biw=1003&bih=583
  • 151. Figure web references
    2.3 egovernment
    http://www.google.com.br/imgres?imgurl=http://egovasia.enterpriseinnovation.net/system/files/egovasia/egovernment.jpg&imgrefurl=http://egovasia.enterpriseinnovation.net/tag/egovernment&usg=__1Qr4tmVPtXd9LkEgVHN1yx5omB8=&h=361&w=411&sz=51&hl=pt-br&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=zQqzTEjNNjIBuM:&tbnh=149&tbnw=163&prev=/images%3Fq%3Degovernment%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dpt-br%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1R2ADFA_pt-BRBR398%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D583%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=185&ei=6wffTKy1BMGs8AaW370E&oei=UwffTNiuE4P58Aa24dD8Dg&esq=4&page=1&ndsp=14&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0&tx=145&ty=91
    2.4. Web 2.0 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Web_2.0_Map.svg