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CSR-Instruments as a conceptual Inspiration for Public Administration

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  • 1. 1FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory1FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011Robert Piehler & Linda MorySpeyer, July 16th 2011CSR-Instruments as a conceptualInspiration for Public Administration
  • 2. 2FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory1. Introduction1. Introduction2. Basic Terminological Principles2. Basic Terminological Principles3. Research Question3. Research Question4. Methodological Approach4. Methodological ApproachOutline5. Conclusion5. Conclusion
  • 3. 3FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory• “Too often, executives have viewed corporate socialresponsibility (CSR) as just another source of pressure orpassing fad. But as customers, employees, and suppliers—and,indeed, society more broadly—place increasing importance onCSR, some leaders have started to look at it as a creativeopportunity to fundamentally strengthen their businesses whilecontributing to society at the same time. They view CSR ascentral to their overall strategies, helping them to creativelyaddress key business issues.” [McKinsey (2009)]• “CSR knowledge remains in a continuing state of emergencewith considerable heterogeneity in research foci.“ [Lockett et al.(2006)]• “The CSR definitions are describing a phenomenon, but fail topresent any guidance on how to manage the challenges withinthis phenomenon. Therefore, the challenge [..]is to understandhow CSR is socially constructed in a specific context and how totake this into account when business strategies are developed.“[Dahlsrud (2006), S. 6]Scientific RelevanceThere is a need todeepen and toexpand theknowledge of theimpact of socialresponsibility – a taskfor which companies,public administrationand universities worktogether in jointresearch projects[EuropeanCommission (2001);(2010)]1. IntroductionPractical RelevanceRelevance of CSR
  • 4. 4FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory1. IntroductionSR PA ASR=+≠Corporate AdministrationSocialResponsibilityPublicAdministrationAdministrative SocialResponsibilityCSR in Public Administration I
  • 5. 5FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory1. IntroductionInitial Question: Is CSR in Public Administration a relevant research subject at all?Here is why not:Simple example:• Public Administration is not profit-oriented and it should be doing work that is sociallyresponsible by definition.• The common opinion is, that only companies need to be engaging in CSR, becausea) they earn money from (parts of) the societyb) they access/make demands on natural resourcesc) they employ people and need to treat them responsibly.• In a car production company we have a separation between the production of thecars and the way the company is being run, ethically, sustainably, etc. - The companydoes not “only” produce cars. It produces cars that are safe, that minimize pollution,that are efficient etc. and it treats its employees in a ethically responsible way etc.• In the case of a public authority there is a product as well - the service carried out inthe name of society done by civil servants. But is this really comparable?CSR in Public Administration II
  • 6. 6FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory1. Introduction1. Enterprises increasingly succeed to incorporate public goals by implementingCSR-based strategies or programs.  This applies to public enterprises aswell.2. Legislation shows first signs to regulate CSR, so there have to be interactionsbetween (former) voluntary CSR measures and perceived responsibilityamong different stakeholders.3. By assuming public functions via CSR enterprises have developed(potentially) different instruments than public administration. Maybe it ispossible to share best practices with organizations of public administration.Luckily, we found three points of departure for CSR-relatedresearch in the context of public administration nevertheless:CSR in Public Administration III
  • 7. 7FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory1. Introduction1. Enterprises increasingly succeed to incorporate public goals by implementingCSR-based strategies or programs.  This applies to public enterprises aswell.2. Legislation is trying to regulate CSR, so there have to be interactionsbetween legislation in other sectors like environmental legislation, (former)voluntary CSR measures and perceived responsibility among differentstakeholders.3. By assuming public functions via CSR enterprises have developed(potentially) different instruments than public administration. Maybe it ispossible to share best practices with organizations of public administration.Luckily, we found three starting points for CSR-related researchin the context of public administration nevertheless:CSR in Public Administration IV
  • 8. 8FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory1. IntroductionFocusing on the third perspective of best practicesharing between enterprises and organizations ofpublic administration concepts and instrumentsconcerning CSR will be briefly discussed.CSR in Public Administration V
  • 9. 9FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory2. Basic Terminological Principles2. Basic Terminological Principles3. Research Question3. Research Question4. Methodological Approach4. Methodological ApproachOutline5. Conclusion5. Conclusion1. Introduction1. Introduction
  • 10. 10FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda MoryDefinitionAuthorIn general, corporate sustainability and CSR referto company activities – voluntary by definitiondemonstrating the inclusion of social andenvironmental concerns in business operationsand in interactions with stakeholders.Van Marrewijk(2003)A concept whereby companies integrate socialand environmental concerns in their businessoperations and in their interaction with theirstakeholders on a voluntary basis.Commission ofthe EuropeanCommunities(2001),p. 8Corporate social responsibility is the continuingcommitment by business to behave ethically andcontribute to economic development whileimproving the quality of life of the workforce andtheir families as well as the local community andsociety at large.World BusinessCouncil forSustainableDevelopment(2000)Business decision making linked to ethical values,compliance with legal requirements and respectfor people, communities and environment.Business forSocialResponsibility(2000)• „in both the corporate and the academic world there is uncertainty as to how CSR should be defined“[Dahlsrud (2006), p. 1]• Scientific studies on the definition of CSR: Carroll, A.B. (1999) & Dahlsrud, A. (2006)First Definition of CSR:“It refers to the obligations ofbusinessmen to pursue thosepolicies, to make thosedecisions, or to follow thoselines of action which aredesirable in terms of theobjectives and values of oursociety” [Bowen (1953), p. 6]2. Basic Terminological PrinciplesBasic Terminological Principles
  • 11. 11FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda MoryDimension Explana-tionExamples Phrases ofthe DimensionEnvironmentalDimensionNaturalenvironment„a cleaner environment“;„environmentalstewardship“;„environmental concerns inbusiness operations“SocialDimensionRelationshipbetweenbusinessand society„contribute to a bettersociety“; „integrate socialconcerns in their businessoperations“EconomicDimensionSocio-economic orfinancialaspects„contribute to economicdevelopment“; „preservingthe profitability“; „businessoperations“StakeholderDimensionStakeholderorstakeholdergroups„interaction with theirstakeholders“; „howorganizations interact withtheir employees, suppliers,customers andcommunities“VoluntarinessDimensionActions notprescribedby law„based on ethical values“;„beyond legal obligations“;„voluntary“EnvironmentalDimensionStakeholder DimensionVoluntariness DimensionSocialDimensionEconomicDimensionInternalDimension2. Basic Terminological PrinciplesCSR Dimensions I
  • 12. 12FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda MoryEnvironmentalDimensionStakeholder DimensionVoluntariness DimensionSocialDimensionInternalDimension2. Basic Terminological PrinciplesCSR Dimensions IIe.g. usingenviromentallyfriendly paper etc.e.g. support localprojects etc.e.g. supportemployee sportsprograms; child careprograms etc.
  • 13. 13FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory3. Research Question3. Research Question4. Methodological Approach4. Methodological ApproachOutline5. Conclusion5. Conclusion1. Introduction1. Introduction2. Basic Terminological Principles2. Basic Terminological Principles
  • 14. 14FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory3. Research Question• Which projects, programs and strategies of CSR bear best practicepotential to be used in public administration?• Which effects may an adoption of CSR measures have on publicadministration?• Which barriers inhibit the potential implementation of CSR-based measuresin public administration?• Which differences exist between SR in public administration in the UnitedStates and in Germany?Main Research Questions
  • 15. 15FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda MoryOutline5. Conclusion5. Conclusion1. Introduction1. Introduction2. Basic Terminological Principles2. Basic Terminological Principles4. Methodological Approach4. Methodological Approach3. Research Question3. Research Question
  • 16. 16FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory4. Methodological Approach„Case study research excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complexissue or object and can extend experience or add strength to what is alreadyknown through previous research.“ [Soy (1997)]6 steps for employing this method• Determine and define the research questions• Select the cases and determine data gatheringand analysis techniques• Prepare to collect the data• Collect data in the field• Evaluate and analyze the data• Prepare the report→ Almost finished→ Preferrably oralqualitative interviews→ To be done→ To be done→ To be done→ To be doneCase Study Approach
  • 17. 17FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda MoryOutline5. Conclusion5. Conclusion1. Introduction1. Introduction2. Basic Terminological Principles2. Basic Terminological Principles3. Research Question3. Research Question4. Methodological Approach4. Methodological Approach
  • 18. 18FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda Mory5. Conclusion• Corporate social responsibility has gained a lot of research interest inthe context of private enterprises in the past few years• However, research on the concept for public enterprises/publicadministration is limited• With our research we want to focus on decreasing this gap by findingCSR-related influencing factors and examples of best practice in the publicsector in the United States and Germany• It would be interesting to see if there are major differences in dealing withCSR in the public administration sphere in these two countries (since theUnited States have a longer history of CSR-implementation in the businesscontext)• Due to the novelty of the subject qualitative research methods arepreferred• Using a comparative case study approach differences and commonalitiesconcerning scope and effect of CSR measures in public administration shallbe analysedConclusion
  • 19. 19FÖV/SPEA Workshop 2011: Robert Piehler & Linda MoryThank You