Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry Enzymes and Cellular Reactions

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Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry Enzymes and Cellular Reactions

  1. 1. BIOLOGY Unit 1 Notes: Enzyme Details & Cellular Reactions
  2. 2. (1) Enzymes • Type of protein. • Have a very specific structure (like a key + lock) to fit with their substrate (the molecule they are binding to). • Used in cells to catalyze chemical reactions: – Make reactions go faster. – Lower the activation energy requirement, allowing the reaction to happen with less energy payment.
  3. 3. (2) Enzyme Denaturing • The substrate must bind exact at a special structure on the enzyme called the Active Site. • Denaturing  – Occurs when enzymes are exposed to extreme heat / chemicals. – Causes enzyme to unravel. • Why Is Denaturing a Problem? – Unravel = Change in structure – Change in structure = Messed up Active Site – Messed up Active Site = No Catalyzing the Reaction
  4. 4. (3) Cell Energy • Cells need to do a lot of work to maintain homeostasis. • Work requires energy!! • ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate – Energy storing molecule for cells! • Draw A Picture:
  5. 5. ATP = Adenosine + 3 Phosphates ADP = Adenosine + 2 Phosphates
  6. 6. Add a Phosphate + Store Energy In Bonds Remove a Phosphate + Release Energy From Bonds
  7. 7. (4) Cellular Reactions • Cells use chemical reactions to: – Break molecules into smaller pieces. – Make larger molecules. – Store and Release Energy • 2 Common Reactions – Hydrolysis – Deyhydration Synthesis
  8. 8. (5) Hydrolysis • Hydro = Add Water Lysis = To Explode / Break Apart • What Happens? – Add water to a larger polymer. – Break it apart into smaller monomers. – Release energy. • Draw A Picture:
  9. 9. Energy Add Water Release Energy Polymer Monomers
  10. 10. (6) Dehydration Synthesis • Dehydrate = Remove Water Synthesis = To Put Together • What Happens? – Remove water from smaller monomers. – Put together (bond) smaller monomer units. – Store energy. • Draw A Picture:
  11. 11. Monomers Remove Water Energy Store Energy Polymer

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