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Bio unit 1 biological elements and biomolecules notes
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  • 1. Unit 1 Notes:Biological Elements & Biomolecules
  • 2. (1) Atoms, Energy & Living Things• All living things are made of atoms: – Missing valence electrons drive all chemical reactions inside living things. – Atoms bond together to gain full valence shells and become stable.• All living things require energy in order to complete life processes.
  • 3. (2) Biological Elements• CHONPS (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur)• These 6 elements are found in all living things.• Carbon bonds form the framework for all major molecules found in living systems.
  • 4. (3) Why is Carbon So Special?• Carbon has 4 valence electrons.• Carbon can form up to four bonds with other atoms.• This allows Carbon to form lots of different types of structures and molecules, all with different functions.
  • 5. (4) The Biomolecules• Carbohydrates (Carbs)• Lipids (Fats)• Protein• Nucleic Acids• These are the 4 molecules that make up all living things, each composed of CHONPS.
  • 6. (5) Carbohydrates• Structure: – Monomer: Monosachcarides (Single Sugars) • Examples  Glucose, Fructose – Polymer: Polysaccharides (Many Sugars) • Examples  Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen• Functions: – Provide immediate and intermediate energy to cells. – Shorter Chains = Faster, Shorter Lasting Energy – Longer Chains= Slower, Longer Lasting Energy
  • 7. (6) Lipids• Structure: – Monomer: Fatty Acids and Glycerols – Polymer: Lipid • Examples  Phospholipids, Oils, Cholesterol, Triglycerides• Functions: – Provide long term energy storage to cells. – Phospholipids form protective cell membranes.
  • 8. (7) Proteins• Structure: – Monomer: Amino Acids – Polymer: Polypeptide (Many Peptide Bonds) • Examples  Hemoglobin, Protein Channels, Antibodies, Enzymes• Functions: – Proteins are the expression of DNA. – Hemoglobin allows red blood cells to bind with gas. – Protein Channels allow specific molecules to travel in and out of cells. – Antibodies help identify infectious agents. – Enzymes catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions by lowering the energy of activation required.
  • 9. (8) Nucleic Acids• Structure: – Monomer: Nucleotides • Made of  Ribose Sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogenous Base – Polymers: DNA and RNA• Functions: – Store genetic information. – Allow for the production of proteins.