Anatomy unit 3 cardio and respiratory system blood composition notes

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  • neutrophil
  • Neutrophil attacking bacteria
  • Basophils + histamine release
  • Anatomy unit 3 cardio and respiratory system blood composition notes

    1. 1. ANATOMY Unit 3 Notes: Blood Composition
    2. 2. (1) Blood • Purpose: Transport nutrients and waste throughout the body to their designated locations. • Contains living and nonliving components: – Living = Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells – Nonliving = Platelets, Proteins, Plasma, Inorganic Compounds
    3. 3. (2) Blood Cells & Parts • Red Blood Cells = Erythrocytes – Carry oxygen-containing gases – Use protein hemoglobin to bind with gases • White Blood Cells = Leukocytes – Part of Immune System – Protect body against infectious agents • Platelets – Fragments of red blood cells – Aid in clotting
    4. 4. (3) Plasma • The liquid portion of blood. • Made of mostly water, and various proteins and inorganic compounds (like salts and sugars). • Important Plasma Proteins: – Albumin  Regulates osmotic pressure within blood. – Fibrinogen and Globulin  Aids in clotting.
    5. 5. (4) White Blood Cell Specialties • White blood cells must be able to reach any area in body with infection. • Leukocytes use: – Positive Chemotaxis  To locate infectious agents within body using the antibody-antigen response system. – Diapedesis  To travel through organs to reach the infectious agents.
    6. 6. (5) Types of White Blood Cells • Neutrophils: – The most common and active. – First to respond to an infection site. • Basophils: – Release histamine during infection. – Histamine dilates the blood vessels to increase blood flow.
    7. 7. • Lymphocytes: Use antibodies and antigens. – B Lymphocytes  Produce antibodies to ID foreign cells. – T Lymphocytes  Respond to antibodies and find foreign cells. • Monocytes: – Present during chronic infection. – A last responder when other white blood cells did not work. • Eosinophils: – Attack and engulf larger parasitic organisms.
    8. 8. (6) Anemia • Anemia is when oxygen is not being carried to tissues. • Causes for Anemia: – – – – Misshapen red blood cells Low hemoglobin concentration Low blood cell count General lack of oxygen in system • Symptoms: – – – – Excruciating pains throughout the body. Extreme fatigue. Low endurance during physical activity. Loss of body heat easily.
    9. 9. • Sickle Cell Anemia: – Red blood cells are sickled shaped. – Cannot bind with oxygen and often clog up blood vessels. • Hereditary Spherocytosis: – Red blood cells balloon out like basketballs. – Cannot bind with oxygen and are destroyed by the spleen.

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