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Anatomy unit 2 nervous system neurotransmitter notes
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Anatomy unit 2 nervous system neurotransmitter notes

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  • 1. ANATOMY Unit 2 Notes: Neurotransmitters
  • 2. (1) Neurotransmitter Function • Released from Axon Terminals • Travel across synapse • Bind to: – Other Neuron – Effector Organ • Stimulates: – Another Nerve Impulse – Organ Movement/Functioning
  • 3. (2) Serotonin • Digestive stimulation • Positive, Dominant Emotions: –Happiness –Confidence –Social Comfort • Stimulates growth and development
  • 4. (3) Acetylcholine (Ach) • Stimulates muscle contraction • Stimulates REM sleep • Stimulates sensory neurons
  • 5. (4) Norepinephrine & Epinephrine • Increases alertness • Increases heart rate, blood pressure • Increases respiratory rate • Related to memory formation
  • 6. (5) Dopamine • Inhibititory • Feelings of happiness, pleasure and content • Increased social behavior • Muscle movement control
  • 7. (6) Glutamate & GABA • GABA = Gamma Aminobutyric Acid – Inhibits excitatory neurotransmitters – Decreases anxiety and paranoia – Maintains proper firing of nerve impulses (Lacking?  Epilepsy) • Glutamate: – Type of GABA – Linked to memory – Abundance  Kills brain cells  Brain Disease
  • 8. (7) Endorphins & Enkephalins • Structurally similar to opiates • Inhibitory • Can block the transmission of: – Pain – Excessive pleasure/excitement • Stimulates relaxation: – Slows heart + respiration rate – Slows metabolism – Excess  Organ Shut Down
  • 9. (8) Schizophrenia • Cause: –Uncoordinated release of dopamine and glutamate • Symptoms: –Delusional, hallucination –Disorganized speech –Sudden onset of depression / sluggishness
  • 10. (9) Clinical Depression • Cause: –Absence / low concentration of serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or dopamine. • Symptoms: –Extreme fatigue OR Insomnia –Lack of emotion/mood –Feelings of worthlessness/hopelessness –Loss of interest in anything
  • 11. (10) Clinical Bipolar Disorder • Cause: – Extreme imbalance, and inconsistent production of neurotransmitters… – Serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine • Symptoms: – Manic Periods  • Hyper, anxious, volatile emotions • Extreme focus / creativity / proactive behavior – Depressive Periods  • Same symptoms as clinical depression.