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Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes
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Anatomy unit 2 nervous system hearing notes

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  • 1. ANATOMY UNIT 2 NOTES: Hearing & Equilibrium
  • 2. (1) Ear Design • Ear is a well designed funnel: – Sound waves spiral down into auditory canal. – Sound Waves smack against ear drum (tympanic membrane). • Sound Path: – Inside ear – Tympanic Membrane (Ear Drum) – Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup (3 Bones) – Oval Window of Cochlea – Fluid within Cochlea – Cochlear Nerve and Brain
  • 3. (2) Cochlea • Cochlea = Snail like structure in inner Ear. • Contains receptors for balance and equilibrium. • Contains receptors for pitch and frequency.
  • 4. (3) Equilibrium & Balance • Your ears keep track of your body’s position. • Equilibrium receptors lie within the cochlea (they are called the Vestibular Apparati). • 2 Types of Equilibrium: – Static – Dynamic
  • 5. (4) Static Equilibrium • Static = Tells brain the basic position of head. – Up, Down, Left, Right, Forward, Back • Uses Receptors called the Macuale: – On top of maculae lies the otolithic membrane (gel-like membrane) – When Head Moves  Otoliths Move! – Movement of otoliths places pressure on maculae, sending message through vestibular nerve to brain.
  • 6. (5) Dynamic Equilibrium • Dynamic = Tells brain the more detailed positioning and movement of the head. – Rotations and Angles • Uses the Semicircular Canals of Cochlea: – Contain channels called Crista Ampullari. – Crista Ampullari contain receptor cells, endolymph fluid and a capula cap. – When head turns, fluid pushes against capula cap, stimulating receptors, and sending message to brain.
  • 7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTiGskc1o48
  • 8. (8) Motion Sickness • The result of an inefficient dynamic equilibrium… – Semicircular Canals either too sensitive or too slow at sending messages • Too many visual messages • Too many inner ear messages • Visual conflicts with Inner Ear • Unique to each individual
  • 9. (7) Deafness • Deaf = Any hearing loss • Types: – Conduction – Sensorineural
  • 10. (8) Conduction Deafness • Something Blocks Tympanic Membrane • Sound Waves cannot reach Ear Drum + Inner Ear • Causes: – Ear Wax – Ruptured Ear Drum – Injured Hammer, Anvil and/or Stirrup • Usually Temporary, Solved by Surgery
  • 11. (9) Sensorineural Deafness • Damage to actual parts of ears: – Receptor Cells – Cochlea – Vestibular Nerve • Can be hereditary, damage from disease/virus, damage from loud noises • Often permanent

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