Biology unit 5 genetics genetic engineering notes
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Biology unit 5 genetics genetic engineering notes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Biology Unit 5 Notes: Genetic Engineering
  • 2. (1) What Is Genetic Engineering? • Genetic Engineering = Altering the genetic code of an organism. • How is this most commonly used? – Selective Breeding of Plants + Animals • Types: – Selective Breeding – Gene Therapy – Cell Transformation – Cloning
  • 3. (2) Selective Breeding • Takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation in plants, animals, and other organisms. • Used to control which desired traits pass on to the next generation.
  • 4. (3) Gene Therapy • An absent or faulty gene is replaced with a normal, working gene. • Viruses are often used because they have the ability to enter a cell’s DNA. • How Does This Work? – The virus is modified so that it cannot cause disease. – A DNA fragment with the replacement gene is spliced to the viral DNA. – The patient is infected with the modified viruses • Unfortunately, these experiments have not been very successful. • Gene therapy remains a high-risk, experimental procedure.
  • 5. (4) Cell Transformation • Cell Transformation = Genetically Modified • A cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. • Can use it to insert desired genes/traits. • When organisms contains genes from another species, they are called transgenic organisms.
  • 6. Transgenic Organism Examples • • • • Mice  Used to study how the altering of human-related genes impacts the organism. Cattle  Alter the fat / muscle composition of the animal. Plants  Can become naturally resistant to insects and viruses, or contain vitamins. Bacteria  Can produce large quantities, quickly, of medicines like insulin and growth hormones.
  • 7. (5) Cloning • Clone  A member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell. • Researchers hope that cloning will enable them to make copies of transgenic animals to help save endangered species.
  • 8. Normal Sheep cells