Biology unit 2 cells types of cells notes

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Biology unit 2 cells types of cells notes

  1. 1. BIOLOGY Unit 2 Notes: Types of Cells
  2. 2. (1) Types of Cells • Prokaryotic Cells: Cells without a nucleus. –Pro = before ; -Karyo = nucleus –Cells that evolved before a nucleus • Eukaryotic Cells: Cells with a nucleus and multiple organelles. –Eu = true ; -Karyo = nucleus –Cells with a true nucleus –*Humans are made with eukaryotic cells.
  3. 3. (2) Uni versus Multi • Unicellular Organisms: Organisms made of only a single cell. *Many of the pond water organisms. • Multicellular Organisms: Organisms made of trillions of specialized cells. *Humans .
  4. 4. (3) Organization in Multicellular Organisms • Most Basic Level = Atoms & Molecules –Cells –Tissues (made of cells) –Organs (made of tissues) –Organ Systems (made of organs) –Organism (made of organ systems)
  5. 5. (5) Amoeba • Eukaryotic, Unicellular Organism. • Their Unique Structures: – Pseudopods  Cytoplasm “feet” that allow it to move around. – Contractile Vacuole  Regulates water levels. (4) Amoeba
  6. 6. • How Do Amoeba Eat? – Phagocytosis: Amoeba hunt for prey (other cells) by surrounding them and engulfing them. – Endocytosis: A process where cells fuse other cells/vacuoles with their membrane, in order to bring nutrients inside. – Exocytosis: A process where cells wrap waste/nutrients in vacuoles and push them out of their outer-membranes
  7. 7. (5) Paramecium • Eukaryotic, Unicellular Organism • Unique Structures: – Cilia  Tiny hair-like structures that beat to move organism around. – Mouth Pore  Used to bring food into cell. – Anal Pore  Used to release waste. – Contractile Vacuole
  8. 8. (6) Euglena • Eukaryotic, Unicellular Organism. • Unique Structures: – Flagellum  Whip-like structure that propels organism around. – Chloroplast  Organelle that uses sunlight to produce sugars and oxygen. – Stigma  Light detecting structure. – Contractile Vacuole

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