Anatomy unit 3 cardio and respiratory systems heart anatomy notes

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Anatomy unit 3 cardio and respiratory systems heart anatomy notes

  1. 1. UNIT 3 NOTES: Heart Anatomy & Basic Function
  2. 2. (1) Cardiac Tissues • Outermost = Pericardium & Epicardium – Pericardium is a membrane anchoring heart to diaphragm and sternum – Pericardium secretes lubricant (serous fluid) – Epicardium is outermost muscle tissue • Middle = Myocardium – Contains contractile muscle fibers • Innermost = Endocardium – Lines Cardiac Chambers
  3. 3. (2) The Chambers • Human heart has 4 chambers – 2 Atria (1 on the left, 1 on the right) • Superior Chambers = Primary Receiving Chambers (do not actually pump) • Blood flows into atria – 2 Ventricles (1 on the left, 1 on the right) • Inferior Chambers = Pump the Blood • Contraction = blood sent out of heart + circulated • Chambers are separated by septum
  4. 4. Deoxygenated Blood …To the lungs Oxygenated Blood …To the rest of the body
  5. 5. (3) Pulmonary Circulation • Pulmonary = Deoxygenated Blood • Involves Right Side of Heart • Pathway:Pathway: 1. Superior / Inferior Vena Cava 2. Right Atrium  Tricuspid Valve 3. Right Ventricle  Pulmonary Semilunar Valve 4. Left Pulmonary Artery 5. Lungs
  6. 6. (4) Systemic Circulation • Systemic = Oxygenated Blood • Involves Left Side of Heart • Pathway:Pathway: 1. Left Pulmonary Vein 2. Left Atrium  Bicuspid Valve 3. Left Ventricle  Aortic Semilunar Valve 4. Aorta 5. All Other Tissues
  7. 7. (5) The Valves • The AV Valves: – AV = atrioventricular = between the atrium and ventricles – Tricuspid Valve • Right Side – Bicuspid / Mitral Valve • Left Side • The Semilunar Valves: – Semilunar = between the ventricles and arteries exiting the heart – Pulmonary Semilunar Valve • Right Side • Exiting out the pulmonary artery going to the lungs. – Aortic Semilunar Valve • Left Side • Exiting out the aorta going to working tissues.
  8. 8. (6) The Valves & Heart Pumping • When the heart is relaxed… – Blood passively fills atrium – Flows right past tricuspid / bicuspid valves – Semilunar Valves remain shut • When the heart contracts (pumps)… – Tricuspid / Bicuspid valves swing up and shut – Blood ejected out of ventricle – Semilunar Valves open up

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