Requirements Management for the Enterprise
What, Why, How, and At What Cost?
Executive View – The What and Why
Rationale and Implications
Information What Is a Requirement?
In general terms, a Requirement is a “stated need” for some
capability consisting of: Requirement
Resources, Quantities of i.e., People, Information, How Many?
Resources Funds, Skills, Materiel, How Good?
To Conduct Processes, Having Specific Services, Facilities, Space,
To Implement Functions, Qualities Energy
Within Organization Units, To Conduct i.e., Inputs, How?
For Organizations, Processes Controls/Constraints, Outputs,
To Implement i.e., Executive, Production and Why / Rationale?
At Given Times. Functions Support Programs and Projects What Mission
with specific Missions Outcomes?
A Specification is Within i.e., Office, Teams, Roles, What Team, or
Organization Positions Role?
a highly detailed and Units
coherent Requirement, For i.e., Government or Private Whose Authority or
Organizations with specific Purposes/Vision Higher Mission?
whose Solution can At Locations i.e., Physical, Political, Virtual Where?
be Tested and Proven. At Specific i.e., Past, Present, Future When? For How
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One World General Requirements Process,
System From Concept to Reality
Requirement Space Solution Space
Open Close Open Close
and Models Solution
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One World Requirements Management
• Why Do We Need Requirements Management?
– Implemented Solutions Often Don’t Match Initial and Updated Requirements
– Requirements Often Don’t Represent the Evolving Mission/Purpose/Vision
– Requirements Are Often Lost or Distorted During Handoffs between Concept,
Specification, Implementation, and Acceptance, and Operation efforts (i.e.,
between the dream and the reality)
– Left Hand / Right Hand Unaware (Duplicate and Conflicting Efforts Across
the Mission Area – Poor Situational/Context Awareness)
• How Do We Implement Requirements Management?
– Consistent Life Cycle Process, Designed and Viewed From Top to Bottom,
Implemented from Bottom to Top
• What’s The Costs/Benefits of Requirements Management
– Costs: Far Less Than Current Collection of Duplicative, Fragmented Efforts
• Human: Increased Common Skills and Situational Awareness, Less Frustration,
More Things Work as Expected
• Business: Increased Economies of Scale, Consistency, and Quality
• IT: Systems More Integratable, Simpler to Operate, Simpler to Maintain, and More
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Information Requirements and Solutions
• Requirements Management carries an endeavor from
concept to reality
• Requirements come from all scales of the enterprise, and
encompass everything from the most specific product
feature to the highest enterprise Mission Statement
• Requirements Management is part of each level of the
• Strategic Management and Integration is at the core of
Requirements Management and takes place across all
levels of the enterprise
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Strategic Management Life Cycle
System (Applies at All Enterprise Levels)
Organization, Function, Contract, Program, or Project
Strength, Weakness, Vision
Opportunity, and Goals
Threat (SWOT) Performance Measures (e.g., Service Levels, Deliverables, Objectives)
Strategies (e.g., Plans, Requirement Management, Portfolios, Contracts)
Baseline Operations Analysis (i.e., Functions and Programs)
Initiatives (i.e., New/Improved Functions Via Projects)
Operations Cost Impacts
Value Chain (Products,
Partners, Authorities, Performance Assessment
Public, Internal Performance Review
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One World Enterprise Management (EM) Context
System Hardware & Software
me nt IT Infrastructure
dM a IT Architecture of Strategies
Delegate Resource (Funds, Information, People, etc.) Strategy
Functional (e.g., Personnel, Facility, EC) Strategy
Enterprise (EB) Architecture
Enterprise Management (EM)
The process for enterprise, functional, hardware, and software engineering must be consistent so their
results can be consistent. These consistent detail results can then be:
•integrated into systems built with a consistent process, which can be
•integrated into infrastructures built with a consistent process, which can be
•integrated using an architecture built with a consistent process, which can be
•integrated as strategies built from a consistent process, which can be
•integrated as enterprise missions managed with a consistent process.
•Rationale for standards = Inconsistency undermines the potential for integration. (e.g., the DoD
Common Operating Environment (COE) as an IT infrastructure was independently critiqued for not being
integrated with the DOD Mission, even after the DoDAF/C4ISR was implemented. The COE was originally
focused on the System View, with only a limited Technical View, and almost no Operational View)
•Each of the EM layers above represents a major career/education/skill area.
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