Enterprise Architecture for US Federal Organization Improvement
Enterprise Architecture for Federal Organization Improvement Roy Roebuck Enterprise Architect
Organizational Improvement – Why?• It’s Required by Laws, Regulations, Directives, and Policies Authoritative Guidance • Paperwork • It’s Sought by the Directors, Generals, CEO’s and Higher Reduction Act (PRA) Headquarter • Federal Managers Financial Integrity • Budget Constraints, Current and Future Act (FMFIA) • Government • Quality Feedback Performance and • Product (e.g., Goods, Services, Benefits, Entitlements) and Results Act (GPRA) • Clinger‐Cohen Act Operational Cost Feedback (CCA)• Speed/Responsiveness Feedback • Government Paperwork • National Concern with Government Products, Programs, and Elimination Act (GPEA) Costs • OMB Circulars A‐11 (Budget), A‐123 • Leadership and Management Increasingly Have to Answer (Internal Controls of More Questions, and Make More Decisions, More Rapidly Processes), A‐130 (Information • Rapid Response to Questions and Decision‐Needs Is Not Fully Resources Management) Supported by Available, Accurate, Timely, Verifiable, and • Several Others Accountable Information• The Drive to Good, Fast, and Less‐Expensive Programs and Products Never Ceases
Organizational Improvement – How?• Have a Consistent Improvement (i.e., Change) Method • Know and Improve Processes• Know and Improve Products• Know and Improve Information (e.g., Data)• Know and Improve Communication• Know and Improve Structure and Culture
Enterprise Architecture – Why?An EA is intended to be used to dramatically improve: – Simultaneous Compliance – Processes with Many Laws, Regulations, – Management Controls Memorandum, Directives, and Policy – Production – Cost‐savings per Product – Performance – Operational, Development, – Communication and Administrative Costs – Coordination – Quality in Products and – Collaboration Operations – Demand Response – Security – Planning – Privacy – Adaptability – Access Control – Accountability
Enterprise Architecture – What is it?• An Architecture is a model (or viewpoint) of some subject, to include its past, present, and intended states• An Enterprise is a endeavor to achieve a mission or purpose, and the external environment in which the endeavor is performed• A whole Organization operating within its external environment is an Enterprise.• So the Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a model of the whole Organization within its external environment – past, present, and intended• An EA is a Knowledge‐Base• An EA can consist of many “merged architectures”, such as a merger of architectures from each of the Organization’s Divisions, Lines of Business, Programs, Locations, Resource Managers (e.g., HR, Facilities, Logistics, Finance, IT), Suppliers, Customers, Partners, etc.• A complete EA will contain all of the modeled “viewpoints” of all Enterprise Leaders, Managers, Workforce, as well as some viewpoints of its “Value‐Chain” participants operating in the external environment• An EA is a Federally‐required Change Process for all Federal Executive Agencies.• An EA is not just for IT Investment and Development Governance
EA – How?• An EA models all of the named‐parts of the organization and its enterprise, how they relate to each other, and how the parts and relationships are described. • An EA is a map to a very complex territory.• An EA changes constantly, aligned with organization and enterprise changes ‐ some parts change faster than others• Multiple EAs can be easily merged if they are built using a common structure, process, data and toolset.• An EA is built by consistently modeling processes and the data that supports those processes, simultaneously addressing top to bottom, bottom to top, and middle‐outward processes
EA – How (Cont.)?• An EA models all of the named‐parts of an enterprise, how they related to each Location Catalog other, and how the parts and relationships are described Organization Catalog – Simply, an EA consists of the significant nouns, verb phrases, adjectives, and Organization Unit adverbs used in enterprise documents, Catalog databases, web sites, and communication Enterprise – The nouns are organized into a hierarchy Knowledgebase, Function Catalog of broader to narrower meaning, Common References (BRM) questions, and answers called a (Vocabulary, Concepts) Taxonomy, Catalog, or Reference Model Process Catalog – The verbs are organized into a hierarchy (PRM, SRM, DRM) representing broad types of relationships.• Noun‐Verb‐Noun links show the Resource relationships between enterprise parts – Catalog (SRM/DRM/T the more of these that are recorded, the RM) more complete the EA
EA – Example Lifecycles• A top‐level process would be the Five Year “Mission Lifecycle”, starting with its Mission, Vision, Goals, and Success Indicators.• A functional (middle‐out) process would be the “Organization’s Annual IT Requirement Lifecycle”.• A operational (bottom‐up) process would be the many ongoing “Organization’s IT Software Development Lifecycle” (SDLC) projects. Operation Lifecycle 1 Where we are today 3 How we’ll get there 2 Where we want to go (Management) (Management) (Leadership) Risk Assessment, Performance Measurement, Mission Operating Environment And Adjustments Evolving Strategy Value-Lattice (Adaptation Decisions) Vision (Integrated Value Chains) Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Goal and Threat Awareness Tightening “Acceptable Performance” Success Progress Indicators from Lessons Learned Indicators During Operations (Intelligence Refinement) (Objective Criteria) EA provides a procedure to move from problems to solutions, at any scale. EA enables accomplishment of mission goals and objectives. Public Domain. Authored and Maintained by Roy Roebuck, 1982‐2011 2
EA Enables Enterprise Leadership and Management FunctionsLeadership Gains ‐ Progression from Current Situation to Improved Situation, With Cohesion, Cohesion (i.e., Control)By Using a ManagedConfiguration and A. Leadership (BySituational Awareness Citizens/Owners, B. Management (By Staffs) Legislatures/Boards,From a Shared Viewpoint(i.e., Architecture) and Executives)1. Enterprise Components1.1. Location 1 Our Status Today 3 How We’ll Get There 2 Our Intended Status1.2. Organization (As-Is Disorder) Now (Migration, Control) Tomorrow (To-Be Order,1.3. Organization Unit (Management) (Management) Command) (Leadership)1.4. Function Risk and Vulnerability Assessment,1.5. Process Performance Measurement,1.6. Resource Operating Environment Mission And Adjustments2. CapabilityRequirements Evolving Operation Strategy2.1. Conceptual To Close Gaps and Reduce Overlaps2.2. Specified Value-Lattice Satisfaction Vision (Integrated Value Chains) (Adaptation Decisions)2.3. Authorized2.4. Funded2.5. Implemented Strength,2.6. Operational Weakness, Opportunity, Goal2.7. Disposed and Threat Awareness3. Component Relations3.1. Categorization(Taxonomy)3.2. Containment Success3.3. Sequence (Process)3.4. Version (Change) Indicators (Business Drivers,3.5. Equivalence Tightening “Acceptable Performance” Performance(Thesaurus) Progress Indicators from Lessons Learned Targets, Objective3.6. Variation (Intelligence Refinement) Criteria)3.7. Descriptive Leadership Tracks Measured and Adjusted Progression, Pulling the Enterprise Into An Intended Future State (i.e., Direction or Command) Organization Leadership, Management, and Workforce All Depend On Appropriately Available Knowledge About The Enterprise (i.e., The Organization Within Its Environment) and How They Relate To It Public Domain. Authored and Maintained by Roy Roebuck, 1982‐2011 4
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