Pea, R. (2011, June 28-30). Expanding horizons for digital video in research and education . Invited Keynote Address, DIVERSE Ireland Conference, Dublin.
Learning sciences insights have built upon detailed studies of videos of learning and teaching interactions; Learning by observation, practice and reflection is integral to teacher preparation and ongoing professional development: video is a powerful learning tool. Anyone can use video constructively as a medium for expressing their thinking, for more active engagements in learning.
Yet there are big challenges - while group writing is now common with Google Docs , group video conversations are not.
Another problem is SELECTIVE CAPTURE – a single mic and camera misses events outside FOV.
How we talked about it? DIVER is a desktop software tool for authoring and sharing DIVEs A DIVE is a personal perspective, a path-movie selected using a virtual camera inside a panoramic video recording, which is then annotated and shared. Making a DIVE we said, was a process of Point-of-View authoring ( echo of Ricki ’s PERSPECTIVITY) OR as we said CLICK THROUGH TO NEXT SLIDE
BUT because panoramic videorecording was so costly and rare, we re-developed the DIVER software to work over the web on ordinary consumer digicam videos for video collaboration and social learning conversations Before Youtube existed, DIVER users uploaded videos and could then create DIVEs as streaming video was played through their web browser. DON ’T READ LAST BULLET.
* The DIVER icon showing a selected subsection of a video screen indicates how this works. * To dive into a video, you point into the streaming video with a viewfinder to RECORD A MOVIE WITHIN A MOVIE. * You author a point of view on that video, so as TO ORIENT JOINT ATTENTION TO SPECIFIC VIDEO MOMENTS. * A dive is one or more of such selections with their annotations and can be shared or commented on FOR SOCIAL LEARNING. * DIVER thus supports two-way VIDEO-ANCHORED LEARNING CONVERSATIONS over the Internet – and has been broadly used by many research and educator groups.
- Teacher/mentor video capture of ‘times of trouble’ or ‘times of excellence’ in their teaching - For reflective use with peers locally, distant mentors - We suggested that schools could develop District, regional, national teaching practice databases of videos
From several hundred DIVER user groups across many countries and institutions
Based on Gates Foundation knowledge of my work on the DIVER Project - I was invited in 2009 to develop the team, project plan and grant to meet the video-plus needs of a new Measuring Effective Teaching project. I invited Mark Atkinson CEO of Teachscape to co-lead as the corporate/technical partner, with over 10 years experience in capturing many thousands of hrs of classroom video for teacher PD. $15Mil effort for 2 years!
* READ THROUGH ## teachers. Teachscape is the corporate/technical partner – academic partners are Stanford, University of Virginia, Harvard – who have developed subject specific instruments (math, ELA, biology) and cross-domain instruments (CLASS and The Danielson Framework for Teaching) The Educational Testing Service in Princeton partners in running the project coding, training and coder certification operations.
This is how it happens today. Labor intensive. Capture is only the first stage in a long line of activities to make that video USABLE. And there is effort and chance for error at virtually every stage – in setting up capture, in the use of lav mics, in the hrs putting together A &B camera streams, of compressing video so it can be used over the web– (and all the back end work in ‘synching’ these streams), tagging the digital assets for search and creating the published versions of the videos of classroom instruction that can be used for analysis, or professional development.
• Our approach was to revisit panoramic video where the video quality and costs had plummeted since 2002. • This all changed lately since the software algorithms for transforming cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates now run on cheap hardware, and video quality has increased so that a single camera now suffices.
We call our approach PANORAMIC PLUS since we added a second HI DEF camera to capture the whiteboard in high resolution and provide a second wireless mic for the teacher.
• The panoramic 360-degree video camera with NO operator sits on a tripod above the height of the tallest sitting student. • Here is one of the MET classrooms with the panoramic plus rig blending in.
Note extensive media coverage of the project, e.g. NYTimes. Major trade press book in development by education journalist.
The Teachscape Reflect system quickly grew out of the Gates MET developments of panoramic video capture, sharing, and scoring tools used to capture and score teacher lesson videos.
The Teachscape Reflect system is now available as a commercial collaborative online system that districts can use to grow teacher professional development capacities in their schools. DIVER is being licensed from Stanford University for incorporation in the Teachscape Reflect product, as well as in the Gates Foundation video archives that will enable uses of the tens of thousands of videos of teaching from the MET project and its successors for teacher professional development and capacity building in districts throughout the United States.
While the panoramic video systems we have developed through the Gates Foundation MET Project and Teachscape Reflect have been oriented to teacher learning and professional development, DOT brings panoramic video to everyday uses for learning and play in the world , for K-12 and for creative applications in nature, social events, or whatever settings. DIVER-like functionalities will be introduced in the year ahead for video conversations from the full panorama of video events captured with DOTs around the world. DOTs will be available in Apple and Best Buy retail stores and through the web by the late Fall.
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Expanding Horizons for Digital VideoinExpanding Horizons for Digital Video Research, Education and Learning in Research, Education and Learning Roy Pea Stanford University Dublin City University DIVERSE Ireland Conference June 28, 2011
Overview• Aims: To improve how we interact with and capture video for learning and research – “Video footnoting” – need precise reference for joint attention for learning in video conversations – From selective capture to encompassing capture (panoramic)• DIVER software for reflective video conversations: Key ideas, demo and design patterns of user communities• Gates Foundation Project on Measuring Effective Teaching• Teachscape Reflect - panoramic video capture and software for reflective professional development communities• What’s next….?
Shared attention is a crucial developmental component of cognition and learning• Learning language, especially names for things• Learning about new objects and concepts• Acquiring new skills via imitation and instruction 3
Joint visual attentionIn computer supported collaborative learning• Problem: establishing joint reference in computer-mediated communications using multimedia representations• Domains: for diagrams, pictures, but especially dynamically changing videos• Key: to making distributed learning and education function effectively 4
Research challenge: How to point to video for joint attention and social learning?• Video is dynamic and time-based. How can I show you what I am referring to in video, to help you understand me? (Guided Noticing)• How to better support video as a collaborative medium for social learning and teaching communications?• We need persistent records of video pointing to develop “common ground” in cyber-mediated conversation. 5
Toward panoramic videoSelective capture is a major drawback inresearch use of audio-video records of learning • Single camera and microphone misses events occurring outside the field of view. • Researchers rarely aim to be accountable to what all learners are doing - not only those on whom the video-camera is focused.
2002: DIVER Panoramic Video• Adapted Lucent’s FullView camera for recording high resolution panoramic video and created DIVER software inventions• In 2002: Expensive for high-resolution imagery - $85,000 - but potential to become a consumer product in 7-10 years Funded by National Science Foundation’s Major Research Instrumentation Grant
2004: WebDIVER platform for video collaboration and social learning conversations• An IRB-secure, browser-based software service for video uploading, precise reference, annotation, coding, analysis and collaboration for learning sciences and education. 12
What is ?• DIVER users "point" into a streaming video with a mouse-controlled viewfinder to record a "movie within a movie".• By selecting and annotating video segments, a user authors a point-of-view orienting joint attention to specific video moments. A “dive” is a collection of one or more selections with annotations.• Dive segments can be played back, commented on, copied for new dives, shared by email or published by embedding a DIVER player in blogs or web pages.• Playing a DIVER ‘remix’ produces the collection of videoclips with annotations as an integrated movie.• Community – DIVER supports 2-way video-centered social discourse through web browsers• Tech – 200+ DIVER user groups; ~8,000 files and ~1,600 video hrs; 3 Tb source video; 300 Gb Flash video for streaming; Can operate in Amazon “elastic computing cloud” for auto video-upload; group admin privileges; ease of server mirroring. 13
Use CasesScenario 1: Learning Scenario 3: Scenario 5: Filminteraction analysis Teacher education analysis and assessmentScenario 2: Learning Scenario 6: Japanesetool prototype design Scenario 4: Film making conversation instruction
Examples - DIVER user communities• Comparative political video • Teaching and analyzing small analysis across TV networks group rapid prototyping design in• Critical episode analysis of HCI course emergency medical team • Intern doctor training in patient responses during childbirth interview skills• Breast cancer survivor womens story group • Improving college physics teaching discourse• Uses of smart-boards for group learning in different higher • Informal learning of mathematics education domains in families• Studying diagram use in high • Video database for study of how school physics teaching of collaborative capacities develop geometrical optics • Headcam studies of office• Oncology training in workers using paper & computing communicating with cancer patients technologies
• Distributed Interpretations – Multiple participants offer their interpretations on a video event (motion picture; doctor-patient interaction; teacher-student interaction)• Distributed Design – Multiple participants contribute insights on a video event to create or improve a product or experience• Distributed Data-Coding – Multiple participants offer individual comments and interpretations, using a category system adopted for coding and analyzing the video.• Performance-Based Feedback – One or more participants provide feedback on some practice or performance that is captured in the video clip.• Video-Based Prompting – A single participant (e.g., a group leader or instructor) poses questions, anchored in a video event, to which other participants are expected to view the video and contribute a response (as in teacher education).
Charge to the Video Plus Team (Fall 2009) Develop a low-cost capture => analysis => publishing solution that can provide data for the study and build capacity in districts For work in 400+ schools in 7 districts, employ large scale capture model and develop large-scale reliable web-based scoring software platform 2009-2010: 3,019 teachers (across Yr 4-9 English Language Arts, Yr 4-9 Math & Yr 10 Biology) for about 12,000 lessons; and 2010-2011: 2,200 teachers (200 per cell, grade X subject) and about 9,000 lessons. Revise and implement 5 measures of effective teaching: June 2011: ‒ PLATO: English Language Arts (Stanford University) 20,000 plus ‒ MQI: Mathematical Quality of Instruction (Harvard University) Video lesson capture ‒ QST: Quality of Science Teaching (Stanford University) completed! ‒ CLASS: Cross-domain (University of Virginia) ‒ Danielson’s Framework for Teaching: Cross-domain Reliably score those lessons (using 5 measures) with a distributed, certified network of coders who are largely trained on-line. 18
Professional crew operating two camerasAnd it doesn’t end there – Capture (two cameras, to videotape); Transfer to computer; Editorial(“stringout,” rough, fine, final); Compress; Upload to online system, synchronize serversmanually; Tag for Search; Publish
Panoramic Capture: No Operator Required • Single camera captures 360-degree image • Great flexibility in capture hardware • Inexpensive • No camera operator necessary, less burden
Improve Instruction. Improve Achievement “Panoramic Plus”360-degree video plus high resolution board capture 21
Gates MET Project: “Panoramic Plus” Roll in, Capture, Roll out, Repeat. 22
Teachscape Reflect: Innovative Technology Second camera to focus on the board High resolution panoramic camera with a 360° ‘zoom-able’ viewWireless microphonesto capture student and Dedicated capture station teacher audio for entering data about video and uploading captured videos to the serverTo learn more, visit www.teachscape.com/reflect 23
Teachscape Reflect: Born out of the MET ProjectTeachscape’s panoramic video capture, sharing, and scoring tools were used tocapture and score video of more than 3,000 teachers and 21,000 lessons in theMeasures of Effective Teaching (MET) project funded by the Bill & MelindaGates Foundation (Yr 1). 25
Teachscape Reflect is a collaborative online system thatintegrates 360-degree panoramic video with research-based frameworks to strengthen and support teaching practice. Collaborative Online System Panoramic Video Services & Capture Coaching Comprehensive Product & Customer Support 26
Capture a View of the Entire Classroom Panoramic Camera Raw Video CaptureProcessed Video Pan & Zoom View 360° Panoramic ViewTo learn more, visit www.teachscape.com/reflect 27
Process Shift: Pencil & Paper to Panoramic Video and Social Learning Old Process In-Person Classroom Observation Paper Notes, Evaluation Forms & Classroom Artifacts Teachscape Reflect Process Panoramic Video Capture Online Review, Commenting & Sharing 28
Video capture made easyTo learn more, visit www.teachscape.com/reflect 29
Share and Comment On Effective Teaching Tag video with comments Comments 30
Next Gen Teacher Professional DevelopmentTeachscape Reflect is designed to improve teachereffectiveness and classroom outcomes: » Coaching to promote effective practices » Peer mentoring and lesson study to strengthen professional learning communities » Self-reflection and self-evaluation for individual improvement » Standardized, evidence-based evaluation 32
Next? Everyday Panoramic Video and Dotcasting Live to the Web
Paradigm evolution for video communications Dimensions? • Atoms Bits • Professional Consumer • Real-time Time-shifted + Webcast • Place-restricted Anytime, anywhere • Broadcast Conversations • Individual Community • Focal perspective Panoramic