Individual behavior


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Individual behavior

  1. 1. Individual Behavior <br />By:<br />Neelima Roy<br />MBA,<br />DMS, Pondicherry University<br />
  2. 2. Definition<br />Individual Behavior is a combination of responses to external and internal stimuli.<br />
  3. 3. Individual Behavior Framework<br />
  4. 4. Contd….<br />According to psychologist Kurt Levin individuals are influenced by a number of diversified factors both genetic and environmental<br />He called this as Field Theory<br />B: Behavior<br />F: Behavior function<br />P: Person<br />E: Environment around the person<br />B= F(P,E)<br />
  5. 5. Contd….<br />e.g. A person who loses a well paying job may behave differently when he is unemployed<br />The environment may change the behavior of a person<br />e.g. Certain training and rehabilitation programs have changed the human behavior<br />
  6. 6. Causes of Individual Behavior<br />Inherited Characteristics<br />Learned Characteristics<br />
  7. 7. Inherited Characteristics<br />
  8. 8. Contd….<br />Physical Characteristics<br />Age<br />Religion<br />Race<br />Social Group<br />Body Structure<br />Stamina<br />Height<br />Vision<br />
  9. 9. Contd….<br />Intelligence<br />Gender<br />
  10. 10. Learned Characteristics<br /> Perception<br /> Values<br /> Attitudes<br /> Personality<br />
  11. 11. Contd….<br />Perception<br />Result of various senses : feeling, seeing, hearing, etc.<br />e.g. If a manager perceives a subordinate’s ability as limited, he’ll give him limited responsibility, even if the subordinate is an able person <br />
  12. 12. Contd….<br /><ul><li> Attitude
  13. 13. Positive attitude
  14. 14. Negative attitude
  15. 15. e.g. I like my job: expressing attitude towards work</li></li></ul><li>Contd….<br />Personality<br />e.g. People who are seem to work out better in bargaining agreements than people who are narrow minded<br /><ul><li>Values</li></ul>Influences perception of problem<br />Influences a individual’s decision making process<br />
  16. 16. Contd….<br />Emotions<br />
  17. 17. Behavior as an Input- Output System<br />The basic input- output system:<br />S: Stimuli generated by external environment as input<br />O: Human organism which is activated by physiological as well as physiological processes<br />O: Behavior as output<br />S<->O->B<br />
  18. 18. Learning can Change Individual Behavior<br />Role of parenting<br />Education<br />Job training<br />Manipulation of rewards<br />
  19. 19. Learning Theories<br />Classical Conditioning Theory<br />Operant Conditioning Theory<br />Social Learning<br />
  20. 20. Methods of Shaping Behavior<br />Positive reinforcement<br />Negative reinforcement<br />Punishment<br />Extinction<br />
  21. 21. Contd….<br />Schedules of Reinforcement<br />Continuous <br />Fixed interval<br />Variable interval<br />Fixed ratio<br />Variable ratio <br />
  22. 22. Individual Behavior and Performance<br />Performance is a reflection of:<br />Individual’s capacity to perform<br />Individual’s capacity to perform<br />Organizational support<br />
  23. 23. of inadequate organizational support<br />Lack of time<br />Inadequate budgets<br />Inadequate tools, equipment, suppliers<br />Unclear instructions and job related information<br />Lack of required services and help from others<br />Inflexibility of procedures<br />
  24. 24. MARS Model of Individual Behavior<br />
  25. 25. McGregor’ Theory X, Theory Y<br />
  26. 26. Harvard Business Review<br />Organizational Development: Part 4<br />Matching the individual and the organization <br />By: Robert A. Luke Jr.<br />
  27. 27. Contd….<br />Among the many new diverse challenges one that is constant is how to design and develop the organization so that the structure that fits the nature of the work as well as the nature of the people doing the work<br />During the past 200 years intellectuals have studied the appropriate relationship between the individual and the organization<br />Observer’s Theory<br />In the late 18th and through mid 19th century: Intellectuals were agreed on the necessity for a planned approach to structuring relationships between individuals and organizations<br />
  28. 28. Contd….<br />Shared a common method of inquiry<br />Early thinkers made the following assumptions<br />Man needs to be controlled<br />Man must choose between his needs for self direction and society’s needs for collective action<br />A society run by men ought to be replaced with the society run by principles and intellectuals<br /><ul><li>Scientific approach</li></ul>Hawthorne experiments<br /><ul><li>Scientific experiments revealed other important lessons </li></li></ul><li>Contd….<br />Conscious manipulation of a group’s authority structure can affect the group’s behavior and output<br />Individuals can use intelligence and reasons to affect the pattern of relationships among people in task<br />Human behavior is greatly influenced by the environment in which individuals live and work<br /><ul><li>Thus the empiricists had discovered that the human character may be more flexible than rigid
  29. 29. Laboratory experiments</li></ul>New form of inquiry called sensitivity training<br />
  30. 30. Contd….<br />The Bridge Builder: Inquiry for integration<br />Changing and designing structure<br />Combining learning and doing<br /><ul><li>There seem to be three behavioral models that these change agents use in dealing with organizations </li></ul>OD practitioner<br />Socratic consultant<br />Advocates<br />
  31. 31. Delhi Business Review<br />Building Talent Pipeline : a key business challenge<br />By: Anjali Hazarika<br />
  32. 32. Contd….<br /><ul><li>One of the single most determinant of any company’s future is the depth and quality of the company’s leadership
  33. 33. The Four Circle Model
  34. 34. Organizational Climate
  35. 35. Leadership Style
  36. 36. Individual Competencies
  37. 37. Job requirement
  38. 38. Individual Development Plans
  39. 39. Climate Dimensions</li></li></ul><li>References<br />Book: Organizational Behavior<br />13th Edition<br />Publisher: Pearson Prentice Hall <br />Author: Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge, Seema Sanghi<br /><ul><li>Book: Organizational Behavior</li></ul>Publisher: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.<br />Jit S. Chandan <br />