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Hindu Literature Hindu Literature Presentation Transcript

  • HINDU LITERATURE By: ROY S. CAPANGPANGAN
  • INDIA
  • INTRODUCTION INDIA  is a country in South Asia.  It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area.  the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people.  the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand andIndonesia.
  • ETYMOLOGY  The name India is derived from Indus, which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu, from Sanskrit Sindhu (सिन्धु), the historic local appellation for the Indus River.  The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί), the people of the Indus.  The Constitution of India and usage in many Indian languages recognises Bharat (pronounced ˈbʱaːrət̪ ) as an official name of equal status.  The name Bharat is derived from the name of the legendary king Bharata in Hindu scriptures.  Hindustan (ɦɪnd̪ʊˈst̪aːn), originally a Persian word for "Land of the Hindus" and referring to North India and Pakistan before 1947, is also occasionally used as a synonym for all of India.
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA Official Name: REPUBLIC OF INDIA (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य, Bhārat Gaṇarājya) GEOGRAPHY: o Area: 3.29 million sq. km. (1.27 million sq. mi.); about one- third the size of the U.S. o Capital: New Delhi (Pop. 12.8 million, 2001 census). Other Major Cities: 1. Mumbai (formerly Bombay with Pop.16.4 million) 2. Kolkata (formerly Calcutta with Pop.13.2 million) 3. Chennai (formerly Madras with Pop. 6.4 million) 4. Bangalore (Pop. 5.7 million) 5. Hyderabad (Pop. 5.5 million) 6. Ahmedabad (Pop 5 million) 7. Pune (Pop 4 million).
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA  Terrain: Varies from Himalayas to flat river valleys and deserts in the west.  Climate: Alpine to temperate to subtropical monsoon. PEOPLE o Nationality: Indians o Population: 1.17 Billion (2010 est.) o Religions: (2001 census) 1. Hindu—80.5% 2. Muslim—13.4% 3. Christian—2.3% 4. Sikh—1.9% 5. Other Groups Including Buddhist, Jain, Parsis—1.8% 6. Unspecified—0.1%
  • AN ASCETIC IN VARANASI, UTTAR PRADESH.
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA  Ethnic Groups: (2001 census) 1. Indo-Aryan—72% 2. Dravidian—25% 3. Others—3% 4. While the national census does not recognize racial or ethnic groups, it is estimated that there are more than 2,000 ethnic groups in India.  Languages: 1. Hindi 2. English 3. 16 Other Official Languages: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, & Urdu
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA  Education: Each state structures its school system into three basic stages: 1. Primary School—lasts 4 or 5 years depending on the state. 2. Middle School—2 or 3 years 3. High School—2 to 5 years. Grade school instruction is in a regional language; in Secondary School, students must learn either Hindi or English. Higher Education is provided by numerous institutions, English is the principal language in the universities but native tongues are often used.
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA  GOVERNMENT  Type/Form: Federal Republic (Democratic Republic)  Branches: 1. Executive-- President (Chief of State), Prime Minister (Head of Government), Council of Ministers (Cabinet Secretaries) 2. Legislative-- Bicameral Parliament: a) Rajya Sabha or Council of States, and b) Lok Sabha or House of the People) 3. Judicial-- Supreme Court
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA  Political Parties: 1. Indian National Congress (INC) 2. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 3. Communist Party of India-Marxist 4. Other Numerous Regional and Small National Parties.  Political Subdivision: 1. 28 states 2. 7 Union Territories (including National Capital Territory of Delhi)
  • STATES 1. Andhra Pradesh 2. Arunachal Pradesh 3. Assam 4. Bihar 5. Chhattisgarh 6. Goa 7. Gujarat 8. Haryana 9. Himachal Pradesh 10. Jammu and Kashmir 11. Jharkhand 12. Karnataka 13. Kerala 14. Madhya Pradesh 15. Maharashtra 16. Manipur 17. Meghalaya 18. Mizoram 19. Nagaland 20. Orissa 21. Punjab 22. Rajasthan 22. Sikkim 23. Tamil Nadu 24. Tripura 25. Uttar Pradesh 26. Uttarakhand 27. West Bengal
  • A.Andaman and Nicobar Islands B.Chandigarh C.Dadra and Nagar Haveli D.Daman and Diu E.Lakshadweep F.National Capital Territory of Delhi G.Pondicherry UNION TERRITORIES
  • UNION TERRITORIES
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA  Independence: August 15, 1947.  Constitution: January 26, 1950.  Suffrage: Universal over 18. Under its 1950 Constitution, India is a democratic republic. It is a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories. The President, who is head of state, is elected for a 5 year term by an electoral college. Executive power is exercised by the cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister. The Cabinet is responsible to Parliament, which consists of the Council of States and the House of the People. Members of the Council are chosen by the members of the states’ legislative bodies.
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA More than 200 Council Members serve 6-year terms; about one-third are replaced every 2 years. The House of the People has more than 500 members elected directly for 5-year terms. The Supreme Court of India consists of the Chief Justice and not more than 17 judges appointed by the President. Each state has a Governor appointed by the President, a Council of Ministers(Cabinet), and a Legislative.
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA ECONOMY o Natural Resources: Coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, chromite, thorium, limestone, barite, titanium ore, diamonds, crude oil. o Agriculture: 17% of GDP. Products--wheat, rice, coarse grains, oilseeds, sugar, cotton, jute, tea. o Industry: 28.2% of GDP. Products--textiles, jute, processed food, steel, machinery, transport equipment, cement, aluminum, fertilizers, mining, petroleum, chemicals, and computer software. o GDP (FY 2009 est.): $1.095 trillion. o Real Growth Rate (2009 est.): 6.5%. Per Capita GDP (PPP, FY 2008): $3,100.
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA  Trade: 1. Exports (FY 2009 est.)--$164.3 billion; engineering goods, petroleum products, precious stones, cotton apparel and fabrics, gems and jewellery, handicrafts, tea. Services exports ($101.2 billion in 2008-2009) represent more than one-third of India's total exports. 2. Software exports--$35.76 billion. 3. Imports (FY 2009 est.)--$268.4 billion; petroleum, machinery and transport equipment, electronic goods, edible oils, fertilizers, chemicals, gold, textiles, iron and steel.  Major Trade Partners--U.S., China, U.A.E., EU, Russia, Japan.
  • ECONOMY The Bombay Stock Exchange is Asia's oldest and India's largest stock exchange by market capitalisation.
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA  The Hindu Caste System. Ancient Sanskrit sources divide society into Four Major Categories: 1. Priests (Brahmin) 2. Warriors (Kshatriya) 3. Traders/Artisans (Vaishya) 4. Farmers/Laborers (Shudra). Although these categories are understood throughout India, they describe reality only in the most general terms. They omit, for example, the tribal people and those outside the caste system formerly known as "untouchables”, or dalits.
  •  Society Traditional Indian society is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis, or "castes". Most Dalits ("Untouchables") and members of other lower-caste communities continue to live in segregation and often face persecution and discrimination. GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA
  • SOCIETY Traditional Indian family values are highly valued, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other family members. Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low. Child marriage is still a common practice, more so in rural India, with more than half of women in India marrying before the legal age of 18.
  • GENERAL PROFILE OF INDIA In reality, Indian society is divided into thousands of Jatis--local, endogamous groups based on occupation--and organized hierarchically according to complex ideas of purity and pollution. Discrimination based on caste is officially illegal, but remains prevalent, especially in rural areas. Nevertheless, the government has made strong efforts to minimize the importance of caste through active affirmative action and social policies. Moreover, caste is often diluted if not subsumed in the economically prosperous and heterogeneous cities, where an increasing percentage of India's population lives. In the countryside, expanding education, land reform and economic opportunity through access to information, communication, transport, and credit are helping to lessen the harshest elements of the caste system.
  • HISTORY  The Ancient India The earliest anatomically modern human remains found in South Asia are from approximately 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous Mesolithic rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. Around 7000 BCE, the first known neolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other sites in western Pakistan.These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo- daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.
  • HISTORY Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, 6th century.
  • HISTORY During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent evolved from copper age to iron age cultures. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed during this period, and historians have analyzed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Ganges Plain. Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. Thecaste system, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labelling their occupations impure, arose during this period. In the Deccan, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, the large number of megalithic monuments found from this period, and nearby evidence of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions suggest progression to sedentary life.
  • HISTORY By the 5th century BCE, the small chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-west regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies called Mahajanapadas. The emerging urbanisation as well as the orthodoxies of the late Vedic age created the religious reform movements of Buddhism and Jainism. Buddhism, based on the teachings of India's first historical figure, Gautam Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle; Jainism came into prominence around the same time during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira. In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal, and both established long- lasting monasteries. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire. The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas. The Maurya kings are known as much for their empire building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka the Great's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.
  • HISTORY The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia. In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family leading to increased subordination of women. By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created a complex administrative and taxation system in the greater Ganges Plain that became a model for later Indian kingdoms. Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself. The renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite. Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances.
  •  Medieval India The Indian early medieval age, 600 CE to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. When Harsha of Kannauj, who ruled much of the Ganges plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southwards, he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan. When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal. When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region. During this time, pastoral peoples whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agriculture economy were accommodated within caste society, as were new non- traditional ruling classes. The caste system consequently began to show regional differences. HISTORY
  • HISTORY The granite tower of Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur was completed in 1010 CE by Raja Raja Chola I.
  • In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language.[42] They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent. Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised, drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well. Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation. By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to what today are Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Java. Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages HISTORY
  •  Early Modern India In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers, fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors. The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near divine status. The Mughal state's economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency, caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets. The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture. Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India. As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs HISTORY
  • By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established outposts on the coast of India. The East India Company's control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; both these factors were crucial in allowing the Company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies. Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s. India was now no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British empire with raw materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture HISTORY
  • HISTORY Scribes and artists in the Mughal Court, 1590–1595.
  •  Modern India Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company rule in India set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe. However, disaffection with the Company also grew during this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule. HISTORY
  • Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and to the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest. In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885 HISTORY
  • HISTORY The British Indian Empire, from the 1909 edition of The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; nominally sovereign princely states are in yellow.
  • The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks— many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets. There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines, and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians. There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption. The railway network provided critical famine relief, notably reduced the cost of moving goods, and helped nascent Indian-owned industry. HISTORY
  • After World War I, in which some one million Indians served, a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a non-violent movement of non-cooperation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol. During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections. The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-cooperation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the independence of India in 1947, but tempered by the bloody partition of the subcontinent into two states. HISTORY
  • HISTORY Jawaharlal Nehru (left) became India's first Prime Minister in 1947. Mahatma Gandhi(right) led the independence movement.
  • HISTORY Rashtrapati Bhavan, home of the President of India.
  •  Name: Republic of India भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaṇarājya o Flag: o Emblem: FAST TRACK
  •  Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit) ित्यमेव जयते (Devanāgarī) "Truth Alone Triumphs“  National Anthem: Jana Gana Mana "Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People“  National Song: Vande Mataram "I Bow to Thee, Mother“  Capital: New Delhi 28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E FAST TRACK
  •  Largest City: Mumbai  Official Languages: Hindi and English  National Language: None defined by the Constitution  Demonym: Indian  Government: Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Republic  President: Pratibha Patil  Prime Minister: Manmohan Singh (INC) FAST TRACK
  •  Speaker of the House: Meira Kumar (INC)  Chief Justice: S. H. Kapadia  Legislature: Parliament of India  Upper House: Raiya Sabha  Lower House: Lok Sabha  Independence: from the United Kingdom  Declared: 15 August 1947  Republic: 26 January 1950 FAST TRACK
  •  Area  Total: 3,287,263 km2 (7th) 1,269,219 sq mi  Water 9.56  Population  2011 Census: 1,210,193,422(2nd) Density: 366.8/km2 (31st) 950.1/sq mi o Currency: Indian rupee ( ) (INR) o Time Zone: IST (UTC+05:30) o Calling Code: 91 FAST TRACK
  • NATIONAL SYMBOLS Flag Tricolour Emblem Sarnath Lion Capital Anthem Jana Gana Mana Song Vande Mataram Calendar Saka Game Hockey Flower Lotus Fruit Mango Tree Banyan Bird Indian Peafowl Land Animal Royal Bengal Tiger Aquatic Animal River Dolphin River Ganges
  •  FLAG The National Flag is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra. The top saffron color, indicates the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The green shows the fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL BIRD The Indian Peacock, Pavo Cristatus, the national bird of India, is a colorful, swan-sized bird, with a fan- shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. The male of the species is more colorful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green tail of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male and lacks the tail. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL FLOWER Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial. India is rich in flora. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI). NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL TREE Indian Fig Tree, Ficus Bengalensis, whose branches root themselves like new trees over a large area. The roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India. Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and the village council meets under the shade of this tree. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL RIVER The Ganga or Ganges is the longest river of India flowing over 2,510 kms of mountains, valleys and plains. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi River. It is later joined by other rivers such as the Alaknanda, Yamuna, Son, Gumti, Kosi and Ghagra. The Ganga river basin is one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of the world and covers an area of 1,000,000 sq. kms. There are two dams on the river - one at Haridwar and the other at Farakka. The Ganges River Dolphin is an endangered animal that specifically habitats this river. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL RIVER The Ganga is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth. Key religious ceremonies are held on the banks of the river at cities such as Varanasi, Haridwar and Allahabad. The Ganga widens out into the Ganges Delta in the Sunderbans swamp of Bangladesh, before it ends its journey by emptying into the Bay of Bengal. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL AQUATIC ANIMAL River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India. This mammal is also said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga as it can only survive in pure and fresh water. Platanista gangetica has a long pointed snout and also have visible teeth in both the upper and lower jaws. Their eyes lack a lens and therefore function solely as a means of detecting the direction of light. Dolphins tend to swim with one fin trailing along the substrate while rooting around with their beak to catch shrimp and fish. Dolphins have a fairly thick body with light grey-brown skin often with a hue of pink. The fins are large and the dorsal fin is triangular and undeveloped. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  • This mammal has a forehead that rises steeply and has very small eyes. River Dolphins are solitary creatures and females tend to be larger than males. They are locally known as susu, because of the noise it makes while breathing. This species inhabits parts of the Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, and the Karnaphuli River in Bangladesh. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  STATE EMBLEM The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra). NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL CALENDAR The national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes: 1. Gazette of India. 2. News broadcast by All India Radio. 3. Calendars issued by the Government of India. 4. Government communications addressed to the members of the public. Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL ANIMAL The magnificent Tiger, Panthera Tigris is a striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region and also in the neighboring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL SONG Vande Mataram The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza: Vande Mataram! Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam, Shasyashyamalam, Mataram! Vande Mataram! Shubhrajyotsna pulakitayaminim, Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim, Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim, Sukhadam varadam, Mataram! Vande Mataram, Vande Mataram! NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose 1 is: I bow to thee, Mother, richly-watered, richly-fruited, cool with the winds of the south, dark with the crops of the harvests, The Mother! Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight, her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom, sweet of laughter, sweet of speech, The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  National Fruit A fleshy fruit, eaten ripe or used green for pickles etc., of the tree Mangifera Indica, the Mango is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. Its juicy fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial. The poet Kalidasa sang its praises. Alexander savoured its taste, as did the Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang. Mughal emperor Akbar planted 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, Bihar at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  NATIONAL GAME Hockey NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  •  Currency Symbol The symbol of Indian Rupee typifies India's international identity for money transactions and economic strength. The Indian Rupee sign is an allegory of Indian ethos. The symbol is an amalgam of Devanagari "Ra" and the Roman Capital "R" with two parallel horizontal stripes running at the top representing the national flag and also the "equal to" sign. The Indian Rupee sign was adopted by the Government of India on 15thJuly, 2010. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  • The symbol, conceptualised and designed by Udaya Kumar, a post graduate in Design from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, has been chosen from thousands of concept entries received by the Ministry of Finance through an open competition among resident Indian nationals. The process of establishing and implementing this new identity is underway through various digital technology and computer applications. NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  • CULTURE Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years. During the Vedic age (c. 1700–500 BCE), the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology, and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga, and mokṣa, were established. India is notable for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Jainism among the nation's major religions. The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads, the Yoga Sutras, theBhakti movement, and by Buddhist philosophy.
  • ART, ARCHITECTURE, AND LITERATURE The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as “The Jewel of Muslim Art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."
  • ACHITECTURE Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles. Vernacular architecture is also highly regional in it flavours.
  • LITERATURE The earliest literary writings in India, composed between 1400 BCE and 1200 CE, were in the Sanskrit language. Prominent works of this Sanskrit literature include epics such as the Mahābhārata and the Ramayana, the dramas of Kālidāsa such as the Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā), and poetry such as the Mahākāvya
  • LITERATURE Developed between 600 BCE and 300 CE in South India, the Sangam literature, consisting of 2,381 poems, is regarded as a predecessor of Tamil literature. From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India's literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets such as Kabīr, Tulsīdās, and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions
  • LITERATURE The 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. 20th-century Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore.