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  • 1. BUSINESS LETTERS ROY S. CAPANGPANGAN Discussant
  • 2. DEFINITION AND PURPOSE BUSINESS LETTERS  A written message used to transact business which cannot be conveniently conducted orally. It is formal and direct, with no literary pretentions. PURPOSES: 1. To serve as a record. 2. An attempt to secure action from the reader.
  • 3. PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER 1. Heading 2. Date Line 3. Inside Address 4. Attention Line 5. Salutation 6. Subject Line 7. Body of the Letter 8. Complimentary Closing 9. Signature Lines 10. Identification Initials 11. Inclosure Reference Attention Line, Subject Line and Inclosure Reference are used whenever needed; the rest must be included in every letter. As a general rule, double spacing between each part of a letter should be observed.
  • 4. PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER 1. The Heading—consists of the name of the firm or the individual and the address. These are the essentials for a printed letterhead, although there may be additional printed data. 2. The Date Line—consists of the month, the day of the month, and the year. The date may be centered, typed flush with the margin, started at the center point of the page, or, in full-block letters, started at the left margin.
  • 5. PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER 3. The Inside Address—consists of the name and address of the person or the firm to whom the letter is written and should correspond in essentials to the envelope address.  It is written below the date at the left margin in letters addressed to government officials and also in personal letters of a rather formal and dignified character.  It is sometimes placed in the lower-left-hand portion of the sheet, beginning flush with the left- hand margin, two to five spaces below the last item of the signature, depending upon the amount of space between the signature and the bottom margin.
  • 6. THE INSIDE ADDRESS  For reasons of courtesy, we use a title with every name, such as: Mr., Mrs., or Miss. If the addressee holds some special title like Doctor, Professor, or Honorable, we use the title. Honorable is employed in addressing a person prominent in affairs of government.  The generic name of a thoroughfare such as Street, Avenue, Boulevard, Drive, or Road should not be omitted. Examples: 101 Doroteo Rizal Street, 333 Claro M. Recto Avenue
  • 7. PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER 4. The Attention Line—is used when it is important that the letter reach quickly the person who is best qualified to take care of it. A number of positions and forms for this information are used, but as a general rule, the attention line should be centered. 5. The Salutation—always starts at the left margin, followed by a colon. The correct salutation for a firm composed of men or of men and women is Gentlemen. For a firm composed entirely of women, Mesdames.
  • 8. THE SALUTATION  Salutation for individuals, from formal to informal: Note: Do not use a salutation beginning with My when responsibility for the letter is to be assumed by an organization rather than by an individual. MALE FEMALE Sir: Madam: My dear Sir: My dear Madam: Dear Sir: Dear Madam: My dear Mr. Zamora: My dear Mrs. Zamora Dear Mr. Zamora: Dear Mrs. Zamora:
  • 9. PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER 6. The Subject Line—enables the reader to know at a glance what the letter is about. It may be placed in various positions (sometimes above the inside address). 7. The Body of the Letter—contains the message. As a general rule, single spacing should be employed within paragraphs of the letter body. The two most important sentences of the letter body are the first and the last. The first sentence should be utilized for a constructive purpose.
  • 10. THE BODY OF THE LETTER  Examples of positive openings: a. It is a pleasure to answer your interesting letter of October 10. b. We appreciate your giving us an opportunity to correct a misunderstanding.  The last sentence often “makes” or “breaks” a letter. It should clinch the objective of the letter, and leave the reader pleasantly impressed. It should direct, forceful, and complete in itself, so as it draws a clean-cut dividing line between the letter body and the complimentary close.
  • 11. THE BODY OF THE LETTER  Examples of positive closing: a. We hope that this arrangement will prove both convenient and profitable to you. b. We deeply appreciate your kindness and hope that we may soon have an opportunity to return it. 8. The Complimentary Closing—is the leave- taking line of the letter and should be consistent with the salutation and the message contained in the letter in representing the same degree of formality.
  • 12. THE COMPLIMENTARY CLOSING  The following complimentary close are arranged in the order of decreasing formality: COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE Very respectfully yours, Yours very sincerely, Yours very respectfully, Sincerely yours, Respectfully yours, Yours sincerely, Yours respectfully, Very cordially yours, Very truly yours, Yours very cordially, Yours very truly, Cordially yours, Truly yours, Yours cordially, Yours truly, Sincerely, Very sincerely yours, Cordially,
  • 13. THE COMPLIMENTARY CLOSING  Respectfully—should be used only when special respect is intended (indicates difference position, rank or authority).  Yours truly—was the standard form used very widely in letters calling for a medium degree of formality. Very truly yours and Yours very truly are generally considered preferable to it and appropriate with the salutations Gentlemen, Dear Sir, My dear Mr. Zamora, and Dear Mr. Zamora.  Sincerely and cordially—are commonly employed when the writer is well acquainted with the addressee together with the salutation Dear Mr. Zamora.  Dear Joey—when the writer is intimately acquainted with the addressee. He can omit yours in the complimentary close.
  • 14. PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER 9. The Signature—applies to the entire signature unit which usually consists of two to four lines containing the following: a. The typewritten name of the business organization in behalf of which the letter is written. b. The pen-written signature of the dictator. c. The typewritten name of the dictator. d. The designation of the dictator’s business rank or position within the organization.
  • 15. THE SIGNATURE Unmarried Woman’s Signature: Yours very truly, Jo Ana S. Crisostomo MISS JO ANA S. CRISOSTOMO Advertising Manager Married Woman’s Signature: Yours very truly, Maria Vilma N. Mapula MRS. MARIA VILMA N. MAPULA Credit Manager Company’s Responsibility: Yours very truly, PACIFIC CONSTRUCTION CO. Yashina Mae G. Lotivio YASHINA MAE G. LOTIVIO Supervising Engineer
  • 16. THE SIGNATURE Individual Responsibility: Yours very truly, Roy T. Nova ROY T. NOVA Supervising Engineer ATLANTIC CONSTRUCTION CO.* Dictator without Business Title: Yours very truly, PACIFIC CONSTRUCTION CO. Yashina Mae G. Lotivio YASHINA MAE G. LOTIVIO Supervising Engineer * Omit if name appears in the letterhead.
  • 17. PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER 10. Identification Initials—the initial of the stenographer, and either the name or the initials of the dictator are usually placed in the lower left-hand corner of the letter, ordinarily one or two spaces below the last line of the signature group. 11. Inclosure Reference—when other material besides the letter included in the envelope, it should be noted in the left-hand corner on a line with the bottom margin. (it is spelled with an initial i though enclosure is permissible; the number beyond one is indicated before the abbreviation: 2 incls. )
  • 18. ELEMENTS OF BUSINESS LETTERS 1. Sender 2. Receiver 3. Message GOLDEN RULE: “Adapt the message to the reader” in substance, in language, and in tone.  The substance of the message must be adapted to the reader’s character. The message must be familiar to the reader.  The colloquial, jocular tone would not fit a message concerning an important business transaction.
  • 19. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS 1. Inquiries and Replies 2. Order and Acknowledgments 3. Letters Giving Instructions 4. Claim and Adjustment Letter 5. Letter of Application 6. Sales Letters 7. Endorsement Letter
  • 20. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS 1. Inquiries and Replies—these letters which ask or answer questions are usually brief and present no special difficulty. It consists of four steps: a. State carefully the circumstances which necessitate the inquiry. b. State any facts needed by the reader in making a complete reply. c. Ask for the information, or state the questions. d. Express gratitude for the favor requested. Note: It is customary to inclose postage for a reply; a note of thanks should follow a letter of this sort.
  • 21. INQUIRIES AND REPLIES The reply should do the following things: a. Acknowledge the inquiry, or state the circumstances necessitating the reply. b. Answer the questions fully. c. Build goodwill and pave the way for further contact. Note: In handling replies, the writer should be prompt and systematic. If the material is not immediately available, the inquiry should be acknowledge and a date set for the final reply.
  • 22. EXAMPLE OF LETTER OF INQUIRY GOURMET FOOD COMPANY, INCORPORATED 200 Salcedo Village Makati City June 8, 2012 Destiny Manufacturing Company 505 Agoncillo Malolos, Bulacan Subject: Type 888 Sachets Gentlemen: Attention of Mr. E. R. Reyes, Sales Manager Please send us a price and descriptive literature about your 888 sachets. Particularly we wish to know whether they are resealable and heat resistant. We shall appreciate this information, as we shall utilize the containers for our new line of food products. Enclosed is a brochure concerning our new items. Very truly yours, Gourmet Food Company, Inc Mila V. Perez Miss Mila V. Perez Production Manager MVP/as Incl.
  • 23. EXAMPLE OF LETTER OF REPLY GOURMET FOOD COMPANY, INCORPORATED 200 Salcedo Village Makati City June 8, 2012 Destiny Manufacturing Company 505 Agoncillo Malolos, Bulacan Subject: Type 888 Sachets Gentlemen: Attention of Mr. E. R. Reyes, Sales Manager Please send us a price and descriptive literature about your 888 sachets. Particularly we wish to know whether they are resealable and heat resistant. We shall appreciate this information, as we shall utilize the containers for our new line of food products. Enclosed is a brochure concerning our new items. Very truly yours, Gourmet Food Company, Inc Mila V. Perez Miss Mila V. Perez Production Manager MVP/as Incl.
  • 24. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS 2. Order and Acknowledgment—the order letter, as well as its acknowledgment and acceptance, constitutes a contract enforceable by law; therefore, every statement included in either should be scrutinized carefully with that in mind. An order letter should consists the following elements: a. Name of the article ordered. b. Description of each item, giving size, style, finish, quality, material, weight, or whatever will help in identifying the article wanted.
  • 25. ORDER AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT c. Catalog number of the item, if it is available; if not, the page number of the catalog (It is well also to include the number or date of the catalog.) d. Quantity of each item wanted. e. Price of each item, and the total price of the order f. Method of payment to be used by the buyer (Occasionally, the conditions of acceptance of the order should be included.) g. Method of shipment desired by the buyer. h. Address to which the goods are to be shipped, especially important if shipping address differs from post-office address. i. Date at which goods are desired.
  • 26. EXAMPLE OF ORDER LETTER 700 D. Macapagal Avenue, Lubao, Pampanga July 16, 2012 Mega Power Electric Company 108 Pasong Tamo Extension Makati City Gentlemen: Please send us by express not later than September 10, 2012, to the address given above the following items taken from your Catalog B for 2012. Cat. No. Quantity Description Unit Price Total 10D 10 Voltmeter, double range, P 900.00 P 9, 000.00 125 ohms per volt 129B 10 Hot-wire milliammeters, P 2, 000.00 P 20, 000.00 range 0 to 500 volt 125 5 Wattmeters, direct current, P 4, 000.00 P 20, 000.00 or single phrase alternating current, for 150 volts, 0.5 amp. ______________ Total --. P 49, 000.00 A certified check for P 49, 000.00 is inclosed in full payment of this order. We shall appreciate your promptness in delivering our order. Very truly yours, Daniel C. Padilla Daniel C. Padilla
  • 27. ORDER AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT  Items (g), (h), and (i) are usually included in the first paragraph and item (f) in the last paragraph.  the actual goods to be purchased is properly placed in tabular form, indented slightly from the left margin and so arranged that prices form the last column on the right.  The acknowledgment should be written in such a way that the customer will be desirous of continuing his business relations with the firm. It should never be negative or merely perfunctory.
  • 28. EXAMPLE OF LETTER OF ACKNOWLEDGMENT MEGA ELECTRICAL COMPANY 108 Pasong Tamo Extension Makati City July 16, 2012 Miss Rosalyn V. Apilo 700 D. Macapagal Avenue, Lubao, Pampanga Dear Madam: Thank you for your order of September 1, 2012, with the inclosed certified check for P 49, 000.00. The electrical supplies are being shipped to you today. Our supplies, of course, are not limited to the items we list. In ordering again, please feel free to order any item you may require. We allow a liberal discount for purchases worth P10, 000.00 or more. We are therefore inclosing a check in the amount of P5, 000.00 representing discount. This is the first order we have received from you. It is a pleasure to add your name to our file of customers. Very truly yours, Mega Manufacturing Co. Jonnalyn Lozada JONNALYN LOZADA Sales Manager
  • 29. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS 3. Letters Giving Instructions—a usual preoccupation of the engineer or the architect is giving written instructions by means of a letter to subordinates, to other technical men, or to laymen who write for information or advice.  These should show careful adaptation to the reader, as well as clearness and courtesy in giving orders.  The writer should know the reader to whom the instructions are given so that he may adapt his letter to his needs, capacity and interest; and the language understood by the reader.
  • 30. LETTERS GIVING INSTRUCTIONS  The elements of a letter of instructions are as follows: a. A general statement which gives the reason for the letter and paves the way for the detailed instructions. b. The detailed instructions. c. A request for a report, an expression of cooperation or thanks for the service to be rendered, or a statement opening the way for further correspondence to clear up obscure points.
  • 31. LETTERS GIVING INSTRUCTIONS  In tone the letter of instructions should be tolerant, polite, and courteous, never patronizing or overbearing; harsh imperatives should be softened and an air of impersonality should surround the letter. Such expressions such as: a. “Please see that…” b. “You are expected to…” c. “The work is to be performed as follows…”
  • 32. EXAMPLE OF LETTER OF INSTRUCTION RELIABLE BUILDERS 400 Ayala Avenue Makati City July 16, 2012 Engr. Aileen P. Llagas 205 Loyola Heights Quezon City CONSTRUCTION OF PLATINUM TOWERS, MAKATI With reference to the construction of Platinum Towers, Makati of which you are the supervising Engineer, please take note of the following instructions: 1. Prepare all requisitions for materials and equipment needed, and submit them to me for prompt action. 2. Meanwhile, recruit your men and immediately upon arrival of the materials and equipment, start construction work in accordance with the attached plans and specifications. 3. Submit your first progress report one month from today. Please see me right away for clarification of obscure points. Rowena M. Ito ROWENA M. ITO, President RMI:nf
  • 33. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS 4. Claim and Adjustment Letter—are used whenever a misunderstanding arises between two parties which cannot be easily handled by word of mouth. Claim Letter—attempts to put before the reader exactly what the writer thinks has been wrong or unfair in a given transaction. He should not ask for more than he is entitled to, nor misstate facts in an effort to deceive the other party.
  • 34. CLAIM AND ADJUSTMENT LETTER Claim Letter consists of four steps, arranged in the following order: a. A complete and careful statement of what is wrong b. A statement showing the inconvenience to which the claimant has been put, to arouse the interest of the adjuster. c. A request for an explanation, an adjustment, or whatever is needed to make good the error. d. A further appeal adapted to the reader’s pride, self-interest, sense of fair play, or fear.
  • 35. CLAIM AND ADJUSTMENT LETTER In the adjustment letter, the functional order is as follows: a. An expression of interest and sympathy or an apology b. A clear and complete statement of the facts so that the claimant may understand the adjuster’s point of view c. An offer of an adjustment which is fair to both parties (may modern adjustment letters begin with this section and is often combined with part a) d. An assurance that the situation will not happen again to build up damaged goodwill.
  • 36. EXAMPLE OF CLAIM LETTER GLOBAL MACHINES 246 Mactan Avenue Cebu City January 31, 2012 Madam: Last January 2, we ordered 100 one-horsepower Blue Jacket Water Pumps. Until now, the shipment has not been delivered. The peak demand of water pumps is from March to May; therefore we may have to wait until next summer to dispose of all these pumps if they do not arrive soon. We are referring this matter to you for investigation. We hope to have our Blue Jackets early next month. Please let us know the reason for the delay. There must be a logical explanation since our past transactions with you have all been highly satisfactory. Very truly yours, Jonnalyn M. Lozada JONNALYN M. LOZADA Purchasing Office Miss Melody M. Morga President Flying A Machinery 1270 Jose Abad Santos Avenue Metro Manila JML:pg
  • 37. EXAMPLE OF ADJUSTMENT Flying A Machinery 1270 Jose Abad Santos Avenue Metro Manila February 7, 2012 Miss Jonnalyn M. Lozada Global Machineries, Inc Cebu City My dear Madam: We apologize for the delay in the delivery of the pumps specified on your Purchase Order No. 907 of January 2. The pumps were not shipped as scheduled because another company purchased all the Blue Jacket Pumps we had in stock two days before we received your order letter; however, you will receive your shipment not later than February 26. We earnestly hope that a regrettable incident like this will not happen again. Very truly yours, Melody M. Morga MELODY M. MORGA President MMM/ng
  • 38. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS 5. Letter of Application—it tries to sell the writer’s services; attempting to secure a position through this letter. Two Types: a. The Letter Replying to an advertisement b. The Unsolicited Letter
  • 39. LETTER OF APPLICATION Stereotyped Good Replying to your advertisement in this morning’s Express, I am listing my qualifications below. After three years of experience in Market Research, I feel that I am qualified to fill the position of market analyst advertised in this morning’s Express. This is in reply to your advertisement in yesterday’s Bulletin. Your advertisement appeals to me because it offers the opportunity to accept responsibility, a task for which I believe I am qualified. Being interested in the accounting position advertised in today’s Journal, I thought I would write. Because I have had two years of formal training in accounting, I feel qualified to work as a junior accountant with your firm.
  • 40. LETTER OF APPLICATION A data form should contain the following items of information: a. Physical data such as age, height, weight, etc. b. Education, schools, colleges, and universities with dates of attendance and degrees. Sometimes, it is worthwhile to list important specialized courses studied or to mention grade average. c. Experience, with dates employed, type of work, addresses of firms, etc. d. Special qualifications which fit the applicant for the work, record of honors, prizes, etc. e. Salary desired. It is often wise to omit this information entirely, especially in unsolicited letters. f. References, with names and addresses.
  • 41. LETTER OF APPLICATION Salary Desired: this is best stated in a modest form rather than a definite, arbitrary or high figure, such as: a. “Not less than I am now earning, P______”. b. “salary of secondary importance, but enough to live on ”. c. “whatever is customary for this type of work”
  • 42. EXAMPLEOFAPPLICATIONLETTER 678 Mindanao Avenue Sta. Mesa, Metro Manila July 23, 2012 The Personnel Manager P.O. Box 909, Manila Dear Sir: Being an architect student who had ample training and experience in mechanical drawing and structural design, I believe that I am competent to meet the requirements for the position of mechanical draftsman which you advertised in this morning’s Daily Inquirer. I am twenty-one years old and presently a fourth-year student in the School of Architecture at Mapua Institute of Technology. My basic training in mechanical drawing was acquired at Don Bosco Technical Institute where I graduated in 1998. On several occasions, my plates in mechanical drawing and design were exhibited in our drafting room. In my Juinor year, Mr. Gerardo Locsin of Architectural Design Center offered me a job as draftsman in his office. I execute structural designs, draw blueprints, and prepare miniature models. I have had various opportunities to work out designs from instructions given to me and to modify certain features when the need to do so arises. I like my present job, but I should like to join a firm where the work requires dreater individual responsibility and a greater variety of experiences for advancement. Should you need more information regarding my scholastic and personal qualifications, I have permission to refer you to: Mr. Leandro Brillantes Dean, School of Architecture Mapua Institute of Technology Intramuros, Manila Mr. Amador Hernandez Instructor Don Bosco Technical Institute Mandaluyong City Mr. Napoleon G. Locsin President, Architectural Design Center Makati City If you so desire, I would be very glad to go to your office for a personal interview. Very truly yours, Daniel C. Padilla DANIEL C. PADILLA (SOLICITEDLETTER)
  • 43. 105 Emerald Street Ayala, Alabang July 23, 2012 San Miguel Corporation Ortigas Avenue Pasig City Sir: With my academic achievement and my experience in various fields of machine maintenance. I believe that am most capable of undertaking the responsibilities of a maintenance engineer in your company. I have heard of your need from a friend who is employed in your firm.. I am licensed Junior Mechanical Engineer, single, and 27 years of age. I graduated from the Far Eastern University in 1995 with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering. I passed the Board Examination for Mechanical Engineers given that same year. From 1995 to February 1998, I was employed as assistant maintenance engineer in charge of the maintenance of yarn-winding and fiber-slashing machines of the Universal Textile Mills in Pasig City. In March of 2000 I assumed the position of maintenance engineer in charge of pipe-threading and bending machines of the Filipino Pipes and Foundry Corporation plant in Barrio Hulo, Mandaluyong, Rizal. I still hold this position at present . My special qualifications include knowledge of computers and cooling systems. For more particulars concerning my scholastic, professional and personal qualifications, I have permission to refer you to the following: Engr. Rodolfo S. Sandoval Far Eastern University Quezon Boulevard, Manila Engr. Ramon F. Carlos Plant Manager, Universal Textile Mills Pasig City Engr. Miguel Robles Maintenance Supervisor Filipino Pipes and Foundry Corporation Mandaluyong Rizal A personal interview would be most welcome at any time agreeable to you. Very truly yours, Daniel C. Padilla DANIEL C. PADILLA EXAMPLEOFAPPLICATIONLETTER (UNSOLICITEDLETTER)
  • 44. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS 6. Sales Letters—a tremendous volume of sales letters goes out every day, and every professional is sure to be circularized with many of them. Four Steps of the Sales Letters called ABCD’s: a. Attracting favorable attention by making the letter attractive in appearance, easy to read, simple in language; by appealing to the reader’s interests or exciting his curiosity, by being apt, natural, specific, concrete, not trite nor negative, and by having the “you attitude”. b. Building interest and desire: by knowing the product and the customer, choosing talking points that show a distinctive feature or a real need and are fitted to the class of buyers, by describing the article either physically or emotionally, and by inclosing folders or samples to stimulate interest.
  • 45. SALES LETTERS c. Convincing the reader by quoting facts, figures, data, by inclosing curves and graphs, photographs— concrete evidence; by testimonials, by samples and suggested tests, sending goods on approval, by specific guaranties and money-back offers, by evidence of scientific construction, and by a tone of confidence. d. Directing favorable action by overcoming obstacles to action such as habits of procrastination or lack of ready money by offering inducements such as premiums, low price for a limited period; by using coin cards, order blanks, return envelopes, and by using definite commands, strong suggestions, or pertinent questions as closing sentences.
  • 46. TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS 7. The Endorsement Letter—according to Webster’s New International Dictionary, endorse comes from dorsum, Latin for back.  (to many people) it means to sign on the back of a check, bill, or commercial note.  (popular meaning) is to support, approve, or recommend.  (In military, legal, government and some business offices) it means reply, comment, or forwarding note added to a letter of document.
  • 47. EXAMPLE OF ENDORSEMENT LETTER Republic of the Philippines COMMISSION ON AUDIT Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines Re: E-mail complaint on alleged overpricing expropriated land purchased by the Municipal Government of San Juan, Metro Manila and non-pay- ment of appropriate taxes thereon. 1st Endorsement July 06, 2004 Respectfully returned to the Director, COA Information and Communication Technology Center, the herein referral bearing on the above-captioned complaint, with the information that from our initial investigation, the author concerned had already issued an Audit Observation Memorandum (AOM) on the matter. Said AOM is presently pending with the officials of the San Juan Municipal Government for their comments/justifications. Inasmuch as an investigation on the alleged overpricing is already on- going, we find it appropriate to wait for its result as we may only unnecessarily duplicate the said investigation. (Sgd.)DANTE S. ALEGRE Director V Legal and Adjudication Office-Local
  • 48. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUSINESS LETTERS 1. CORRECTNESS 2. CLEARNESS 3. CONCISENESS 4. ORDER 5. UNITY 6. COURTESY 7. CHARACTER, PERSONALITY, STYLE 8. TONE
  • 49. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUSINESS LETTERS 1. CORRECTNESS—a business letter should be correct as to the facts given. Also applies to grammar, sentence construction, punctuations, and the order of the mechanical portions of the business letters. 2. CLEARNESS—the business letter is clear if it is easily understood. Use simple, exact language. 3. CONCISENESS—is the art of saying a thing in as few words as possible. 4. ORDER—for it is an important written record, the essential characteristic of a letter is to have logical organization.
  • 50. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUSINESS LETTERS 5. UNITY—no letter should deal with two unrelated subjects. 6. COURTESY—is the attitude taken by the writer, expressing friendliness and good-breeding; it strives to be polite in manner and phraseology. 7. CHARACTER, PERSONALITY, STYLE—the three qualities that are interrelated to each other. Each letter has its own need thus encouraging freshness and originality as well as adding personal touch to it. 8. TONE—a letter should not be written in a condescending, pompous, sarcastic, didactic, flippant, suspicious, or humble tone. The writer should consider the reader as intelligent, human, honest, and fair-minded.
  • 51. APPEARANCE 1. Stationery—the prestige gained through the use of good paper will more than offset any saving through the use of inferior paper.  The standard sheet of business stationery is 8 ½ x 11inches in size, white or very light shade of cream, brown, gray, and blue color.  The writer should determine the approximate length of the letter and type it in such a way as to have approximately the same margins all around.
  • 52. APPEARANCE 2. Letter Styles—the form of indentions. Forms of Indentions: a. The Block Style b. The Semi-block Style c. The Indented Style d. The Full-block Style e. The Hanging-indented Style
  • 53. LETTER STYLES a. The Block Style—the insider address and all paragraph beginnings start at the left margin. Each member of the signature group is aligned vertically with the complimentary close which begins near the vertical center.
  • 54. THE BLOCK STYLE GOURMET FOOD COMPANY, INCORPORATED 200 Salcedo Village Makati City June 8, 2012 Destiny Manufacturing Company 505 Agoncillo Malolos, Bulacan Subject: Type 888 Sachets Gentlemen: Attention of Mr. E. R. Reyes, Sales Manager Please send us a price and descriptive literature about your 888 sachets. Particularly we wish to know whether they are resealable and heat resistant. We shall appreciate this information, as we shall utilize the containers for our new line of food products. Enclosed is a brochure concerning our new items. Very truly yours, Gourmet Food Company, Inc Mila V. Perez Miss Mila V. Perez Production Manager MVP/as Incl.
  • 55. LETTER STYLES b. The Semi-block Style—is identical with the Block Style except that the first line of paragraph is indented five, sometimes ten spaces. Standard punctuation is commonly used.
  • 56. THE SEMI-BLOCK STYLE DESTINY MANUFACTURING COMPANY 505 Agoncillo Malolos, Bulacan June 16, 2012 Gourmet Food Company, Inc. 200 Salcedo Village Makati City Subject: Type 888 Sachets Gentlemen: Attention of Miss Mila V. Perez, Production Manager It is a pleasure to answer the question raised in your letter of June 8, 2012 concerning our type 888 sachets. Our sachets classified as Type 888 are resealable and heatproof. We have marked for you on page 9 and10 of the inclosed brochure the different kinds of containers which we highly recommend for your particular line of food products. Also inclosed is an order blank. We shall be glad to take care of your order for any type. If there are any other points which may not be quite clear, just write us and we shall be glad to answer your questions. Very truly yours, Destiny Manufacturing E.R. Reyes E.R. Reyes Sales Manager ERR/be 2 Incls.
  • 57. LETTER STYLES c. The Indented Style—less used now than formerly, the various elements of addresses and other formal positions are indented an even number of spaces, so that a line drawn tangent to the first will be tangent to all the rest.  The principal objection to the use of the indented letter is the exacting task of arranging the address and the signature.
  • 58. THE INDENTED STYLE Destiny Manufacturing Company 505 Agoncillo Malolos , Bulacan June 16, 2012 Gourmet Food Company, Inc. 200 Salcedo Village Makati City Gentlemen: It is a pleasure to answer the question raised in your letter of June 8, 2012 concerning our type 888 sachets. Our sachets classified as Type 888 are resealable and heatproof. We have marked for you on page 9 and10 of the inclosed brochure the different kinds of containers which we highly recommend for your particular line of food products. Also inclosed is an order blank. We shall be glad to take care of your order for any type. If there are any other points which may not be quite clear, just write us and we shall be glad to answer your questions. Very truly yours, Destiny Manufacturing E.R. Reyes E.R. Reyes Sales Manager ERR/be 2 Incls.
  • 59. LETTER STYLES d. Full-Block Style—each part of the letter, except possibly the date line and the file reference, is placed on the left margin. The best feature of the full- block style is ease of execution.
  • 60. LETTER STYLES e. The Hanging-indented Style—the first line of each paragraph is flush with margin, in line with the salutation and inside address. Other lines are uniformly indented at least five spaces. Although frequently used in sales letters, it is seldom employed in business letters of a conservative character. It is appropriate only when the nature of the business is sufficiently informal to justify novelty.
  • 61. SIMPLIFIED LETTER  (sponsored by the NSO Management Association) is relatively new.  the style is similar to that of the Full-block format, with all the parts beginning at the left margin. Note the following details of form: 1. Place the date in top position. 2. Block the address at least 3 spaces below the date so that a window envelope may be used if desired. 3. Place the subject caption at least 3 spaces below the address. Full capital letters may be used. 4. Omit the salutation. 5. Below the paragraphs, double-space between the paragraphs.
  • 62. 6. Indent quoted matter listings five spaces. If items are numbered, place the numbers at the left margin. 7. Omit the complimentary close. 8. At least five spaces below the body of the letter, type in one line the name of the dictator with his title or departmental connection. Full capital letters are commonly used. 9. Place the source reference below the typewritten signature. It may be omitted. 10. To indicate a carbon copy, type the name of the receiver below the last line. If more than one copy is to be sent, list the names of the receivers in one line.
  • 63. SIMPLIFIED LETTER RELIABLE BUILDERS 400 Ayala Avenue Makati City March 15, 2012 Engr. Arthur Vidal 205 Loyola Heights Quezon City CONSTRUCTION OF PLATINUM TOWERS, MAKATI With reference to the construction of Platinum Towers, Makati of which you are the Supervising Engineer, please take note of the following instructions: 1. Prepare all requisitions for materials and equipment needed, and submit them to me for prompt action. 2. Meanwhile, recruit your men and immediately upon arrival of the materials and equipment, start construction work in accordance with the attached plans and specifications. 3. Submit your first progress report one month from today. Please see me right away for clarification of obscure points. Rudy Z. Valdez RUDY Z. VALDEZ, President RZV:nf
  • 64. APPEARANCE 3. Punctuation Styles—there are three commonly punctuation styles for business letters: a. Open b. Standard (also called “mixed”) c. Closed Note: Regardless of which style is used for the other letter parts, it is worth remembering that punctuation of the message is the same.
  • 65. PUNCTUATION a. Open Punctuation Style—this style requires that no punctuation be used after any part of the letter except the message. It is often used with full-blocked arrangements as both styles are considered time-savers for the typist. b. Standard Punctuation Style—this style is commonly used. The salutation is followed by a colon, and the complimentary close is followed by a comma. c. Closed Punctuation Style—this style is perhaps the least used and is not recommended for use in modern letter. It places a period after the date and a comma after each line on the inside address except the last line. The same punctuation is used in the signature block.
  • 66. THE FOLLOWING ARE SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS OF LETTERS USING THE VARIOUS KINDS OF PUNCTUATION: __________, __________, _________. ___________, ___________, ____, _____. ___________: _________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________, __________, _________. ___________. __________, _________. ___________, ___________, ____, _____. ___________: _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ __________, _________. Indented Style-Closed Punctuation Full-Block Style- Open Punctuation
  • 67. THE FOLLOWING ARE SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS OF LETTERS USING THE VARIOUS KINDS OF PUNCTUATION: Block Style – Standard Punctuation __________, _________. ___________, ___________, ___________: _________________________ _________________________________ _____________________________ _________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ __________, ___________ _____________ __________, __________ ___________ ___________ ___________: _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ __________, __________ ___________. Semi-Block Style-Standard Punctuation
  • 68. THE FOLLOWING ARE SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS OF LETTERS USING THE VARIOUS KINDS OF PUNCTUATION: __________, __________ ___________ ___________ ___________: _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ __________, __________ ___________. __________, __________ ___________ ___________ ___________: _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________ __________, __________ ___________. Hanging-Indented Style-Standard Punctuation Simplified Letter Style
  • 69. REFERENCES:  Vicente, Soria, Mogol, Sumanga. “Technical Writing”. Revised Edition 2004. Popular Book Store.  www.wikipedia.org