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2.
What is a graph ?
A graph is a diagram which represents a functional
relationship between sets of numbers which are depicted as
sets of points that have coordinates determined by the
relationship. It can also refer to a pictorial device that
illustrates quantitative relationship. A bar graph is used to
show a comparison between two or more sets of
information. The information is represented on a x and y
axis with bars representing the amount of the information
.A graph is a picture representation of linear or nonlinear
function. Graphs are also used to help understand data
through visual explanation.
3.
A Bar Graph
A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars
with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars
can be plotted vertically or horizontally. A vertical bar chart is
sometimes called a column bar chart.
What is it :
A bar graph is a chart that uses either horizontal or vertical bars to
show comparisons among categories. One axis of the chart shows the
specific categories being compared, and the other axis represents a
discrete value. Some bar graphs present bars clustered in groups of
more than one (grouped bar graphs), and others show the bars divided
into subparts to show cumulate effect (stacked bar graphs).
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Example of single Bar Graph
5.
Example of double Bar Graph
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mango apple orange papaya banana
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6.
A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors,
illustrating numerical proportion. In a pie chart, the
arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and
area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. While it is named
for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced, there are
variations on the way it can be presented.The earliest known pie
chart is generally credited toWilliam Playfair's Statistical Breviary of
1801.
Pie charts are very widely used in the business world and the mass
media. However, they have been criticized, and many experts
recommend avoiding them, pointing out that research has shown it
is difficult to compare different sections of a given pie chart, or to
compare data across different pie charts. Pie charts can be replaced
in most cases by other plots such as the bar chart.
A pie chart
7.
Example of a pie chart
Informative
Entertinainment
Sports
News
8.
In statistics, a histogram is a graphical representation of the
distribution of data. It is an estimate of the probability distribution of
a continuous variable and was first introduced by Karl Pearson. A
histogram is a representation of tabulated frequencies, shown as
adjacent rectangles, erected over discrete intervals (bins), with an
area equal to the frequency of the observations in the interval.The
height of a rectangle is also equal to the frequency density of the
interval, i.e., the frequency divided by the width of the interval.The
total area of the histogram is equal to the number of data. A
histogram may also be normalized displaying relative frequencies. It
then shows the proportion of cases that fall into each of
several categories, with the total area equaling 1.The categories are
usually specified as consecutive, non-overlapping intervals of a
variable.The categories (intervals) must be adjacent, and often are
chosen to be of the same size. The rectangles of a histogram are
drawn so that they touch each other to indicate that the original
variable is continuous.
A Histogram
9.
Example of a Histogram
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No. of persons
Weights (Kg)
No.ofpersons
10.
Line graph of an undirected graph G is another graph L(G) that
represents the adjacencies between edges of G.The name line graph
comes from a paper by Harary & Norman (1960) although
bothWhitney (1932) and Krausz (1943) used the construction before
this. Other terms used for the line graph include the theta-obrazom,
the covering graph, the derivative, the edge-to-vertex dual,
the conjugate, and the representative graph, as well as the edge
graph, the interchange graph, the adjoint graph, and the derived
graph.
HasslerWhitney (1932) proved that with one exceptional case the
structure of a connected graph G can be recovered completely from
its line graph. Many other properties of line graphs follow by
translating the properties of the underlying graph from vertices into
edges, and byWhitney's theorem the same translation can also be
done in the other direction. Line graphs are claw-free, and the line
graphs of bipartite graphs are perfect.
A Line graph
11.
Example of a Line graph
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Temperature (.c)
13.
RENE DESCARTES’s CARTESIAN
SYSTEM
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies
each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are
the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines,
measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called a coordinate
axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually
at ordered pair (0, 0). The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of
the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed
distances from the origin.
14.
Linear Graph
A line consists of bits of line
segments joined consecutively. A
Line graph which is whole
unbroken is called a linear graph.
To draw such a line we need to
locate some points on the graph
sheet.
15.
Location of a point
A point (2,3) which is 2 units
from left edge and 3 units from
bottom edge is plotted on a
graph sheet. The graph sheet
itself is a square grid. The x and
y axes conveniently and then fix
the required point. 2 is called
the x-coordinate of the point; 3
is called the y-coordinate of the
point. The coordinates of the
point are (2,3).
16.
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