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Welcome to Presentation
“The Evolution of
Management Theories”
Group-02
Presenter,
ASIF IQBAL
ID-120
The driving force behind the evolution ofThe driving force behind the evolution of
management theory is the search formana...
1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Scientific Management Theory
Behavioral Management Theory
Mana...
Evolution of modernEvolution of modern
management began in themanagement began in the
late nineteenth century,late ninetee...
1.The Classical theory of
management
Scientific Management
Bureaucratic Management
Administrative Management
2. Neo-Cla...
Next Presenter,
ANUP ROY
ID-150
1.1.The Classical theoryThe Classical theory
of Managementof Management
DEFINITION OF CLASSICALAPPROACH
• Classical approach is the oldest formal
school of thought which began around 1900
and co...
“one best way” to do a job.
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT focuses on the
MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS
•
FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR
(1856-1915)
FRANK GILBERTH (1868-1924) &
LILLIAN GILBERTH(1878-19720)
Scientific Management
F.W. Taylor’s Contribution (1856-1915)
•Frederick Taylor, known as the father of Scientific
Manageme...
The Main Things Taylor Noticed for
Inefficiency
Principles of Scientific Management
Basic Idea of
Scientific Management
General approach
Selected workers with
appropriate abilities for
each job
Trained workers in
standard method.
Supported wo...
Criticism
Contributions of Gilbreths :
• Scientific study of management should include
both analysis and synthesis
• Analysis-Breaki...
Contributions of Henry L. Gantt :
 Worked with F.W. Taylor.Worked with F.W. Taylor.
 He Improved Taylor’sHe Improved Tay...
Next Presenter,
Prosenjit Tarafdar
ID-151
BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT
 Max Weber (1864-1920).Max Weber (1864-1920).
 Rules and regulations to eliminate managerialRule...
Bureaucratic Principles
A BureaucracyA Bureaucracy
should haveshould have
Written RulesWritten RulesWritten RulesWritten R...
Bureaucratic CharacteristicsBureaucratic Characteristics
1) Division of work1) Division of work
2) Hierarchy of position2)...
ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENTADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT
 Henri Fayol (1841-1925) Father of modern managementHenri Fayol (1841-...
HENRI FAYOL’SHENRI FAYOL’S 1414 PRINCIPLESPRINCIPLES
1) Division of work (or Labor)1) Division of work (or Labor)
2) Autho...
Next Presenter,
• Shahinur AktarShahinur Aktar
• ID-175
NEO-CLASSICALNEO-CLASSICAL
THEORYTHEORY
1. Human Relations1. Human Relations
  
•Human relations management emerged in the 1920s and dealtHuman relations manageme...
There are four major phases to the Hawthorne studies:There are four major phases to the Hawthorne studies:
•The illuminati...
2. Behavioral Science Approach2. Behavioral Science Approach
 The behavioral approach did not always increase productivit...
Nature of management principle:Nature of management principle:
FlexibilityFlexibility
Universal applicationUniversal app...
Next Presenter,
Amzad Hossain
ID-212
The Modern ManagementThe Modern Management
TheoriesTheories
1. Quantitative Approach
 Main contributors–Taylor, Gilbreths,Main contributors–Taylor, Gilbreths,
Gantt, Newman & Joel D...
 Management problems can be described inManagement problems can be described in
mathematical models.mathematical models.
...
2. System Approach
 Main contributors – Johnson, Church man,Main contributors – Johnson, Church man,
Kenneth, Boulding & ...
Next Presenter,
Riead Piyas
ID-146
3. Contingency Approach3. Contingency Approach
 Main contributors–John Woodward, Fiedler, Lorsch &Main contributors–John ...
 Contingency school states that management isContingency school states that management is
situational & the study of mana...
4. Operational Approach
 Main contributors- Koontz, O’Donnell andMain contributors- Koontz, O’Donnell and
Weihrich.Weihri...
THANK
YOU !
The evolution of management theory
The evolution of management theory
The evolution of management theory
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The evolution of management theory

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Transcript of "The evolution of management theory"

  1. 1. Welcome to Presentation
  2. 2. “The Evolution of Management Theories”
  3. 3. Group-02
  4. 4. Presenter, ASIF IQBAL ID-120
  5. 5. The driving force behind the evolution ofThe driving force behind the evolution of management theory is the search formanagement theory is the search for better ways to utilize organizationalbetter ways to utilize organizational resources.resources.
  6. 6. 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Scientific Management Theory Behavioral Management Theory Management Science Theory Organizational Environment Theory The Evolution of Management Theory
  7. 7. Evolution of modernEvolution of modern management began in themanagement began in the late nineteenth century,late nineteenth century, after the industrialafter the industrial revolution.revolution. Mechanization changed systemsMechanization changed systems like crafts production into largelike crafts production into large scale manufacturing.scale manufacturing.
  8. 8. 1.The Classical theory of management Scientific Management Bureaucratic Management Administrative Management 2. Neo-Classical Theory Human Relations Behavioral Science Approach 3.The Modern Management Theories Quantitative Approach System Approach Contingency Approach Operational Approach
  9. 9. Next Presenter, ANUP ROY ID-150
  10. 10. 1.1.The Classical theoryThe Classical theory of Managementof Management
  11. 11. DEFINITION OF CLASSICALAPPROACH • Classical approach is the oldest formal school of thought which began around 1900 and continued into the 1920s. • Its mainly concerned with the increasing the efficiency of workers and organizations based on management practices, which were an outcome of careful observation. • Classical approach mainly looks for the universal principles of operation in the striving for economic efficiency. • Classical approach includes scientific, administrative & bureaucratic management.
  12. 12. “one best way” to do a job. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT focuses on the
  13. 13. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS • FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR (1856-1915) FRANK GILBERTH (1868-1924) & LILLIAN GILBERTH(1878-19720)
  14. 14. Scientific Management F.W. Taylor’s Contribution (1856-1915) •Frederick Taylor, known as the father of Scientific Management, Published Principals of Scientific Management , in which he proposed work methods designed to increase worker productivity. •Scientific Management focuses on worker and machine relationships. •Organizational productivity can be increased by increasing the efficiency of production processes.
  15. 15. The Main Things Taylor Noticed for Inefficiency
  16. 16. Principles of Scientific Management
  17. 17. Basic Idea of Scientific Management
  18. 18. General approach Selected workers with appropriate abilities for each job Trained workers in standard method. Supported workers by planning their work and eliminating interruptions. Provided wage incentives to workers for increased output.
  19. 19. Criticism
  20. 20. Contributions of Gilbreths : • Scientific study of management should include both analysis and synthesis • Analysis-Breaking down a task into its essential elements • Synthesis–include necessary element for efficient work and eliminate other elements. • He concentrated on Motion Study and suggested the first definition-“motion study as the science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from unnecessary, ill directed and inefficient motions” • He developed Process Chart-Over all picture of all activities in a chart form.
  21. 21. Contributions of Henry L. Gantt :  Worked with F.W. Taylor.Worked with F.W. Taylor.  He Improved Taylor’sHe Improved Taylor’s differential piece rate system Task and Bonus Plandifferential piece rate system Task and Bonus Plan (Provide extra wages for extra work).(Provide extra wages for extra work).  He developed the daily balance chart (Gantt chart) output in one axis and timeHe developed the daily balance chart (Gantt chart) output in one axis and time on the other axis.on the other axis.  Humanistic approach and industrial responsibility.Humanistic approach and industrial responsibility.
  22. 22. Next Presenter, Prosenjit Tarafdar ID-151
  23. 23. BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT  Max Weber (1864-1920).Max Weber (1864-1920).  Rules and regulations to eliminate managerialRules and regulations to eliminate managerial inconsistencies.inconsistencies.  AuthorityAuthority is the power to hold people accountable foris the power to hold people accountable for their actions.their actions.  Positions in the firm should be held based onPositions in the firm should be held based on performanceperformance not social contacts.not social contacts.  Position duties are clearly identified.Position duties are clearly identified. People shouldPeople should know what is expected of them.know what is expected of them.  Lines of authorityLines of authority should be clearly identified.should be clearly identified. Workers know who reports to who.Workers know who reports to who.
  24. 24. Bureaucratic Principles A BureaucracyA Bureaucracy should haveshould have Written RulesWritten RulesWritten RulesWritten Rules System of taskSystem of task relationshipsrelationships Hierarchy ofHierarchy of authorityauthority Fair evaluationFair evaluation and rewardand reward
  25. 25. Bureaucratic CharacteristicsBureaucratic Characteristics 1) Division of work1) Division of work 2) Hierarchy of position2) Hierarchy of position 3) Rules and regulations3) Rules and regulations 4) Impersonal conduct4) Impersonal conduct 5) Staffing5) Staffing 6) Technical competence6) Technical competence 7) Official records7) Official records
  26. 26. ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENTADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT  Henri Fayol (1841-1925) Father of modern managementHenri Fayol (1841-1925) Father of modern management  Introduced pyramidal form of organization.Introduced pyramidal form of organization. Management consist 6 types of activities : 1) Technical Activities (Production, Manufacturing)1) Technical Activities (Production, Manufacturing) 2) Commercial Activities (Purchasing, Selling and Exchange)2) Commercial Activities (Purchasing, Selling and Exchange) 3) Financial Activities (Optimum use of capital)3) Financial Activities (Optimum use of capital) 4) Security (Protection of property and persons)4) Security (Protection of property and persons) 5) Accounting (Stock taking, Balance sheet, costing, statistics)5) Accounting (Stock taking, Balance sheet, costing, statistics) 6) Managerial (Planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling)6) Managerial (Planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling)
  27. 27. HENRI FAYOL’SHENRI FAYOL’S 1414 PRINCIPLESPRINCIPLES 1) Division of work (or Labor)1) Division of work (or Labor) 2) Authority & Responsibility2) Authority & Responsibility 3) Discipline3) Discipline 4) Unity of command4) Unity of command 5) Unity of direction5) Unity of direction 6) Subordination of individual to general interest6) Subordination of individual to general interest 7) Remuneration7) Remuneration 8) Centralization of authority8) Centralization of authority 9) Scalar chain or Line of authority9) Scalar chain or Line of authority 10) Order10) Order 11) Equity of treatment11) Equity of treatment 12) Stability of workers12) Stability of workers 13) Initiative13) Initiative 14) Team spirit (Espirit de crops)14) Team spirit (Espirit de crops)
  28. 28. Next Presenter, • Shahinur AktarShahinur Aktar • ID-175
  29. 29. NEO-CLASSICALNEO-CLASSICAL THEORYTHEORY
  30. 30. 1. Human Relations1. Human Relations    •Human relations management emerged in the 1920s and dealtHuman relations management emerged in the 1920s and dealt with the human aspects of organizations.with the human aspects of organizations. •It has been referred to as the neo-classical school because itIt has been referred to as the neo-classical school because it was initially a reaction to the shortcoming of the classicalwas initially a reaction to the shortcoming of the classical approaches to management.approaches to management. •The human relations movement began with the HawthorneThe human relations movement began with the Hawthorne studies.studies.
  31. 31. There are four major phases to the Hawthorne studies:There are four major phases to the Hawthorne studies: •The illumination experiment: Tried to determine whether betterThe illumination experiment: Tried to determine whether better lighting would lead to increased productivity.lighting would lead to increased productivity. •The real assembly group experimentsThe real assembly group experiments •The interviewing program andThe interviewing program and •The bank wiring group studies.The bank wiring group studies.
  32. 32. 2. Behavioral Science Approach2. Behavioral Science Approach  The behavioral approach did not always increase productivity.The behavioral approach did not always increase productivity.  Thus, motivates and leadership techniques became a topic ofThus, motivates and leadership techniques became a topic of great interest.great interest.  The human resources school understands that employees areThe human resources school understands that employees are very creative and competent, and that much of their talent isvery creative and competent, and that much of their talent is largely untapped by their employers.largely untapped by their employers.  Employee want meaningful work; they want to contribute; theyEmployee want meaningful work; they want to contribute; they want to participate in decision making and leadershipwant to participate in decision making and leadership functions.functions.  Main contributors- Maslow, F. Herz berg & D. Mc Gregor.Main contributors- Maslow, F. Herz berg & D. Mc Gregor.
  33. 33. Nature of management principle:Nature of management principle: FlexibilityFlexibility Universal applicationUniversal application Principal are relative not absolutePrincipal are relative not absolute Based on situationBased on situation General statement.General statement.
  34. 34. Next Presenter, Amzad Hossain ID-212
  35. 35. The Modern ManagementThe Modern Management TheoriesTheories
  36. 36. 1. Quantitative Approach  Main contributors–Taylor, Gilbreths,Main contributors–Taylor, Gilbreths, Gantt, Newman & Joel Dean.Gantt, Newman & Joel Dean.  Management is concerned with problemManagement is concerned with problem solving and it must make use ofsolving and it must make use of mathematical tools and techniques for themathematical tools and techniques for the purpose.purpose.  The different factors involved inThe different factors involved in management can be quantified andmanagement can be quantified and expressed in the form of equations.expressed in the form of equations.
  37. 37.  Management problems can be described inManagement problems can be described in mathematical models.mathematical models.  Operation research, mathematical tools,Operation research, mathematical tools, simulation and model building are the basicsimulation and model building are the basic methodologies developed by this approach.methodologies developed by this approach.
  38. 38. 2. System Approach  Main contributors – Johnson, Church man,Main contributors – Johnson, Church man, Kenneth, Boulding & Rosen ZweigKenneth, Boulding & Rosen Zweig  Related to organization system is defined as –“AnRelated to organization system is defined as –“An established arrangement of components whichestablished arrangement of components which leads to accomplish of particular objectives as perleads to accomplish of particular objectives as per plan”plan”  All organizations are open system.All organizations are open system.
  39. 39. Next Presenter, Riead Piyas ID-146
  40. 40. 3. Contingency Approach3. Contingency Approach  Main contributors–John Woodward, Fiedler, Lorsch &Main contributors–John Woodward, Fiedler, Lorsch & Lawrence.Lawrence.  The latest approach to management which interactThe latest approach to management which interact the various approaches to management is known asthe various approaches to management is known as the contingency approach.the contingency approach.  The work of Joan Woodward in the 1950s marked theThe work of Joan Woodward in the 1950s marked the beginning of this approach in management.beginning of this approach in management.
  41. 41.  Contingency school states that management isContingency school states that management is situational & the study of management lies insituational & the study of management lies in identifying the important variables in theidentifying the important variables in the situation.situation.  It recognizes that all the subsystem of theIt recognizes that all the subsystem of the environment are interconnected andenvironment are interconnected and interrelated.interrelated.  By studying their interrelationship, theBy studying their interrelationship, the management can find solution to specificmanagement can find solution to specific situation.situation.
  42. 42. 4. Operational Approach  Main contributors- Koontz, O’Donnell andMain contributors- Koontz, O’Donnell and Weihrich.Weihrich.  It regards management as a universallyIt regards management as a universally applicable body of knowledge that can beapplicable body of knowledge that can be brought to bear at all levels of managing and inbrought to bear at all levels of managing and in all types of enterprise.all types of enterprise.  It recognizes that the actual problems whichIt recognizes that the actual problems which managers face and the environment in whichmanagers face and the environment in which they operate may vary between differentthey operate may vary between different enterprises and levels.enterprises and levels.
  43. 43. THANK YOU !

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