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College Inequality, College Test Preparation, Private Tutoring, and Shadow Education System in China and India

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  • 1. College  Test  Prepara.on  and  Shadow   Educa.on  System  in  China  and  India       Roy  Y.  Chan   Ph.D.  student   Boston  College   Lynch  School  of   Educa.on   roy.chan@bc.edu       April  15,  2014  
  • 2. Outline   •  Research  Ques+ons   •  Literature  Review   –  Overview   –  Defini+on  of  Key  Terms   –  Academic  Achievement   •  Shadow  Educa+on  Expansion   –  Pros  and  Cons   •  Examples  of  Shadow  Educa+on     •  Dataset   •  Implica+ons   •  Recommenda+ons  for   Policymakers  and  Planners   •  Further  Research   •  Q  &  A  
  • 3. Ques.on  of  the  Day   Which  two  countries  have   the  highest  rates  of  “private   tutoring  par.cipa.on”  in   the  world?   *HINT:  They’re  not  in  Asia!   J  
  • 4. GREECE  and  TURKEY!!!  
  • 5. Research  Ques.ons   •  1)  What  are  the  key  factors  that  drive  the  demand   for  private  tutoring  in  China  and  India?   –  How  big  is  the  shadow  educa+on  industry  in  China  and   India?   –  Does  shadow  educa+on  work  in  terms  of  enhancing   students’  knowledge,  grades,  or  test  scores?   •  2)  How  does  shadow  educa.on  serve  maintain  and   demonstrate  social  status  or  pres.ge  in  China  and   India?     –  Does  college  test  prepara+on  pay  off  in  terms  of  higher   examina+on  scores  and  likelihood  of  admissions  into   pres+gious  universi+es  in  China  and  India?   –  In  what  ways  do  family  background  (e.g.,  income,  class)  and   test  prepara+on  have  consequences  for  aSending  an  elite   higher  educa+on  ins+tu+on  in  China  and  India?    
  • 6. Literature  Review   Overview   •  Shadow  educa+on  has  become  a  global   phenomenon  in  the  21st  century  (Bray,  2009;  Mori   &  Baker,  2010;  Aurini  et  al.,  2013).   •  Driven  by  the  intensifica+on  of  globaliza+on  as  a   result  to  marke+za+on  in  the  educa+on  sector.   •  A  “hidden”  form  of  priva+za+on.   •  Expected  to  be  a  $102.8  billion  USD  industry  by   2018  (Global  Industry  Analysts,  Inc.,  2012).   •  Parents  will  con+nue  to  pay  for  shadow  educa+on   ac+vi+es  as  long  as  examina+on  serves  as  a   gatekeeper  to  higher  educa+on  ins+tu+ons  
  • 7. Literature  Review   Defini.on  of  Key  Terms   •  Private  supplementary  tutoring:  outside  tutoring   service  offered  by  the  private  sector  and  paid  for  by   families  designed  to  improve  student’s  chances  of   successfully  moving  through  the  alloca+on  process   (Stevenson  &  Baker,  1992).   •  Shadow  educa9on:  private  supplementary  tutoring   that  mimics  and  closely  parallels  curriculum  in   mainstream  educa+on,  and  offer  homework   support  or  test  prepara+on  (Bray,  2009).   •  Cram  schools:  learning  centers  or  ins+tutes  that   prepare  students  for  beSer  examina+on   performance  (Bray,  2007).  
  • 8. Literature  Review   Effects  of  private  tutoring  on  academic  achievement   •  UNESCO’s  most  recent  2013/2014  EFA  Global   Monitoring  Report  states  that  “private  tutoring,  if   unchecked  or  uncontrolled,  can  be  detriment  to   learning  outcomes,  especially  for  the  poorest  students   who  are  unable  to  afford  it”  (p.  271).     •  Past  studies  on  the  effec+veness  of  private  tutoring  on   student  academic  achievement  is  ofen  inconclusive.     –  For  example,  some  studies  report  a  posi+ve  impact  of   private  tutoring  in  Japan  (Stevenson  &  Baker,  1992),  Taiwan   (Liu,  2012),  Kenya  (Buchmann,  2002),  but  other  studies,   however,  found  nega+ve  impacts  on  achievement  in  Korea   (Lee,  Kim,  &  Yoon,  2004)  Singapore  (Cheo  &  Quah,  2005),   and  Nepal  (Thapa,  2011).    
  • 9. Literature  Review   Shadow  educa.on  and  pres.ge-­‐oriented  views   •  Students’  pres+ge-­‐oriented  views  affects  parental   spending  on  shadow  educa+on,  and  that  shadow   educa+on  par+cipa+on  serves  not  just  a  func+onal   purpose  but  also  a  symbolic  purpose  (e.g.,  to  aSend   pres+gious  universi+es)  (Lee  &  Shouse,  2011;  Baker   &  LeTende,  2005;  Stevenson  &  Baker,  1992).     •  Karen  (2002)  suggests  that  familial  background   affect  the  students’  aSendance  at  pres+gious   higher  educa+on  ins+tu+on.   •  Guppy  (1997)  conclude  that  high  school  graduates   from  low-­‐resourced  families  are  less  likely  to  aSend   highly  selec+ve  universi+es  than  affluent  families    
  • 10. Why  Shadow  Educa.on  Has  Expanded?   •  1)  Compe++ve  high-­‐stakes  entrance  examina+ons   •  2)  Intense  compe++on  to  compete  with  other  students  in   the  classroom   •  3)  Parents  believe  formal  schooling  (e.g.,  instruc+on  and   curriculum)  is  inadequate   •  4)  Teachers  do  not  teach  examina+on  skills  in  schools   •  5)  Friends  are  enrolling  in  private  tutoring,  so  students  enroll (i.e.,  fear  of  not  par+cipa+ng)   •  6)  Pressure  to  aSend  pres+gious  universi+es   •  7)  High  cultural  value  (e.g.,  Chinese  parents  value  educa+on) •  8)  The  rise  of  stra+fied  educa+on  systems   •  9)  Desire  to  study  overseas  (e.g.,  United  States,  UK,  Australia •  10)  Planned-­‐based  economic  to  a  market-­‐driven  economy  
  • 11. Shadow  Educa.on  –    Pros/Cons  on  the  Private  Tutoring  Industries   Advantages   •  Assists  low-­‐performing  students   work  at  their  own  pace  (e.g.,   increase  students  self-­‐esteem   and  sense  of  achievement)   •  Lessons  are  ofen  individualized   to  student  needs/demands   •  Provide  decent  income  to  tutors   •  Students  gain  human  capital   which  can  contribute  to   economic  development   •  Student  gain  confidence  and   mo+va+on  to  take  high-­‐stakes   examina+ons   Disadvantages   •  Very  Expensive     •  Exacerbates  social  and   geographical  inequali+es   •  Widen  inequali+es  in  college   access  and  readiness   •  Increase  pressure  for  students  to   perform  well  in  examina+ons   •  Decrease  students’  engagement   and  concentra+on  in  classroom   •  Damage  students’  independent   leaning  abili+es   •  Restricts  students’  leisure  +me   •  Distorts  teaching  and  learning   •  Place  economic  pressure  on   households,  especially  rural  ci+es  
  • 12. So the question arises: Does shadow education work in terms of enhancing students’ knowledge, grades, or test scores? LET’S  LOOK  AT  SOME  DATA!!  (:  
  • 13. CHINA:  Private  tutoring  on  academic   achievement  
  • 14. CHINA:  Urban  students  PAY  more  for   private  tutoring  than  rural  students  
  • 15. INDIA:  Wealthy  families  PAY  more  for  tutoring  than  poor  families  
  • 16. INDIA:  Urban  students  receive  more   private  tutoring  than  rural  students  
  • 17. PARENT  INCOME  and  PRIVATE  TUTORING  SPENDING  
  • 18. PRIVATE  TUTORING  SPENDING  AND  PRESTIEGE  ORIENTED  VIEWS  
  • 19. CHINA:  Examples  of  Shadow  Educa.on   •  Over  20  million  students  have  studied  in  New   Oriental   •  Offers  SAT,  ACT,  GRE,  TOEFL  prep  courses   •  Consults  students  on  study  abroad   •  70%  of  Chinese  students  in  the  U.S.  and  Canada   took  an  English  class  in  New  Oriental   •  Face-­‐to-­‐Face  and  Online  tutoring  is  available  
  • 20. INDIA:  Examples  of  Shadow  Educa.on  
  • 21. UNITED  STATES:     Examples  of  Shadow  educa.on  
  • 22. Implica.ons   •  The  expansion  of  shadow  educa+on  in  China  and  India   has  both  posi+ve  and  nega+ve  implica+ons  in  theory   and  in  prac+ce.     •  Private  tutoring  plays  a  posi+ve  role  in  raising  student   learning  outcomes  outside  of  the  mainstream   educa+on  system.   •  However,  private  tutoring  can  place  lower-­‐class   students  at  greater  disadvantage  on  college  entrance   examina+on  achievement  and  their  desire  to  aSend  an   elite  higher  educa+on  ins+tu+ons  in  China  and  India.     •  Private  tutoring  exacerbates  social  inequali+es  in   educa+onal  opportunity  in  China  and  India.    
  • 23. Recommenda.ons  for  Policymakers   and  Planners   •  Tighten  regula+on  and  control  between  schools  and   tutoring  ins+tu+ons.     •  Finance  tutoring  programs  in  rural  ci+es  as  a  flexible   means  of  educa+ng  disadvantaged  adolescents.   •  Implement  policies  aimed  at  reducing  the  growing  parent   expenditure  on  private  tutoring.     – Fund  afer-­‐school  programs;  Start  English-­‐language   television  programs  aimed  at  developing  students’   examina+on  skills  so  that  private  tutoring  does  not   replace  mainstream  curriculum  and  instruc+on.   – Create  management  policies  that  requires  teachers  to   cover  the  whole  curriculum  so  that  private  tutoring   does  not  displace  classroom  teaching    
  • 24. Further  Research   •  The  effects  of  private  tutoring  on  student  academic   achievement  in  China  and  India  (e.g.,  using  casual   research  designs)   •  The  impact  of  private  tutoring  on  students’  well-­‐being   (e.g.,  student  sa+sfac+on  levels,  health  status,  labor-­‐ market  outcomes)     •  Examine  how  social-­‐psychological  and  non-­‐cogni+ve   factors  influence  behavior  norms  suppor+ve  of  the   shadow  educa+on  industry     •  Inves+gate  the  ins+tu+onaliza+on  of  shadow  educa+on   within  China  and  India  –  the  extent  to  which  it  has   become  “infused  with  value”  (Selznick,  1957).    
  • 25. Recommended  Books  
  • 26. Ques.ons?  Comments?   *NOTE:  This  Powerpoint  is  available  for  download  at:  hNp://www.rychan.com