Planning the Training SessionPlanning (15)National Liaisons’ WorkshopITOCA / BLDS
Planning“A goal without a plan is just a wish”.Antoine de Saint-Exupery (1900 - 1944)
Planning Objectives• By the end of this session, you will:– Understand how to plan a training session– Know what elements should be included in atraining plan– Know the difference between a learning objective& learning outcome– Build measurement into your training plan
Building a Training Program• Assess• Design• Develop• Implement• Evaluate
Pre-Assessment• What do you need to know?– Who are you training?– The existing knowledge of training participants– Identify the gaps in what they know and whatthey need to know– How the training will help them accomplish theirwork– The type of training or job-related training theyhave already experienced
Pre-assessment methods• Needs assessment analysis– E.g. Pre-assessment questionnaireDiscuss in pairs, 3 minutes – what other ways couldyou collect data?
Training Program - Design• Primary questions– What do I want learners to be able to do as aresult of this training program?• Learning Objectives / Outcomes– What methods will I use to assist them to reachthis level of performance and knowledge?• E.g. activities– What resources will be used to deliver thistraining program?– How will this training be structured overall?
Training Session - Structure• Starter– Normally 1-3 minutes– Introduction• Learning Objectives / Outcomes• Main Activity• Plenary– Assessment for Learning (Measurement)
Learning Outcomes• Learning outcomes are the framework of atraining plan• Identify what students will be able to do as aresult of participating in the training programme– For example: ‘Students in this workshop will be ableto:..and demonstrate the following behaviours…’• Explicit, concise, precise defined statements• Clearly identify the expected behaviouroutcome(s)
Guidelines for Developing LOs• Learning outcomes should include the following components:– Results/outcome oriented– Measurable– Focused on only major job-related tasks– Behavioral statements (e.g., not just knowing or understandingsomething but demonstrating that they know it and understand it)– Specific and precise about what they are to be able to do– Clearly stated, no clutter“As a result of participating in this workshop, learnerswill be able to explain to students in a clearmanner how to use theHarvard Referencing Standard to cite journal references”
Types of Learning Outcomes• Three major domains of learning:– Attitudinal Learning: Outcomes that aim to change orenhance a learner’s attitude or motivation about asubject. Changing a learner’s attitude about thequality of information found in Wikipedia– Cognitive Learning: Outcomes that aim to contributeto a learner’s body of knowledge about a topic.Providing statistics that show an increase in thetargeted use of HINARI– Skill Learning: Outcomes that aim to help a learnerperform a job-related, behavioral task. Training alearner to talk easily about the similarities anddifferences between databases
Group Activity: SMART Objectives• In pairs, review a lesson plan that you havealready delivered (10 minutes)– Are they SMART objectives• Specific• Measurable• Achievable• Realistic• Time-bound– How could you make them SMARTer?
Selecting Learning Experiences• Determine what learning activities (strategies)are most effective and practical in the trainingcontext• Consider activities that cover a range of learningstyles– Interactive Lecturette:– Class Discussion:– Small Group Exercises: 4-6 people– Two & Three-person Exercises– Case Studies
Example Learning Experiences– Interactive Lecturette:– Class Discussion:– Small Group Exercises: 4-6 people– Two & Three-person Exercises– Case Studies– Role-playing– Simulations– Games– Surveys– Quizzes– Short Writing Exercises– Observations– Hands-on Work in Field
Selecting Training Resources• Several kinds of training resources need to beidentified:– Content Experts: Available/willing to assist indevelopment of training?– Trainer(s): Available? Relevant experience? Cost?– Materials: Books, pens, manuals, equipment, namecards, food, etc.– Time: How long? Training delivered across severalmonths or concentrated in a few days?– Multi-part training? When are learners available?
Developing training materials• Developing Materials• Training materials should be:– Easy to understand– Economically produced– Relevant to one or more learning outcomes.– Contribute as a secondary source of informationand not act as the primary source– Complement the learning experiences in whichlearners are engaging
Developing training materials– Include as much practical, direct job-basedinformation as possible.– Describe process-oriented tasks in a step-by stepformat, free of extraneous detail.– Include illustrative examples that support text-based information– Minimal - students will use them primarily as areference.
Implement• Primary questions to answer when deliveringtraining:– Is the trainer prepared to facilitate the learningexperiences in an engaging manner?– Have the appropriate training materials beendeveloped?– Have questions been developed to challengelearners and debrief the learning experience?
Engaging Learners• Ten Steps to being positively engaging:– Ask learners what they want to learn from thetraining, and then list them.– Probe learners with questions frequently;interactivity should be an primary characteristic ofthe training.– Encourage application of material by providingexamples, posing job-based problems, and askinglearners to consider how they might apply whatthey are learning.
Engaging Learners (2)– Quiz and give feedback in a nonthreatening way.– Start with questions instead of with providinginformation (talking ‘at’ students)– Pose alternative, thought-provoking questions andscenarios to get students to critique and questionand get beyond the obvious.– Start with what learners know to empower themand identify what to build on.– Use both visual and aural (hearing) modes oflearning.
Engaging Learner (3)– Use organizing techniques (e.g., ‘Okay, we’ve justaddressed...now that let’s move to...)that helplearners keep track of where they are and whatthey’ve learned.– Use humor and stories to enhance content andmaintain learner motivation.Deming, B., Ten Steps to being Positively Engaging, Training and Development,January 2001, pp. 18-19.
Questioning• Questions compel students to consider theinformation they are learning. They serveseveral learning purposes– Explaining: Asks students to explain theirresponses or poses a question that asks forelaboration.– Problem solving: Poses problems for students toanswer.– Debriefing: After a class exercise or field studyevent, allows students to consider what they haveexperienced.
Questioning (2)• Predicting: Presents job-related, realistichypothetical situations for students toconsider.Hyman, R., ‘Discussing Strategies and Tactics,’ Questions, Questioning Techniques,and Effective Teaching (ed. W. Wilen), 1987, Washington, DC: national Education Associationpp. 138-139
Feedback• Provide feedback on the learning experiencesin which you just participated.– Was the learning experience engaging?– Was it appropriately interactive?– Was there a balance of instructor and studentprovided information?– Were questions posed that challenged students?– Did it help students meet the stated outcome?– Was it completed in a timely manner?
Evaluation• Primary questions to answer when evaluatingtraining:– How can you assess if the learning outcomes arebeing addressed adequately during thedevelopment and delivery of training?– How can you evaluate the effectiveness of atraining program immediately after the delivery oftraining?– How can you evaluate whether the learning fromthe training is being applied in a work setting afterstudents complete a training program?
When to evaluate?• Evaluation of training can be separated intotwo primary categories:– Formative: Occurs while the training is beingdesigned, developed, and delivered.– Summative: Usually completed immediately aftertraining is conducted to evaluate the extent towhich learners enjoyed and believed theyreceived valuable learning. Can also be conductedover the course of weeks or months after training.
Evaluation Methods: Formative• There are several ways to evaluate theeffectiveness of training during design,development, and delivery.– Needs Assessment Analysis– Content Expert Evaluation– Beta Test of Training / Pilot Testing– Pre and Post Training Questionnaire– Trainer Assessment– Student Questionnaire– Class Interview
Evaluation Methods: Summative• There are several ways to evaluate theeffectiveness of training after a training hasbeen conducted.– In-class Questionnaires– Post Training Questionnaires– Post Training Debrief– Interviews– Journals– Observations
Questions to Consider• When considering formative and summativeevaluation methods for your own trainingprogram:– What kinds of evaluation are likely to be easiest toimplement? Most difficult?– What kind of evaluation are learners most likely torespond to? Least likely?– What logistical issues do the various forms ofevaluation pose for trainers and learners?
Developing a Lesson Plan• A session or lesson plan is a map that outlinesthe design of your training programme• In your group, identify the elements of alesson plan, (20 mins)– What components of a lesson plan MUST bepresent?– Brainstorm and present your lesson plantemplate to the group
• [look at lesson plan template and go overelements]
Planning Exercise – 20 minutes• Begin to develop a lesson plan for thepresentation assignment– Write a statement for this learning outcome– Consider timings– Measurement techniques (AfL)– What is missing?– How could it be improved?