Benjamin Bloom• Taxonomy ofEducational Objectives(1956)• Various types of learningoutcomes within thecognitive domain– Objectives could beclassified according totype of learner behaviordescribed– A hierarchical relationshipexists among the varioustypes of outcomesEvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge
Bloom’s Learning Domains• Affective - feelings, emotions and behavior, ie.,attitude, or feel– How emotions affect learning– Emotions, feelings, values, likes, desires• Behavioral - Psychomotor and Multisensory - manualand physical skills, ie., skills, or do– How the movement of the body is involved inlearning– Actions, physical, doing• Cognitive - intellectual capability, ie., knowledge, orthink– Learning factual information– Developing higher-level thinking and analyticalskills– Thoughts, understanding, conceptual knowledge
Thinking LevelsAsk students to demonstrate:• Knowledge - recall information in originalform• Comprehension - show understanding• Application - use learning in a newsituation• Analysis - show s/he can seerelationships• Synthesis - combine and integrate partsof prior knowledge into a product, plan,or proposal that is new• Evaluation - assess and criticize on basisof standards and criteria
Blooming Questions• Knowledge or Remembering –Recalling Information– Where – What – Who – How many –• Comprehension or Understanding –– Tell me in your own words – What doesit mean?– Give me an example, describe,illustrate• Application – Using learning in anew situation– What would happen if…? Would youhave done the same…? How wouldyou solve this problem?– In the library, locate and reportinformation about….
Framing Essential QuestionsEssential Questions at the top ofBloom’s Taxonomy– Create - innovate– Evaluate – make a thoughtfulchoice between options, with thechoice based on a clearly statedcriteria– Synthesize – invent a new ordifferent version– Analyze – develop a thoroughand complex understandingthrough skillful questioning.
Highest Levels of Questioning• Evaluation and Synthesis• Judgment based on Criteria• Literature– Would you recommend this book –WHY or WHY not?– Select the best – WHY?– Which person in history would youmost like to meet – and WHY?– Is the quality good or bad? WHY?– Could this story have happened?WHY?• Creating at top of revised Bloom’sTaxonomy - Innovation
More Blooming Questions• Analysis – Ability to seeparts/relationships– What other ways…? Similar/Different(Venn)– Interpretation – What kind of person…?What caused the person to react in thisway…? What part was most exciting,sad…?• Synthesis – Parts of information tocreate original whole– What would it be like if…? Design,pretend, use your imagination, write anew ending…
Writing Lesson Objectives UsingBloom’s TaxonomyThe ideal learning objective has 3parts:1.A measurable action verb2.The important condition (if any)under which the performance isto occur3.The criterion of acceptableperformance
Components of a Lesson Objective• Avoid terms that cannot beclearly understood by the reader.• Communicate an objective asclearly as possible.• Describe intended instructionalresult by describing the purposeof the instruction.• Exclude the greatest number ofpossible meanings other than theone intended.
ABCDs of Learning Objectives• Audience– The learners:– Identify who it is that will be doing the performance (not theinstructor)• Behavior (Performance):– What the learner will be able to do– Make sure it is something that can be seen or heard• Condition– The conditions under which the learners must demonstratetheir mastery of the objective:– What will the learners be allowed to use? What wont thelearners be allowed to use?• Degree (or criterion)– HOW WELL the behavior must be done
What do you want your students to learnas a result of this lesson?Three-step process below for creating defining learning objectives. 1. Create a stem– After completing the lesson, the student will be able to . . .– After this unit, the student will have . . .– By completing the activities, the student will . . .– At the conclusion of the course/unit/study the student will . . .1. After you create the stem, add an action verb: analyze,recognize, compare, provide, list, etc.2. One you have a stem and a verb, determine the actual product,process, or outcome: After completing these lesson, the studentwill be able to…….– create Venn Diagrams which compare and contrast . . .– demonstrate learning by producing a ……– solve a numerical expression using…..(the standard order ofoperations, etc.)http://www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/LP/LP_resources/lesson_objectives.htm
• Refer to explicit rather than vague behaviors– Asking students to "grasp the significance," or"appreciate" something will only lead toconfusion. Using more explicit behaviors such as"identify," or "sort," will clarify the performanceexpected of students.• Table on next slide lists:– explicit behaviors representative of different levelsof cognition or thinking– common products or outcomes of thosebehaviorsHow to Write Goals for Specific BehaviorsVirginia Tech - http://www.edtech.vt.edu/edtech/id/assess/behavior.html
KnowRememberComprehendUnderstandUseApplyAnalyzeTake ApartSynthesizeCreate NewEvaluateJudgeBehaviors:Action Verbsnamememorizerecordlistmatchwritestaterepeatdescribediscussgive exampleslocatetellfindreportpredictreviewrecognizeestimatetranslatepracticeillustratesketchsolveshowemploysortclassifydistinguishexperimentcomparecontrastdiagramdebatesolveexamineinventorydesignplanproposearrangeassembledevelopproduceorganizemanagereviseratevalueappraisedecidechoosescoreselectassessdebaterecommendProducts:OutcomesAssignmentsAssessmentsPresentationsExperimentsPerformancesfactseventsmodelsfilmstripsbookspuzzlesstoriesgamesjournalsillustrationsdrawingsmapssculpturesdioramascrapbookmobilecollectionsdiagramsgraphssurveysquestionnairesreportsobjectsnewsarticlespoemsmachinessongsplayshypothesespollspanelsrecommendationsdiscussionssimulationsevaluationssurveysBloom’s Original Taxonomy withAction Verbs and ProductsVirginia Tech - http://www.edtech.vt.edu/edtech/id/assess/behavior.html
How will you measure learning outcomes?• What will students say or do toshow you objectives were met?• What will you collect to showstudent’s learning (portfolios,observations, work samples,photographs, etc.)• How will you evaluate studentwork?• How will you grade thestudent?
Understanding by Design:Theory of Backwards Design• Desired Results: What willthe student learn?• Acceptable Evidence:How will you design anassessment thataccurately determines ifthe student learned whathe/she was supposed tolearn?• Lesson Planning: How doyou design a lesson thatresults in student learning?Identifydesired resultsDetermineacceptableevidencePlan learningexperiencesandinstruction
Theory of Backwards Design• Understanding by Design:Wiggins & McTighe• What are the big ideas?• Core concepts• Focusing themes• On-going debates/issues• Insightful perspectives• Illuminatingparadox/problem• Organizing theory• Overarching principle• Underlying assumption• What’s the evidence?• How do we get there?EnduringUnderstanding
Will this lesson lead to enduringunderstanding?Worth being familiar withImportant to know and doEnduringUnderstanding
Assessment: How do you measurewhat students have learned?• Traditional quizzesand tests– Paper/pencil• Selected response• Constructed response• Performance tasksand projects– Open-ended– Complex– AuthenticWorth being familiar withImportant to know and doEnduringUnderstandingUnderstanding by Design
Rubrics and Checklists forAlternative Performance Assessment• Rubric - a scoring guide forevaluating student performance• Allows for a variety of criteria orcategories to be evaluated on asliding rating scale (not subject toone final percentage score as intesting)• A way to measure real-life,authentic learning experiences inthe classroom• Provides a guide for students indetermining expectations ofassignments• Shows students and parents howthe teacher is judging studentperformance
How will you use the results of yourassessment to plan your next lesson?• How will your assessment guide your teachingpractice?• What needs to be "re-taught" and how can youteach it differently when assessmentdemonstrates that some students did not learnthe material? Is there a better way to teach thismaterial?• What will you do differently next time?• How could you extend this activity for anotherlesson?• Was your instruction effective in promotingstudent learning?Reflective Practitioner
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