Assessment of learning outcomes


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Assessment of learning outcomes

  1. 1. SEMINAR ON ASSESSMENT Practices for the Classroom
  2. 2. GOOD EDUCATION PRACTICES 1. Maximizes student/faculty contact. 2. Develops student cooperation. 3. Uses active learning techniques. 4. Gives feedback promptly. 5. Emphasizes time on task. 6. Communicates high expectations. 7. Respects learners’ diversity.
  3. 3. Principles of Learning Learning requires the active participation of the student. People learn in a variety of ways and at different rates. Learning is both an individual and a group process. Learning is most effective when students reflect on the process of learning and set goals for improvement.
  4. 4. The word ‘assess’ comes from the Latin verb ‘assidere’ meaning ‘to sit with’. In assessment one is supposed to sit with the learner. This implies it is something we do ‘with’ and ‘for’ students and not ‘to’ students (Green, 1999). What is Assessment?
  5. 5. Assessment in education is the process of gathering, interpreting, recording, and using information about pupils’ responses to an educational task. (Harlen, Gipps, Broadfoot, Nuttal,1992) Why assess students?Why assess students? • To gather evidence of student learning • To inform instruction • To motivate students and increase student achievement
  6. 6. 1. Teachers value and believe in students. 2. Sharing learning goals with the students. 3. Involving students in self-assessment. 4. Providing feedback that helps students recognize their next steps and how to take them. 5. Being confident that every student can improve. 6. Providing students with examples of what we expect from them. Values and Attitudes about Assessment
  7. 7. 3 types of Assessment • Assessment FOR Learning – Formative Assessment – Informs students and teachers • Assessment AS Learning – Student’s Metacognition • Assessment OF Learning – Summative/Final/Official Assessment – Evaluation of students by teachers
  8. 8. What Is Assessment for Learning? Assessment for learning occurs throughout the learning process. It is designed to make each student’s understanding visible, so that teachers can decide what they can do to help students progress. Students learn in individual and idiosyncratic ways, yet, at the same time, there are predictable patterns of connections and preconceptions that some students may experience as they move along the continuum from emergent to proficient. In assessment for learning, teachers use assessment as an investigative tool to find out as much as they can about what their students know and can do, and what confusions, preconceptions, or gaps they might have. The wide variety of information that teachers collect about their students’ learning processes provides the basis for determining what they need to do next to move student learning forward. It provides the basis for providing descriptive feedback for students and deciding on groupings, instructional strategies, and resources.
  9. 9. What Is Assessment as Learning? Assessment as learning focusses on students and emphasizes assessment as a process of metacognition (knowledge of one’s own thought processes) for students. Assessment as learning emerges from the idea that learning is not just a matter of transferring ideas from someone who is knowledgeable to someone who is not, but is an active process of cognitive restructuring that occurs when individuals interact with new ideas. Within this view of learning, students are the critical connectors between assessment and learning. For students to be actively engaged in creating their own understanding, they must learn to be critical assessors who make sense of information, relate it to prior knowledge, and use it for new learning. This is the regulatory process in metacognition; that is, students become adept at personally monitoring what they are learning, and use what they discover from the monitoring to make adjustments, adaptations, and even major changes in their thinking.
  10. 10. What Is Assessment of Learning? Assessment of learning refers to strategies designed to confirm what students know, demonstrate whether or not they have met curriculum outcomes or the goals of their individualized programs, or to certify proficiency and make decisions about students’ future programs or placements. It is designed to provide evidence of achievement to parents, other educators, the students themselves, and sometimes to outside groups (e.g., employers, other educational institutions). Assessment of learning is the assessment that becomes public and results in statements or symbols about how well students are learning. It often contributes to pivotal decisions that will affect students’ futures. It is important, then, that the underlying logic and measurement of assessment of learning be credible and defensible.
  11. 11. If we think of our children as plants … Summative assessment of the plants is the process of simply measuring them. It might be interesting to compare and analyze measurements but, in themselves, these do not affect the growth of the plants. Formative assessment, on the other hand, is the equivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriate to their needs - directly affecting their growth. The Garden Analogy
  12. 12. Factors Inhibiting Assessment A tendency for teachers to assess quantity and presentation of work rather than quality of learning. Greater attention given to marking and grading, much of it tending to lower self esteem of students, rather than providing advice for improvement. A strong emphasis on comparing students with each other, which demoralizes the less successful learners.
  13. 13. Shifts in AssessmentShifts in Assessment From assessing to learn what students do not know From using results to calculate grades From end-of-term assessments by teachers From judgmental feedback that may harm student motivation To assessing to learn what students understand To using results to inform instruction To students engaged in ongoing assessment of their work and others To descriptive feedback that empowers and motivates students
  14. 14. Why these shifts in assessment?Why these shifts in assessment? A change in the mission of schools: A shift from a focus on sorting and ranking students to a focus on leaving no child behind. A strong research base: Evidence of the substantial impact on student achievement
  15. 15. Self-Evaluation Where would you place your assessment practice on the following continuum? The main focus is on: Quantity of work/Presentation Quality of learning Marking/Grading Comparing students Advice for improvement Identifying individual progress
  16. 16. Implications for classroom practice  Share learning goals with students.  Involve students in self-assessment.  Provide feedback that helps students recognize their next steps and how to take them.  Be confident that every student can improve. Assessment AS Learning. Develops students’: • skills of metacognition • critical thinking skills • communication and interpersonal skills
  17. 17. Assessment  Evaluation (various sources, but especially Dan Apple 1998) Reflective: Internally Defined Criteria/Goals Prescriptive:External -ly Imposed Standards Diagnostic: Identify Areas for Improvement Judgmental: Arrive at an Overall Grade/Score Flexible: Adjust As Problems Are Clarified Fixed: To Reward Success, Punish Failure Absolute: Strive for Ideal Outcomes Comparative: Divide Better from Worse Coöperative: Learn Competitive: Beat
  18. 18. Summary of Differences Dimension of Difference Assessment Evaluation Timing Formative Summative Focus of Measurement Process-Oriented Product-Oriented Relationship Between Administrator and Recipient Reflective Prescriptive Findings, Uses Thereof Diagnostic Judgmental Ongoing Modifiability of Criteria, Measures Thereof Flexible Fixed Standards of Measurement Absolute Comparative Relation Between Objects of A/E Coöperative Competitive
  19. 19. Five Keys to Quality Assessment Identify the Purpose Clarify the Targets Use Sound Design Involve Students Provide Effective Feedback Where Am I Going? Where Am I Now? How Do I Close the Gap?
  20. 20. How to Answer the Three Guiding Questions Seven Strategies of Formative Assessment Where am IWhere am I going?going? 1. Provide a clear and understandable version of the learning targets. 2. Use examples of strong and weak work. Where am IWhere am I now?now? 3. Offer regular descriptive feedback. 4. Teach students to self-assess and set goals. How can I closeHow can I close the gap?the gap? 5. Design lessons to focus on one aspect of quality at a time. 6. Teach students focused revision. 7. Engage students in self-reflection and let them document and share their learning.
  21. 21. GENERALIZATION: Formative Assessment - Formal and informal processes teachers and students use to gather evidence for the purpose of improving learning. Summative Assessment - Assessments that provide evidence of student achievement for the purpose of making a judgment about student competence or program effectiveness.
  22. 22. Promotion and Retention
  23. 23. The test of a good teacher is not how many questions he can ask his pupils that they will answer readily, but how many questions he inspires them to ask him which he finds it hard to answer. Alice Wellington Rollins