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The Basics of Psychology
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The Basics of Psychology The Basics of Psychology Presentation Transcript

  • The Basics of Psychology Samantha Roy EDU 290 Dr. William Merrill
  • The History and Scope of Psychology  Psychology’s Roots-  Philosophy  Biology  Philosophy’s questions and biology’s methods = psychology Image from:Exploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers http://www.nctc.edu/Libraries/Home_Page/Psych_head.sflb.ashx
  • Psychology’s Birth – 1879  Wilhelm Wundt- created the first psychology lab  University of Leipzig (Germany)  Father of Experimental Psychology  Founder of Modern Psychology  Psychology-  the scientific study of behavior and mental processes  Behavior-  anything an organism does that is an observable or recordable action  Mental Processes-  internal subjective (debatable) experiences inferred from behavior Exploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers View slide
  • Philosophers  John Locke (1632-1704)  at birth the mind is a blank slate  empiricism- rely on observation and experimentation  William James  1st psychology textbookExploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers Image from: http://assetebooks.com/resources/The%20Principles%20of %20Psychology.JPG View slide
  • Biology - Pavlov (Russian Physiologist)  discovered the learning principles  classical conditioning unconditioned stimulus (US)  conditioned stimulus (CS)  unconditioned reflex (UR)  conditioned reflex (CR)   came up with the dog experiment Exploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers Image from: http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/images/serie2.
  • Biology- Freud (Austrian Physician)  Personality Theorist  three different components  Id  all of the biological components of personality  immediate satisfaction  Ego  the mediator between the id and the superego  Superego  uses morals to do what is right Image and information: http://www.simplypsychology.org/psyche.html
  • Biology - Piaget (Swiss Biologist)  Developmental Psychology  Cognitive Theory  Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) Key component – Object  permanence  Pre-operational stage (2 to 7 years) Key component – egocentrism   Operation stage (7 to 11 years) Key component - conservation   Formal operational stage (11 years and on) Key component – abstract  reasoning http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html Image from: http://www.stelizabeth.com/Resources/
  • Biology – Erik Erikson 8 stages of Psychosocial development  1. Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year)  2. Autonomy vs. Shame & doubt (2-3 years)  3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 years)  4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 years)  5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (13-18 years)  6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood)  7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood)  8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair (old age)www.simplypsychology.com.org/erik-erikson.html
  • Four Primary Perspectives  1) Behavioral i) only relies on observable behaviors to determine influences of the environment on behavior  2) Cognitive i) thought is what influences behavior Images from: http://helpingpsychology.com and Exploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers http://fhuhs.org/departments/socialstudies/
  • Four Primary Perspectives  3) Neuroscience i) how biology and neurochemistry affect behavior  4) Psychodynamic i) how unconscious thoughts and conflicts influence behavior Exploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers Image from: http://www.personal.psu.edu/
  • Big Issue in Psychology  a) Nature vs. Nurture  Nature –  inherited and genetic  Nurture –  all of the environmental issues after birth  example – all of your experiences  What concept do you believe has the largest impact on a child? Exploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers
  • Nature vs. Nurture http://www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.html
  • Subfields of Psychology a) Developmental i) mental and physical changes throughout a persons life with a particular emphasis on the earlier stages in life b) Clinical i) Studies, assesses, treats people with psychological disorders Exploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers
  • Subfields of Psychology cont. c) Industrial/Organizational i) applied to work, selection, leadership, management, work and family conflicts, organizational culture, and performance d) Sports i) mental aspects of sports and competition to maximize performance Exploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers
  • Fun Facts about psychology!  Placebo pills can have just as much effect on a human as the actual treatment  Freud is taught at a number of universities, expect for in their psychology department  Almost all identical twins are not considered “identical”  A lot of people déjà vu about a conversation or a dream  You can only remember 3 to 4 things at a time  You are hard wired for imitation and empathy www.psychologytoday.com Exploring Psychology in Modules by David. G Myers