2. Light house of Alexandria(280 B.C) Pyramids of Giza(2575-2150 B.C.) Great Wall of China(7th century BC) Colosseum(70-80 A.D) Taj Mahal(1652 A.D) Eiffel tower(1889A.D) Burj Khalifa(2010 A.D)
3. Location: Pharaohs, Alexandria, Egypt Foundation : Stone Construction : Stone Masonry Height : 393–450 ft. The Lighthouse of Alexandria was a tower built between 280 and 247 BC. Its purpose was to guide sailors into the port of Alexandria. The lighthouse was completed After Alexander the Great died, by his grand son Ptolemy Philadelphos.
4. Constructed from large blocks of light-coloured stone, the tower was made up of three stages: a lower square section with a central core, a middle octagonal section, and, at the top, a circular section. At its apex was positioned a mirror which reflected sunlight during the day; a fire was lit at night. The Pharaohs masonry blocks were interlocked, sealed together using molten lead, to withstand the pounding of the waves. DESTRUCTION The lighthouse was badly damaged in the earthquake of 956, then again in 1303 and 1323. It was damaged so badly that the Arab traveller Ibn Battuta reported no longer being able to enter the ruin.
5. It is by far the oldest of the ancient Wonders which still exists. This complex of ancient monuments lies on the Giza plateau. The Pyramids are thought to have been constructed to house the remains of the deceased Pharaohs who ruled over Ancient Egypt. The Pyramids consist of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Pyramid of Menkaure a few hundred meters further south-west. The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex.
6. Most theories are based on the idea that the pyramids were built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place. A recent theory proposes that the building blocks were manufactured in-place from a kind of "limestone concrete". They would select a site on a flat area of bedrock which provided a stable foundation. The smooth exterior of the pyramid was made of a fine grade of white limestone that was quarried across the Nile. To ensure the symmetry, the exterior casing stones all had to be equal in height and width.
7. Graphical representation The Great Pyramids ofof the pyramid. Giza.
8. This is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, across the historical northern borders of China in part to protect the Chinese Empire. The Great Wall stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east, to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeological survey,, has concluded that the Ming walls measure 8850 km. This is made up of 6259 km sections of actual wall, 359 km of trenches and 2232km of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers.
9. Before the use of bricks, the Great Wall was mainly built from rammed earth, stones, and wood. During the Ming Dynasty, however, bricks were heavily used in many areas of the wall, as were materials such as tiles, lime, and stone. Stone can hold under its own weight better than brick, but is more difficult to use. Consequently, stones cut in rectangular shapes were used for the foundation, inner and outer brims, and gateways of the wall. Battlements line the uppermost portion of the vast majority of the wall, with defensive gaps a little over 30 cm tall, and about 23 cm wide.
10. The Colosseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. Its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus. Capable of seating 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used to host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events.
11. Unlike earlier Greek theatres that were built into hillsides, the Colosseum is an entirely free-standing structure. It is elliptical in plan and is 189 meters long, and 156 meters wide, with a base area of 6 acres. The height of the outer wall is 48 meters. The outer wall is estimated to have required over 100,000 cubic meters of travertine stone which were set without mortar held together by 300 tons of iron clamps. Two hundred and forty mast corbels were positioned around the top of the attic. They originally supported a retractable awning, known as the velarium, that kept the sun and rain off spectators.
12. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators. The floor of the Podium was built on three layers of travertine stone. To keep the stone stable each block was bonded with melted bronze, when the bronze hardened it acted as cement. The Romans used arches as the major support system in the Colosseum. n arches, weight pushes down on the top of the arch at its keystone then the weight gets channelled down the sides of the arches through columns and safely to the ground.
13. Built: 1632–1653 Architect: Ustad Ahmad Lahauri Architectural style: Mughal The Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra.It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The court chronicles of Shah Jahans grief illustrate the love story traditionally held as an inspiration for Taj Mahal.
14. The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex. This large, white marble structure stands on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building with an iwan topped by a large dome and finial. The base structure is essentially a large, multi-chambered cube with chamfered corners, forming an unequal octagon that is approximately 55 metres on each of the four long sides. Four minarets frame the tomb, one at each corner of the plinth facing the chamfered corners. The Taj Mahal was built on a parcel of land to the south of the walled city of Agra. The plinth and tomb took roughly 12 years to complete. The remaining parts of the complex took an additional 10 years and were completed in order of minarets, mosque and jawab, and gateway.
15. The total cost has been estimated to be about 32 million Rupees at that time. The Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all over India and Asia. The translucent white marble was brought from Makrana, Rajasthan, the jasper from Punjab, jade and crystal from China. The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan, while the sapphire came from Sri Lanka and the carnelian from Arabia.
16. Architect: Stephen Sauvestre Structural engineer: Maurice Koechlin & Émile Nouguier. The Eiffel Tower nickname the iron lady is a puddled iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel on the banks of river Siene. The tower stands 320 metres tall, about the same height as an 81-story building. The tower has three levels for visitors. Tickets can be purchased to ascend, by stairs or lift, to the first and second levels. The design of the Eiffel Tower was originated by Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers who worked for the Compagnie des Establissments Eiffel.
17. The foundation consists of 4 legs each leg resting on four 2 m concrete slabs, one for each of the principal girders of each leg. Each slab needed two piles installed by using compressed-air caissons 15 m long and 6 m in diameter driven to a depth of 22 m to support the concrete slabs, which were 6 m thick. Each of these slabs supported a block built of limestone each with an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork. Each shoe was anchored into the stonework by a pair of bolts 10 cm in diameter and 7.5 m long. No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit it was sent back to the factory for alteration. At first the legs were constructed as cantilevers but about halfway to the first level construction was paused in order to construct a substantial timber scaffold.
18. The puddle iron structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7300 tonnes, while the entire structure, including non-metal components, is approximately 10000 tonnes.
19. Chief architect: Adrian Smith Structural engineer : Bill Baker Height: 828m Cost: $1.5 billion Burj Dubai includes 163 habitable floors, 46 maintenance levels and 9 parking levels in the basement. Emaar Properties, said office space pricing at Burj Khalifa reached US$4,000 per sq. ft. and the Armani Residences, also in Burj Khalifa, sold for US$3,500 per sq. ft.
20. The tower superstructure of Burj Dubai is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from foundation level to level 156. It is topped with structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the pinnacle. The designers designed the structural concrete in shape of “Y” to reduce the wind forces on tower as well as to keep the structure simple. The exterior exposed steel surface is protected with a flame applied aluminium finish. The result is a tower that is extremely stiff laterally and torsionaly similar to a closed tube.
21. The structural system can be described as a “buttressed” core. Each wing with its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter column, buttresses the other by a six sided central core or hexagonal hub. The full 3D analysis model consisted of over 73500 shells & 75000 nodes. A specially designed concrete mix was formulated to resist the attack from ground water. Most of the reinforcing bars for the core walls, wing walls and the nose walls were pre fabricated at the ground level. This rebar fabrication and pre-assembly method in man quality control advantages and reduced the number of workers going up and down the tower.