1. Philosophies ofEducationPhilosophical positions andstatements of purpose
2. Tools of Philosophers (10f 3)Axiology is the study of values;it asks the question of “What isgood?” From axiology, wearrive at an understanding of“What is good?”We get ethics from the study ofaxiology
3. Tools of Philosophers(2 of 3)Epistemology—”How do weknow what is true?”This is a live question today—Dowe listen to standardized testresults to determine how muchstudents know, or read theirportfolios?
4. Tools of Philosophy(3 of 3)Metaphysics is somewhatrelated to epistemology andasks the question “What isreal?”Are the things that are real onlythe things that can be touchedand measured?Behaviorists vs. existentialists
5. Purposes for EducationHilda Taba,1962--Transmit thecultural heritageTransform thecultureMaximize humanpotential
6. The Seven CardinalPrinciples (1 of 2)The Seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary EducationCommission on Re-organization of Secondary Education (1918).1. Health2. Command of fundamental processes3. Worthy home membership4. Vocational competence
7. The Seven CardinalPrinciples (2 of 2)The Seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary EducationCommission on Re-organization of Secondary Education (1918).5. Citizenship6. Worthy use of leisure time7. Ethical character
8. But what do thesemean?Meaning comesfrom at least sixphilosophicalpositions that“filter” orinfluence howpeople perceiveeducationalevents.
9. EssentialismAlmost an entire generation inAmerica has grown up underessentialism.Essentialism is a conservativeview of curriculum that holdsschools responsible for only themost immediately neededinstruction.
10. Essentialism (2)Essentialismavoids some ofthe wasteinherent withexperimentalismBut it canbecome soconservativethat it fails totruly educate
11. Emphasis on a traditionaleducationDevelopment of the mindCore curriculumReality is based in thephysical worldTeacher-directed learning
12. Reading, spelling,language artsMathematics, U. S.& World HistoryNo vocationaleducation!
13. StandardizedtestsCriterionreferencedtestsNot as likely to
14. Using only text booksSeated row by rowTeacher lecture,students listenPunishment--attempted behaviorismbut without expertise
17. All students willremember thebasicinformation.All students willlearn how to
18. ExperimentalismExperimentalism is associatedwith a very broad but shallowcurriculum. Many electives, fewrequired subjects.Experimentalism is friendly toeducational research, and manynew ideas come from it.
19. Experimentalism (2)Butexperimentalismcan be wastefulof resourcesIt can also fail tofollow throughAccommodatesfads too easily
20. ExperimentalismExperimentalistteachers like totinker orexperimentThey don’t liketo leave thingsthe same all thetime.
21. Classroom Managementfor ExperimentalistsDon’t like bmodor assertivedisciplinePrefer moreconstructivisticapproachessuch asDiscipline withDignity
22. What experimentalistswould teachEverything--anything that hadany relation tostudents’ possiblefuturesHas been accusedof trying to do thehome’s job
23. Where experimentalismshinesWhen essentialism or perennialismhave been in power for so long,school programs have becomestagnantWhen school has become all workand no playWhen traditional methods havebecome ineffective
24. PerennialismPerennialism was prevalent inthe early seventies in U. S.Perennialism reveres theexperience of teachers whohave been there.Heavy orientation to the past 20years--almost nil attention tothe future
25. PerennialismPerennialistslike to teachtime-honoredcurricula,including theclassics such asPlato anAristotleThey don’t likechange.
26. PerennialismThey wouldincludesubjects suchas:• Geometry• Englishliterature• WorldGeography• Algebra• Trigonometry• AncientGeography• World history• U.S. History• Bookkeeping
27. Perennialist EvaluationMethodologyTeacher-made testsStandardized testMemory work (“mind is amuscle”)Spelling bees
28. Classroom ManagementAssign seats in rows.Be strict, but notnecessarily expert, withpunishment and reward.Set up classroom rules.
29. Orientation ExpectedSelf-contained knowledge--teacher is supposed to knowall the answersTeacher is the “fountain ofall knowledge.”Students are passivelisteners
31. Future Orientation forPerennialistsExpect future to continue in thesame vein as the presentBelief that knowing the classicsof the past will equip studentsfor the future
32. Where PerennialismShinesPerennialism does help todampen the uncertain effects ofthe fads that come to educationNot every new idea is a goodone, or one that will even beeffective.Perennialism plays well totraditional communities
33. BehaviorismBehaviorism believes in ascience of behavior that wouldshape the world into a betterplace to liveBehaviorists to some degreerightfully claim that behaviorismnaturally occurs in the worldwhether people acknowledge itor not
34. What behavioristsbelieveBehavioristsbelieve in ascience ofbehaviorThey relyheavily onscientificstudies ofbehavior andhow behavior is
35. What behaviorists wouldteachBehaviorists are at least asconcerned about how peoplebehave as what they knowThey do not tend to be biginnovators in curriculumThey will however give a fairtrial to any new curricula thatsomeone else might write
36. Where BehaviorismshinesSpecial edsituations,where studentsdo not pick upon subtle cuesabout learningor behaviorAlternative andproblem schools
37. Where behaviorism willcome shortSituations where behavior is notso much the need as thelearning of academic contentSituations where students haveinternalized appropriatebehavior and behavior does notneed to be emphasized at theexpense of scholarship.
38. ReconstructionismReconstructionists point to atime in the past when theybelieve that things were betterThey would re-create educationto be like things were backduring that timeThey cite research, particularlyhistorical, to show that thingsare not going well now.
39. What reconstructionistsbelieveReconstruction-ists point to atime in the pastwhen theybelieve thatthings werebetterThey would re-createeducation to belike things were
40. What reconstructionistswould teachReconstructionists would teachthe subjects that were taughtduring that “golden age.”The subjects would be thosethat were taught during thattime.If the 1960s, for instance, theywould teach usage of the sliderule.
41. One example ofReconstructionism1946—right afterthe SecondWorld WarGIs wantedschools andsociety to returnto what theywere beforePearl Harbor
42. Reconstructionists andtechnologyTheir orientationis very much tothe pastThey andperennialists donot reactimmediately andpositively tonew technology
43. ExistentialismExistentialists celebrate thehuman existenceVery subjectiveEmphasis on meaning withineach individualMay doubt external realityEmphasis on present
44. What existentialistsbelieveExistentialistsbelieve in theconsciousnessof the selfThey are veryconcerned withwhetherstudents findschool to be asatisfying
45. What existentialistswould teachNot the samesubjects toeveryone, sincenot everyonewould enjoy thesame thingsThey wouldemphasize self-esteem and afeeling of self-They wouldinclude topicssuch as valuesclarification and. . . .
46. An example ofexistentialism1960—SummerhillSchool inEngland1970s in someparts of America—self esteem,valuesclarification
47. A healthy balanceEach of the sixphilosophies hassomething toofferThe only hazardhappens whenone philosophyrules for a longperiod of time