Philosophies ofEducationPhilosophical positions andstatements of purpose
Tools of Philosophers (10f 3)Axiology is the study of values;it asks the question of “What isgood?” From axiology, wearrive at an understanding of“What is good?”We get ethics from the study ofaxiology
Tools of Philosophers(2 of 3)Epistemology—”How do weknow what is true?”This is a live question today—Dowe listen to standardized testresults to determine how muchstudents know, or read theirportfolios?
Tools of Philosophy(3 of 3)Metaphysics is somewhatrelated to epistemology andasks the question “What isreal?”Are the things that are real onlythe things that can be touchedand measured?Behaviorists vs. existentialists
Purposes for EducationHilda Taba,1962--Transmit thecultural heritageTransform thecultureMaximize humanpotential
The Seven CardinalPrinciples (1 of 2)The Seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary EducationCommission on Re-organization of Secondary Education (1918).1. Health2. Command of fundamental processes3. Worthy home membership4. Vocational competence
The Seven CardinalPrinciples (2 of 2)The Seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary EducationCommission on Re-organization of Secondary Education (1918).5. Citizenship6. Worthy use of leisure time7. Ethical character
But what do thesemean?Meaning comesfrom at least sixphilosophicalpositions that“filter” orinfluence howpeople perceiveeducationalevents.
EssentialismAlmost an entire generation inAmerica has grown up underessentialism.Essentialism is a conservativeview of curriculum that holdsschools responsible for only themost immediately neededinstruction.
Essentialism (2)Essentialismavoids some ofthe wasteinherent withexperimentalismBut it canbecome soconservativethat it fails totruly educate
Emphasis on a traditionaleducationDevelopment of the mindCore curriculumReality is based in thephysical worldTeacher-directed learning
Reading, spelling,language artsMathematics, U. S.& World HistoryNo vocationaleducation!
StandardizedtestsCriterionreferencedtestsNot as likely to
Using only text booksSeated row by rowTeacher lecture,students listenPunishment--attempted behaviorismbut without expertise
All students willremember thebasicinformation.All students willlearn how to
ExperimentalismExperimentalism is associatedwith a very broad but shallowcurriculum. Many electives, fewrequired subjects.Experimentalism is friendly toeducational research, and manynew ideas come from it.
Experimentalism (2)Butexperimentalismcan be wastefulof resourcesIt can also fail tofollow throughAccommodatesfads too easily
ExperimentalismExperimentalistteachers like totinker orexperimentThey don’t liketo leave thingsthe same all thetime.
Classroom Managementfor ExperimentalistsDon’t like bmodor assertivedisciplinePrefer moreconstructivisticapproachessuch asDiscipline withDignity
What experimentalistswould teachEverything--anything that hadany relation tostudents’ possiblefuturesHas been accusedof trying to do thehome’s job
Where experimentalismshinesWhen essentialism or perennialismhave been in power for so long,school programs have becomestagnantWhen school has become all workand no playWhen traditional methods havebecome ineffective
PerennialismPerennialism was prevalent inthe early seventies in U. S.Perennialism reveres theexperience of teachers whohave been there.Heavy orientation to the past 20years--almost nil attention tothe future
PerennialismPerennialistslike to teachtime-honoredcurricula,including theclassics such asPlato anAristotleThey don’t likechange.
PerennialismThey wouldincludesubjects suchas:• Geometry• Englishliterature• WorldGeography• Algebra• Trigonometry• AncientGeography• World history• U.S. History• Bookkeeping
Perennialist EvaluationMethodologyTeacher-made testsStandardized testMemory work (“mind is amuscle”)Spelling bees
Classroom ManagementAssign seats in rows.Be strict, but notnecessarily expert, withpunishment and reward.Set up classroom rules.
Orientation ExpectedSelf-contained knowledge--teacher is supposed to knowall the answersTeacher is the “fountain ofall knowledge.”Students are passivelisteners
Future Orientation forPerennialistsExpect future to continue in thesame vein as the presentBelief that knowing the classicsof the past will equip studentsfor the future
Where PerennialismShinesPerennialism does help todampen the uncertain effects ofthe fads that come to educationNot every new idea is a goodone, or one that will even beeffective.Perennialism plays well totraditional communities
BehaviorismBehaviorism believes in ascience of behavior that wouldshape the world into a betterplace to liveBehaviorists to some degreerightfully claim that behaviorismnaturally occurs in the worldwhether people acknowledge itor not
What behavioristsbelieveBehavioristsbelieve in ascience ofbehaviorThey relyheavily onscientificstudies ofbehavior andhow behavior is
What behaviorists wouldteachBehaviorists are at least asconcerned about how peoplebehave as what they knowThey do not tend to be biginnovators in curriculumThey will however give a fairtrial to any new curricula thatsomeone else might write
Where BehaviorismshinesSpecial edsituations,where studentsdo not pick upon subtle cuesabout learningor behaviorAlternative andproblem schools
Where behaviorism willcome shortSituations where behavior is notso much the need as thelearning of academic contentSituations where students haveinternalized appropriatebehavior and behavior does notneed to be emphasized at theexpense of scholarship.
ReconstructionismReconstructionists point to atime in the past when theybelieve that things were betterThey would re-create educationto be like things were backduring that timeThey cite research, particularlyhistorical, to show that thingsare not going well now.
What reconstructionistsbelieveReconstruction-ists point to atime in the pastwhen theybelieve thatthings werebetterThey would re-createeducation to belike things were
What reconstructionistswould teachReconstructionists would teachthe subjects that were taughtduring that “golden age.”The subjects would be thosethat were taught during thattime.If the 1960s, for instance, theywould teach usage of the sliderule.
One example ofReconstructionism1946—right afterthe SecondWorld WarGIs wantedschools andsociety to returnto what theywere beforePearl Harbor
Reconstructionists andtechnologyTheir orientationis very much tothe pastThey andperennialists donot reactimmediately andpositively tonew technology
ExistentialismExistentialists celebrate thehuman existenceVery subjectiveEmphasis on meaning withineach individualMay doubt external realityEmphasis on present
What existentialistsbelieveExistentialistsbelieve in theconsciousnessof the selfThey are veryconcerned withwhetherstudents findschool to be asatisfying
What existentialistswould teachNot the samesubjects toeveryone, sincenot everyonewould enjoy thesame thingsThey wouldemphasize self-esteem and afeeling of self-They wouldinclude topicssuch as valuesclarification and. . . .
An example ofexistentialism1960—SummerhillSchool inEngland1970s in someparts of America—self esteem,valuesclarification
A healthy balanceEach of the sixphilosophies hassomething toofferThe only hazardhappens whenone philosophyrules for a longperiod of time