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Women Mathematicians

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-a project in History of Mathematics

-a project in History of Mathematics

Published in: Education, Technology, Spiritual
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  • 1. Roxanne Joie V. DeanBSE IV Major in Mathematics Batch 2012
  • 2. Return 18th Century & Before 19 th Century
  • 3. Home Return Maria Gaetana Theano Agnesi Hypatia Caroline Herschel Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia Sophie Germain Mary Fairfax Emilie du Chatelet Somerville
  • 4. Next 18th Century Home Return
  • 5. Previous 18th Century Home Return Theano was the wife of Pythagoras. She and her two daughters carried on the Pythagorean School after the death of Pythagoras. She wrote treatises on mathematics, physics, medicine, and child psychology. Her most important work was the principle of the “Golden Mean.”
  • 6. Next 18th Century Home Return
  • 7. Previous Next 18th Century Home Return Hypatia was the daughter of Theon, who was considered one of the most educated men in Alexandria, Egypt. Hypatia was known more for the work she did in mathematics than in astronomy, primarily for her work on the ideas of conic sections introduced by Apollonius. Hypatia
  • 8. Previous 18th Century Home Return Hypatia was the first woman to have such a profound impact on the survival of early thought in mathematics. She edited the work “On the Conics of Apollonius”, which divided cones into different parts by a plane. This concept developed the ideas of hyperbolas, parabolas, and ellipses. Hypatia
  • 9. Next 18th Century Home Return
  • 10. Previous 18th Century Home Return Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia was born into a noble Venetian family on June 5, 1646 in Venice, Italy. She was given the title “Oraculum Septilingue” due to her command of languages. In Hypatias Heritage, Margaret Alic states that she became a mathematics lecturer at the University of Padua in 1678. Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia
  • 11. Next 18th Century Home Return
  • 12. Previous Next 18th Century Home Return Born in Paris on December 17, 1706, she grew up in a household where the art of courting was the only way one could mold a place in society. Emilies work in mathematics was rarely original or as captivating as that of other female mathematicians but it was substantive. Emilie du Chatelet
  • 13. Previous 18th Century Home Return Among her greatest achievements were her “Institutions du physique” and the translation of Newtons “Principia”, which was published after her death along with a “Preface historique” by Voltaire. Emilie du Châtelet was one of many women whose contributions have helped shape the course of mathematics Emilie du Chatelet
  • 14. Next 18th Century Home Return
  • 15. Previous Next 18th Century Home Return Maria Gaetana Agnesi was born in Milan on May 16, 1718, to a wealthy and literate family. In 1738 she published a collection of complex essays on natural science and philosophy called “Propositiones Philosophicae”, based on the discussions of the intellectuals who gathered at her fathers home. Maria Gaetana Agnesi
  • 16. Previous Next 18th Century Home Return By the age of twenty, she began working on her most important work, “Analytical Institutions,” dealing with differential and integral calculus. It was one of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis. Marias great contribution to mathematics with this book was that it brought the works of various mathematicians together in a very systematic way with her own interpretations. Maria Gaetana Agnesi
  • 17. Previous 18th Century Home Return “Analytical Institutions” gave a clear summary of the state of knowledge in mathematical analysis. Maria Gaetana Agnesi is best known from the curve called the “Witch of Agnesi.” Maria Gaetana Agnesi
  • 18. Next 18th Century Home Return
  • 19. Previous Next 18th Century Home Return Caroline Herschel was born in 1750 into a working class family in Hanover, Germany. Typhus struck Caroline at age ten. This stunted Carolines growth; she never grew past four foot three. When Caroline was twenty-two, her brother, William, took her away from her home in Hanover to Bath, England. He felt sympathy for his sister, and he needed a housekeeper. Caroline Herschel
  • 20. Previous Next 18th Century Home Return William Herschel had an obsession with seeing deeper and deeper into space by creating very powerful telescopes. After Caroline arrived, his notoriety flourished in England as a great telescope maker. William trained her in mathematics, yet she was still a house maid, not yet his apprentice. In time she began to help him in his business. Caroline Herschel
  • 21. Previous 18th Century Home Return Her first experience in mathematics was her catalogue of nebulae. She calculated the positions of her brothers and her own discoveries and amassed them into a publication. One interesting fact is that Caroline never learned her multiplication tables. Caroline Herschel
  • 22. Next 18th Century Home Return
  • 23. Previous 18th Century Home Return Sophie Germain was born in an era of revolution. In the year of her birth, the American Revolution began. She was a middle class female who went against the wishes of her family and the social prejudices of the time to become a highly recognized mathematician. She is best known for her work in number theory. Her work in the theory of elasticity is also very important to mathematics. Sophie Germain
  • 24. Next 18th Century Home Return
  • 25. Previous 18th Century Home Return Mary Fairfax Somerville was born on December 26, 1780 in Jedburgh Scotland “The Mechanism of the Heavens” was a great success, probably the most famous of her mathematical writings. Mary Fairfax Somerville
  • 26. Home Return 1800-1819 1820-1839 1840-1859
  • 27. 19th Century Home Return Ada Byron Lovelace
  • 28. Next 1800 19th Century Home Return
  • 29. Previous Next 1800 19th Century Home Return Augusta Ada Byron was born December 10, 1815 the daughter of the illustrious poet, Lord Byron. In November, 1834 Ada heard Babbage’s ideas for a new calculating engine, the Analytical Engine and she was touched by the "universality of his ideas". Ada Byron Lovelace
  • 30. Previous Next 1800 19th Century Home Return Babbage worked on plans for this new engine and an Italian, Menabrea, wrote a summary of what Babbage described and published an article in French and Ada translated Menabreas article. In her article, published in 1843, Lady Lovelaces prescient comments included her predictions that such a machine might be used to compose complex music, to produce graphics, and would be used for both practical and scientific use. She was correct. Ada Byron Lovelace
  • 31. Previous 1800 19th Century Home Return Ada suggested to Babbage writing a plan for how the engine might calculate Bernoulli numbers. This plan, is now regarded as the first “computer program.” A software language developed by the U.S. Department of Defense was named “Ada” in her honor in 1979. Ada Byron Lovelace
  • 32. 19th Century Home Return Florence Nightingale Mary Everest Boole
  • 33. Next 1820 19th Century Home Return
  • 34. Previous Next 1820 19th Century Home Return Florence Nightingale is most remembered as a pioneer of nursing and a reformer of hospital sanitation methods. She developed the “polar-area diagram” to dramatize the needless deaths caused by unsanitary conditions and the need for reform. She was an innovator in the collection, tabulation, interpretation, and graphical display of descriptive statistics. Florence Nightingale
  • 35. Previous 1820 19th Century Home Return She also developed a Model Hospital Statistical Form for hospitals to collect and generate consistent data and statistics. She became a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society in 1858 and an honorary member of the American Statistical Association in 1874. Karl Pearson acknowledged Nighingale as a “prophetess” in the development of applied statistics. Florence Nightingale
  • 36. Next 1820 19th Century Home Return
  • 37. Previous Next 1820 19th Century Home Return Mary Everest Boole was born in England in 1832. At the age of 50, Mary began writing a series of books and articles, publishing them regularly until the time of her death. Mary wrote and published her first book, “The Preparation of the Child for Science,” in 1904. This book ultimately had a great impact on progressive schools in England and the United States in the first part of the twentieth century. Mary Everest Boole
  • 38. Previous 1820 19th Century Home Return She also invented “curve stitching,” or what we call today, string geometry, to help children learn about the geometry of angles and spaces. Mary considered herself a mathematical psychologist. Her goal was to try "...to understand how people, and especially children, learned mathematics and science, using the reasoning parts of their minds, their physical bodies, and their unconscious processes. Mary Everest Boole
  • 39. 19th Century Home Return Susan Jane Ellen Amanda Cunningham Elizaveta Fedorovna Hayes Litvinova Hertha Ayrton Christine Ladd- Ida Metcalf Franklin Sofia Charlotte Angas KovalevskayaAnna Julia Scott Cooper
  • 40. Next 1840 19th Century Home Return
  • 41. Previous Next 1840 19th Century Home Return Susan Cunningham was born in Virginia. She studied astronomy and mathematics at Vassar College as a special student during 1866-67. In 1869 she helped to begin the astronomy and mathematics departments for the opening of Swarthmore College. She headed those two departments until her retirement from Swarthmore in 1906, rising through the ranks from instructor to full professor. Susan Jane Cunningham
  • 42. Previous 1840 19th Century Home Return In 1891 Cunningham was elected a member of the New York Mathematical Society (later to become the American Mathematical Society), one of the first six women to join this organization. She remained a member until her death in 1921. Susan Jane Cunningham
  • 43. Next 1840 19th Century Home Return
  • 44. Previous 1840 19th Century Home Return She studied mathematics on her own in Russia. In 1872 she went to Zurich to study at the Polytechnic Institute, receiving her baccalaureate in 1876, and her doctoral degree in 1878 from Bern University. She published over 70 articles on the philosophy and practice of teaching mathematics. Elizaveta Fedorovna Litvinova
  • 45. Next 1840 19th Century Home Return
  • 46. Previous Next 1840 19th Century Home Return Christine Ladd was born in Windsor, Connecticut on December 1, 1847. She published solutions to mathematical problems in the Educational Times of London and the American journal The Analyst, and even studied mathematics at Harvard with W. E. Byerly and James Mills Peirce. Christine Ladd- Franklin
  • 47. Previous 1840 19th Century Home Return At Johns Hopkins, Ladd developed her interest in symbolic logic through the lectures of Charles Sanders Peirce, writing a dissertation on “The Algebra of Logic” and publishing several more articles in The Analyst. Christine Ladd- Franklin
  • 48. Next 1840 19th Century Home Return
  • 49. Previous Next 1840 19th Century Home Return An extraordinary woman, Sofia Kovalevskaya (also known as Sonia Kovalevsky) was not only a great mathematician, but also a writer and advocate of womens rights in the 19th century. At the end of 4 years in the University, Sofia had produced three papers in the hopes of being awarded a degree. The first of these was entitled “On the Theory of Partial Differential Equations.” Sofia Kovalevskaya
  • 50. Previous Next 1840 19th Century Home Return In 1880, she presented a paper on Abelian integrals at a scientific conference and was very well received. She gained a tenured position at the university, was appointed an editor for a mathematics journal, published her first paper on crystals, and in 1885, was also appointed Chair of Mechanics. Sofia Kovalevskaya
  • 51. Previous 1840 19th Century Home Return In 1888, she entered her paper, “On the Rotation of a Solid Body about a Fixed Point,” in a competition for the Prix Bordin by the French Academy of Science and won. Sofia Kovalevskaya
  • 52. Next 1840 19th Century Home Return
  • 53. Previous Next 1840 19th Century Home Return Ellen Hayes was born in Granville, Ohio, a town that her maternal grandparents helped to found in 1805. Hayes was the first member of the Wellesley faculty to be given the title of Assistant Professor in 1882, and Associate Professor in 1883. She was appointed Professor and head of the mathematics department in 1888. Ellen Amanda Hayes
  • 54. Previous 1840 19th Century Home Return Her title was changed to Professor of Applied Mathematics, and in 1904 to Professor of Applied Mathematics and Astronomy. Hayes wrote several textbooks on Lessons on Higher Algebra (1891, revised 1894), Elementary Trigonometry (1896), and Calculus with Applications, An Introduction to the Mathematical Treatment of Science (1900). Ellen Amanda Hayes
  • 55. Next 1840 19th Century Home Return
  • 56. Previous Next 1840 19th Century Home Return Phoebe Sarah Marks was born in Portsea, England in 1854. She changed her first name to Hertha when she was a teenager. She passed the Mathematical Tripos in 1880, although with a disappointing Third Class performance. In 1884 she invented a draftsmans device that could be used for dividing up a line into equal parts as well as for enlarging and reducing figures. Hertha Ayrton
  • 57. Previous 1840 19th Century Home Return She was also active in devising and solving mathematical problems, many of which were published in the Mathematical Questions and Their Solutions from the “Educational Times.” She published several papers from her own research in electric arcs in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London and The Electrician, and published the book “The Electric Arc” in 1902. Hertha Ayrton
  • 58. Next 1840 19th Century Home Return
  • 59. Previous 1840 19th Century Home Return Ida Metcalf was born in 1857. In 1893 she became the second American woman to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics with a dissertation entitled “Geometric Duality in Spaces.” For a time she was an assistant to Professor George Williams Jones in writing his mathematical textbooks, drill books in algebra and trigonometry, and logarithm and interest tables. Ida Martha Metcalf
  • 60. Next 1840 19th Century Home Return
  • 61. Previous Next 1840 19th Century Home Return Charlotte Angas Scott overcame societys disapproval by emerging as one of Englands first women to obtain a doctorate in mathematics. Charlotte wrote a book entitled “An Introductory Account of Certain Modern Ideas and Methods in Plane Analytical Geometry” which was first published in 1894, reprinted thirty years later , and still widely used. Charlotte Angas Scott
  • 62. Previous 1840 19th Century Home Return She is credited with being the author of the first mathematical research paper written in the US to be widely recognized in Europe, “A Proof of Noethers Fundamental Theorem,” Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 52 (1899). Charlotte Angas Scott
  • 63. Next 1840 19th Century Home Return
  • 64. Previous Next 1840 19th Century Home Return Anna Haywood was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1858, the daughter of a slave woman and her white master. Cooper had a long and distinguished career as a teacher, primarily at Washington High School in Washington, D.C.where she was originally hired to teach mathematics and science, and later as president of Frelinghuysen University, a Washington school for adult education. Anna Julia Haywood Cooper
  • 65. Previous 1840 19th Century Home Return She was also well known as an author. Her first book, “A Voice from the South: By a Woman from the South,” published in 1892, is often considered as one of the first articulations of Black Feminism. Anna Julia Haywood Cooper

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