Taboos & issues advanced


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Taboos & issues advanced

  1. 1. Death "Die, my dear doctor? ThatsIntroduction the last thing I shall do!"Do you find this conversation offensive? Lord Palmerston I havent seen Harry for months. How is he? > Dead! He died just before Christmas. SURPRISING HONESTY AT FUNERALWhich would you prefer to say? Family and friends at the funeral of George He passed away just before Christmas. Ramsbottom in Honley, West Yorkshire, were stunned when his brother, Frank, stoodor We lost him just before Christmas. up in the church and told everyone that hisDo you use similar expressions in your language to brother would not be missed.avoid the words dead or died? If so, what are they? Describing his brother as the meanest man he had ever met, he went on to list all the people who would be glad to know thatDiscussion George had died, and gave the reasons why.In your country: He claimed that George was a liar, a cheat, a womaniser and a drunk. "He owed money to1.When someone dies, what happens to their body? half the people in the village; he had ruined a. It is buried. b. It is cremated. c. Something else a number of marriages; and he was often2. Where do funeral ceremonies take place? incredibly rude for no good reason. No one a. In a church b. At a shrine c. Somewhere else will be sad that he has gone," said Frank3. Who usually attends funerals? Ramsbottom. a. Only men b. Men and women c. Anyone Mr Ramsbottoms unexpected speech was4. What colour do people wear to signify death? followed by complete silence. Eventually a. Black b. White c. A different colottr Margaret Dudley, the minister in charge of5 . What do people usually do at funerals? the service, stood to say, "Let us give thanks for Georges life with our final song." She a. Cry openly and express strong emotions. then sang on her own while everyone else b. Keep their emotions under control. stood in silence. The service ended shortly c. T r ~ f to cry, but cry quietly if they cannot help it. not afterwards.When you die, would you prefer to be buried or cremated?Reading HOME BURIAL CAUSES ANGERRead the two articles opposite. Then choose the best A family who buried a relative in their backanswers to these two questions: garden have angered neighbours.1. Why do you think nobody sang the final song at the Residents of a care home were shocked to funeral of George Ramsbottom? see the coffin of Daniel Stevens lowered into a grave in Chesterfield Road, Maplethorpe. a. Because they didnt agree with Georges brother. Staff at the Adamson care home, which b. Because they were shocked by what had happened. overlooks the garden, want the body re-2. What is Maplethorpe council going to do? buried in a cemetery. a. Order the body to be re-buried in a cemetery. Geraldine Thomson, the manager of the b. Nothing. home, said: "Someone sent me a letter lastDiscuss the questions below in pairs: week to say the funeral would happen on1. Was Frank Ramsbottom right to make the speech? Thursday. I thought it was a joke.2. "You should never speak ill of the dead." Do you There were about 200 people in the garden for the service. When I called the police they agree? said they couldnt do anything to stop it3. Can you bury someone in their garden in your because it wasnt illegal." country? Maplethorpe council said it was not able to4. Can you scatter their ashes wherever you like? prevent a burial on private land as long as5 . How would you feel if your next-door neighbours certain rules were followed. buried their grandmother in their back garden?1 Death Taboos and Issues C
  2. 2. Language 9. You look like . . . . . . . . warmed up! Are you ill?Use the correct form of these verbs below: 10. I dont just want to sit on the beach all day. die kill murder Ill be bored t o . . . . . . . . .1.Im just going outside. Im . . . . . . . . . . for a Do you have similar idioms in your language? cigarette. Do you know these idiomatic expressions?2. Do you want a drink? Hes kicked the bucket. > Yes, I could . . . . . . . . a cup of tea. Hes popped his clogs.3. Whats your new boyfriend like? Im Hes gone to meet his maker. . . . . . . . . . to meet him.4. Ive been out shopping all day. My feet are . . . . . . . . . . . me!5. The train doesnt leave till 4, so weve got nearly an hour to . . . . . . . . .6. Just keep quiet. Whenever you open your mouth, you . . . . . . . . . . the English language!Add the following words to these sentences: death murder 7. When is it going to stop raining? Im sick to . . . . . . . . of this weather! 8. Sorry Im so late. The traffic was . . . . . . . . "Will you please take your feet off m y best chair!"DiscussionAnswer the questions below on your own:1. How do you feel when the subject of death comes into the conversation? a. Uncomfortable - I dont want t o talk about it. b. It depends h o w other people react. c. Fine - its perfectly natural t o talk about death.Or do you have another reaction?2. You have to tell a close friend that a mutual friend of yours has died. You know that they were very close. How would you start the conversation? a. Im afraid w e wont be meeting Mary for lunch o n Friday after all. b. Have you heard? Marys just died. c. Youd better sit down. Ive got some bad news about Mary. She died last night.Or would you say something else?3. A friend of yours (a rather unreliable one) has just died, owing you a lot of money. After the funeral his sister comes to talk to you. Do you say: a. I was hoping t o meet one of the family so I can get m y money back. b. Poor George! H e was such a good friend. (and forget about the money) c. I shall miss George - b u t n o t as m u c h as the %I000he owed me!Or would you say something else?4. If the only work available was working with dead bodies - for example as an undertaker or a pathologist - what would you do? a. Take the job. Somebody has t o d o jobs like that. Its n o big deal. b. I could never d o a job like that. W h a t would m y friends think? Id rather starve. c. Id ask for a huge salary. It would be OK if 1 was paid a lot. d. Please stop talking about it. I feel sick.Compare and discuss your answers in pairs or small groups.Is it OK to joke about death?Taboos and Issues Death 1 r
  3. 3. VocabularyNude /Naked - both words mean wearing no clothes. For example: He was completely naked. She was standing there, in the nude.Naturism is the activity of not wearing any clothes because you believe it is more natural or healthy.The people who do this are called nudists or naturists.DiscussionHow would you react in the following situations? Would you laugh, be embarrassed, cover your eyes,have a good look, or do something else?1.You are watching a football match when a 4. You are at the beach with your family. A man naked woman runs onto the pitch and stops and a woman put their towels near you, rake the game. off all their clothes and lie down t o sunbathe.2. Some new friends of yours have a sauna. After 5. You are invited to dinner by some people you dinner, they suggest you all relax and chat in dont know very well. After dinner, they show the sauna. When you are getting ready, you you their holiday photographs. They had been discover that you are expected to be naked. t o a naturist resort in the south of France. The pictures leave nothing t o the imagination!3. You are shopping in the main street of your town. You notice a man walking down the 6. Your new boyfriend/girlfriend suggests going to street. He is not wearing any clothes, but is the beach. When you get there, its a nudist carrying a shopping bag. beach.ReadingAnswer these questions. Then read the article to find out the answers.1. How many naturists d o you think there are in Britain? a. 5,000 b. 25,000 c. 50,0002. How many official nudist beaches d o you think there are in Britain? a. 10 b. 50 c. 1003. Do you think it is possible t o go on a nudist package holiday? EVERY BEACH SHOULD BE A NUDIST BEACH This summer British naturists are spokesperson for BN, the British England to France, which British planning to swim and bathe naked Naturism magazine. "We will Naturism hopes will increase on public beaches throughout the defend our members in court ... as awareness of topless and nudist country to draw attention to public long as we are satisfied that they beaches in many parts of the world. and official opposition to their have behaved reasonably and Britain already has 170 clubs and 10 lifestyle. theres been no indecent beaches where naturism is officially British Naturism, the leading UK behaviour." permitted and, surprisingly, the organisation for naturists, is not The Nude Tolerance Campaign, naturist lifestyle is becoming big only encouraging its members to which started quietly last business. Members of BN enjoy bathe naked wherever they want, November, is building up as discounts on ferry services, car but is also promising to defend summer arrives and Britains rental and breakdown insurance and them in court if they are arrested by 25,000 naturists arrive at beaches can enjoy f2,000 nudist Caribbean the police. and clubs all over the UK. There cruises. Several large tour "Basically, our view is that every will also be a nude cross-Channel operators, including Virgin, offer beach is a naturists beach," said a relay swim from the south of naturist summer packages.2 Nudity r Taboos and Issues
  4. 4. Discussion DiscussionRead the article again and answer these Discuss these questions in a group:questions: 1. Do you or would you go naked:1. How does British Naturism feel about beaches - on a secluded beach? in Britain? - in the sea?2. How will British Naturism help its members? - with your family around?3. What sporting event are they organising? - at a naturist camp?4. What benefits do members of British Naturism 2. Have you ever been in an embarrassing get? situation involving nudity? What happened?Discuss these questions with a partner: 3. Do you ever dream that you are suddenly in1. Have you been to a nudist beach? If not, the nude? What do dreams like this mean? would you go to one? Why?N(lhy not? 4. What are the laws in your country regarding2. Do you ever walk around your house or garden nudity? Are you happy with them? with no clothes on? When? Why?N(lhy not?3. Would you like to go on a nudist Caribbean Read this article and discuss the questions which cruise? follow: NUDE ACTIVIST LOSES IN COURTLanguage A man who wants the right to be nude in public promised yesterday to take his clothes off permanentlyLook at these sentences from the article: until nakedness in public places becomes legal. William Bradford, 34, of Wolverhampton, made the Basically, our view is that every beach is promise outside court buildings after being fined £80 a naturists beach. for walking naked through Coventry city centre last ... surprisingly, the naturist lifestyle is year. He had earlier walked all the way to the court becoming big business. wearing only a smile.Match the words to one of the meanings below: basically surprisingly 1. Do you think Mr Bradfords punishment was obviously ideally reasonable or do you think he has a point? possibly realistically 2. If people were allowed to walk around naked,1.This might happen (but it might not). what effect would it have? What advantages2. This is a simple summary of the situation. and disadvantages would there be?3. This would be the best situation ... 3. If it became acceptable to be naked in public,4. ... but this is what will probably happen. would you choose to be? Why?N(lhy not?5. I didnt expect this situation to happen.6. The situation is quite clear to you and me.Now choose the correct word in italics in eachsentence below: 7. RealisticallylSurprisingly,my grandfather often sunbathes in the nude. 8. Basicallylldeally, I feel that there is nothing wrong with nudity. 9. SurprisinglylIdeally, people should be able to choose to wear clothes or not.10. But, realisticallylpossibly, the government is unlikely to change the law.11. SurprisinglylObviously, you would cause quite a sensation if you walked down the street naked.12. PossiblylIdeally, more people in Britain would be interested in naturism if the weather was " I told you w e were over-dressed!" better!Taboos and Issues Nudity 2 e
  5. 5. Politically incorrect jokesDiscussionRead this joke about a blind person. Is it funny? A blind man and his guide dog went into a department store to do some Christmas shopping. All of a sudden, the man picked up his dog by the tail and started to swing it around in a circle. A sales assistant shouted, "Sir! Can I help you?" "No thanks," the blind man replied, "Im just looking."Have you ever laughed at something that other people thought was not funny or told a joke which upsetpeople? Describe the situation.Is it OK to tell jokes about anything and everything? Would any or all of the following offend you? Why? a joke about a physically disabled person a joke that makes fun of women a joke that makes fun of men a joke that makes fun of the elderly a joke that ridicules a particular religion a joke involving a particular country or nationality a joke making fun of lawyers a joke that makes fun of blondesDo you know any jokes involving any of the above?Is there a particular group of people in your country who are often the object of jokes?LanguageUse the correct form of these verbs to complete the jokes below: Put drown make climb say have call take retrain throw1. How do you . . . . . . . . a blonde laugh on 6. Why dont blondes get coffee breaks? Friday? > It takes too long to . . . . . . them afterwards. > Tell her a joke on Monday. 7. What do intelligent blondes and UFOs2. How do you . . . . . . . . a blonde? . . . . . . . . in common? > Put a mirror on the bottom of a swimming > You often hear about them, but you never pool. see one.3. Whats the difference between a blonde and a 8. How many blondes does it . . . . . . . . to screw computer? in a light bulb? > You only have to . . . . . . . . information into > One. She holds the bulb still and the world a computer once. revolves around her.4. Why did the blonde . . . . . . . . over the glass 9. What do you . . . . . . . . a blonde with half a wall? brain? > To see what was on the other side. > Gifted.5. What do you do if a blonde .... ....a 10.What would a blonde . . . . . . . . if her doctor grenade at you? told her that she was pregnant? > Pull the pin out and throw it back. > Is it mine?Did you find these jokes offensive? Do you know anybody who would? Are they blonde?Think about a joke that you know and try to translate it into English. Write it down first and then tell it toa classmate.3 Politically incorrect jokes C Taboos and Issues u
  6. 6. ReadingThe authors would like to make it clear that none of the following jokes has been written by them. Theyare typical of jokes which exist in books of jokes and on joke websites. The jokes printed here are amongthe least offensive! As you read the jokes below, rate each one for its level of humour and level ofoffensiveness:HUMOUR A: very funny B: a bit funny C: n o t funnyOFFENSIVENESS A: very offensive B: a little offensive C: n o t offensive at all Joke 1 Joke 7 Q: H o w can you tell when a lawyer is lying? How do you make a cat go woof? A: His lips are moving. Soak it in petrol and throw it on the fire. Joke 2 Joke 8 A woman was paying for some items in a There was a young man from Calcutta, supermarket - a pint of milk, a packet of bacon, a Who had the most terrible stutter, small bag of rice and a few vegetables. The man at He said, Pass the h-ham, the checkout said, "I bet youre single, arent you?" And the j-j-j-jam, "Well yes, I am," the woman replied. "How did you And the b-b-b-b-b-b-butter. know?" "Because youre really very ugly," replied the man. Joke 9 A young man with a wild and multi-coloured Joke 3 hairstyle sits next to an old man on a park.bench. H O W TO IMPRESS A W O M A N The old man stares at the young man. "Whats the Compliment her, cuddle her, kiss her, caress her, matter, old man?" says the young man. "Never done love her, stroke her, comfort her, protect her, hug anything crazy in your life?" The old man replies: her, wine and dine her, buy gifts for her, listen to "Yeah. When I was in the Navy, I got really drunk her, respect her, stand by her, support her, go to the one night and had sex with a parrot. I thought you ends of the earth for her. might be my son." H O W TO IMPRESS A M A N Joke 1 0 Arrive naked ... with beer. Q: H o w do you know when youre too fat? A: When you step on the scales and it says To Joke 4 be continued. How do you make a dog drink? Put it in a liquidiser. J Joke 11 Q: If your wife comes out of the kitchen to nag you, Joke 5 what have you done wrong? Q: H o w do men sort their laundry? A: Made her chain too long. A: Filthy and Filthy but still wearable. Joke 12 Joke 6 Q: Why do Italian men wear lots of gold chains Q: What has four legs and eight arms? around their necks? A: A pit-bull terrier in a childrens playground. A: So they know when to stop shaving.Match the following reactions to the relevant jokes above:a. A n y b o d y w h o thinks setting fire t o a n animal is funny needs psychiatric help. They are sick!b. Thats in really b a d taste. People w h o have a speech impediment cant help it.c. I dont think y o u should joke about peoples appearance. Its n o t their fault!d. I dont get it. (I dont understand the joke.)DiscussionDid you find any of the jokes offensive or sick? Which, if any?Who would be offended by the jokes above? Consider each one with a partner.Are there any categories of jokes that you would describe as offensive that were not included above?Taboos and Issues Politically incorrect jokes 3 ? -- - - -- --
  7. 7. Taboo conversation topicsDiscussionWork in pairs. Discuss these questions:When you fill in a form, are you happy t o give this information: Your age? Your marital status? Your income?Are there any other questions you dont like answering?ReadingRead through the four conversations below. Who are the people and what is the situation?Conversation 1A: Your blood pressure is absolutely fine. Have you been eating normally?B: O h yes. The same as normal.A: And d o you take any regular exercise?B: Yes, I play squash twice a week.A: Mm. Tell me, how much do you weigh?B: About 68 kilos.Conversation 2A: Hello, Im Jean Walker. Weve just moved in next door.B: Paul Burton. Pleased t o meet you. D o you work locally?A: Yes, Im a solicitor with a firm o n the High Street.B: A solicitor. Thats a good job. H o w much do you earn?Conversation 3A: Hello. Im looking for a white tennis shirt.B: OK. Tennis shirts are over here.A: As you can see, Ill need a fairly large size. "Good morning. Id like to talkB: Yes, I can see that. H o w much do you weigh, to you about the Bible." if you dont mind me asking?Conversation 4 DiscussionA: Gareth, you will be delighted t o hear that we 1. In each dialogue there is a personal question. would like t o offer you the job. Decide if the question is appropriate to theB: Great! Thank you very much. situation and the speakers. If it is notA: We need t o talk a bit about salaries. appropriate, why isnt it?B: Right, yes, of course. 2. The questions in conversations 2 and 3 do notA: Remind me, how much d o you earn a t the have answers. How do you think the speaker moment? should reply in these situations?B: About L35,000 a year. 3. Have you ever been asked an inappropriateA: Yes, well, we wont be able t o give you more question? When and who by? How did you than that initially, but we should be able to respond? Have you ever asked an inappropriate match it. question by accident? What happened?4 Taboo conversatioa topics Taboos and Issues 1
  8. 8. LanguageMark the expressions below in the following way: Q if they are polite ways of asking personal questions R if they are ways of responding to personal questions1. I hope you dont mind me asking, but ...2. Id rather not answer that (if you dont mind).3. I know this is a bit nosey, but ...4. Mind your own business!5. Why d o you ask?6. Can I ask you a personal question?7. Thats rather a personal question.8. I know this is a bit personal, but ...9. Im afraid thats really none of your business.DiscussionLook at the questions below. Decide who has the right to ask you these questions. It may be a particularperson, for example, a doctor, a priest, a police officer, a partnerllover. It might be anybody or it mightbe nobody. Write anvone, a articular Rerson or no one next to each question.H o w old are you? Have you ever taken drugs?H o w much d o you weigh? Are you planning t o start a family?H o w tall are you? W h o did you vote for at the last election?H o w much d o you earn? Have you got a criminal record?Have you got a boylgirlfriend? Are you gay?Are you a virgin? H o w much was your CD-player?Are you married? What religion are you?Were your parents married? H o w d o you feel about abortion?Work in pairs. Ask your partner the questions. Use the expressions in the Language work to help youask and answer the questions.Your best friendCould you say these things to your best friend? Your breath is terrible. I think youve had enough t o drink. You smell nice. What is it? You look silly in that shirt. You need a, haircut. I think you should ring and apologise. Your boy/girlfriends got nice legs. If you want t o smoke, d o it outside. I wish youd learn how t o make coffee. Your fly is undone. (fly = trouser zip)Could you say the same things to your teacher or your boss?Do you have a friend you can say anvthing to?Are you a tactful person or are you more blunt and direct?Do you think being direct is a good or a bad thing?Taboos and I Taboo conversation topics 4 -,
  9. 9. It should be banned! Discussion Here is a list of some things which are banned in some countries, but are allowed in others. In pairs or small groups, discuss whether they are banned in your country and then compare with others in your class: s m o k i n g inside public buildings topless s u n b a t h i n g smoking marijuana a b o r t i o n pills parents smacking children selling alcohol on election d a y If some or all of the things above are not banned in your country, do you think they should be? Why Iwhy not? Reading Read these articles and answer the questions below each one with a partner: WOMAN ARRESTED ON RIO BEACH FOX HUNT SABOTEURS ARRESTED A young woman was arrested yesterday for using Two men and a woman were arrested by police after only one part of her two-part bikini. Brazilians are pulling a man off his horse. causing him to break his famous for their love of the beach. and wear very arm. The incident happened as the three tried to stop small bikinis but topless sunbathing is still not a fox-hunt going ahead in the Sussex countryside in. allowed. Police used to have a look the other way the south of England. policy but local authorities have begun to enforce the Several minutes of arguing had preceded the attack controversial law which forbids nudity. The woman when the small group arrived with bells and whistles was unrepentant after her arrest: "This is Brazil - not to confuse the dogs and horses. "Hunting foxes is England, not the US. We believe in freedom and we murder," screamed one of the group before being led believe in the right to show our bodies. This is away by police. absolutely ridiculous." 1. Do you feel sympathetic towards the offenders 1. Is this law sensible, in your opinion? in this article? Why? Why not? 2. What is meant by a look the other way policy? 2. Do you have any animal sports in your country 3. "We believe in the right to show our bodies." which you think should be banned? Do you agree with her? BAR FINED FOR ALLOWING SMOKING KU KLUX KLAN RALLY VIOLENCE Popular bar OMalleys was fined $1,000 on Friday Four members of the Ku Klux Klan brotherhood night for disobeying the new San Francisco city order were beaten up at a public rally in which KKK which prohibits smoking in any public building. The members were calling for "a cry for white freedom." owner plans to appeal against the fine before a Tempers began to flare when the Klan members, hearing this afternoon. "I tell you, even if the fine dressed in traditional white robes, began their march stays, theres no way Im going to make my loyal through a predominantly black neighbourhood customers go outside in the cold to smoke," he said shouting "White power!" Locals took to the streets yesterday. His customers have offered a lot of and showed their opposition, some using violence. support. Four men were arrested by the police. "Has the world gone mad? This is a bar! Its a place "We are a peaceful organisation with the right to for vices," said one regular. "I cant drink without speak our minds," said one Klansman. "Its not our smoking!" fault these people are animals." I What do you think about this law? . 1. Do you sympathise with the offenders? 2. What do you think the bar owner should do? 2. The man from the KKK said they had the right 3. What was one customers justification for to speak our minds. Do you agree? smoking in the bar? Do you agree? 3. Should groups like the KKK be banned? 5 It should banned! Taboos and Issues
  10. 10. LanguageUse the correct form of these verbs to complete urge campaign boycottthe texts below: ban lobby carry out sign go on protest against I belong to an organisation that (4) . . . . . . . . . .I ( 1 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a protest march against animals being used t o test cosmetics. Wetomorrow with Greenpeace t o (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 5 ) . . . . . . . . politicians and consumer groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . the Japanese Governments and (6) . . . . . . . the general public to (7) . . . . . .policy o n whaling. We are trying t o get 5,000 companies that (8) . . . . . . . . . experiments onpeople t o (3) . . . . . . . . . . a petition, which we animals. Our aim eventually is for theplan t o hand in t o the Japanese Embassy. This is government to (9) . . . . . . . . all forms of animalsomething I feel very strongly about. exploitation in the cosmetics industry.DiscussionHave you ever been on a protest march? What for?Have you ever signed a petition? What for?Have you ever boycotted a company or its products? Which ones? Why?Do you think any of these actions make a difference? Which one is the most effective?Newspaper languageCertain words are found almost exclusively in newspapers, particularly in headlines. Match themeanings on the right with the underlined words in the headlines below: 1. POLICE OUIZ ANIMAL RIGHTS GROUP a. attempt 2. NUDISTS SEEK MORE SUPPORT b. fight 3. MINISTER BACKS CANNABIS PLANS c. interview 4. FASCIST PARTY IN POWER BID d. supports 5. NEW CALLS TO HALT FUR TRADE e. demand 6. POLICE AND DEMONSTRATORS CLASH IN CAPITAL f. stop 7. BOXING BAN PLEA g. obstruct 8. GREENPEACE FOIL WHALERS h. look forDiscussionIn small groups, decide whether any of the things below should be banned. Try to persuade the othersin your group. Then take a vote for each one. bullfighting genetically modified (GM) food fox-hunting human cloning cockfighting alcohol fishing cigarettes whale-hunting marijuana shooting prostitution gun clubs pornography military service boxing nuclear testing soap operas ballroom dancing passportsTaboos and Issues It should be banned! 5 ?
  11. 11. Not my type Discussion 1. H o w important i s i t for you to have a partner who i s physically attractive? 2. Could you fall in love with someone who was physically unattractive? 3. Have you ever been out with someone who had a disgusting I embarrassing habit? Reading Here are two letters to the problem page of a magazine. As you read them, think about this question: Have you ever met anyone with the same or similar problems? Dear Betty, I have one of the most thoughtful, kind, considerate men on the planet but he Dear Betty, has this really disgusting habit that I Ive met this wonderful woman. Shes cant stand and I cant decide how to tall, beautiful, intelligent, charming - tell him. nearly everything a man could ever Basically, the problem is he picks his want. Theres only one problem. Every nose. I dont mind so much when were time she tries to kiss me I feel like at home, alone, but when were in being sick! public, in a nice restaurant, or worse, atI At first I thought it was a passing thing - that maybe she just needed to brush her teeth more. Now I realise that this my parents house when were having dinner, I just want to disappear. Hei must be some kind of permanent starts digging in and pulling things out . and throwing them on the floor, or condition. What do I do now? I cant even worse, putting them in his pocket! go on holding my breath (as Im doing And then afterwards when he wants to now) every time she leans over to kiss hold my hand or touch my face I avoid1 me. Its getting to the point where I his advances - and of course he getsII dont even look in her direction when she talks to me! This i s not your upset.i I want to tell him about it because I average morning-breath kind of smell - dont think he realises that he does it, this is more like something has died but Im afraid Ill embarrass him and I inside her! dont want to lose him. I mean, I dont What should I do? want to sound like Im his mother. Thomas Please help. Emily DiscussionI Discuss the following with a partner: 1. Find words and expressions that t e l l you how bad Thomass girlfriends breath is. 2. Did anything i n the two letters make you laugh? 3. Which problem above did you think was worse?I 4. What would you do in Thomass or Emilys situation? 6 Not my type Taboos and Issues @I
  12. 12. Language and discussionWith a partner, mark the following on a scale of 1 to 10 in the following way: 1 = Fine - no problem 10 = Horrible - a real turn-off false teeth bad breath bad dandruff acne completely bald a tattoo a missing limb a hairy mole a beard extremely short overweight a moustache thick body hair very thin a big beer belly huge nose hairy legs bites fingernails BO (body odour) spits when (s)he speaks a heavy smoker pierced tongue pierced navel pierced nipples ," ,1. Have you ever been out with someone who had any of these p r o b l e m ~ f e a t u r e s ?2. Do you know anyone who has had a partner with any of these problems?3. Is there anything that you would add to the list?4. Would you ever go out with someone who had any of these problems? What advice would you give them?- DiscussionWork in pairs. How far do you agree or disagreewith these rules for personal hygiene?1. Wear clean underwear and socks every day.2. Floss and brush your teeth after every meal.3. Change your toothbrush every two weeks.4. Wash your hands after going to the toilet.5. Wash your hands before you eat anything.6. Shower morning and night.7. Wash your hair once a week.8. Use lots of deodorant.9. Men - shave every day.10.Women - keep those legs and armpits smooth.How would you react on a first date if you went backto your friends flat and found:a. porn magazines under the sofab. a kitchen full of dirty dishesc. a large alsatian dog "Stay! The night is youngd. the whole flat immaculately clean and tidy and you are enormous. "e. two children from a previous marriagef. a large collection of opera CDsg. lots of expensive antique furnitureWould any of these put you off your new friend?Would you be more attracted to himlher because of any of them?Taboos and Issues Not my type 6
  13. 13. Discussion1. Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right:1. a prostitute a. someone paid to go out socially with other people2. a pimp b. a house where men pay to have sex with prostitutes3. a red-light district c. a person who agrees to have sex in return for money4. a brothel d. part of a town where there are many prostitutes5. a kerb-crawler e. a man who controls prostitutes and lives off their earnings6. an escort f. a man who drives slowly along a road looking for a sexual4iaisonIs prostitution a problem where you live? Is there a red-light district in your town?Read the information in the box and discuss the questions in pairs or small What is the law in your country? Do you think it is too strict, too lenient or about property is not breaking the law. right? Why? However, it is illegal for a prostitute How would you feel if you found out that a close to work, or to ask for work, in a friend or a member of your family was working as public place. If two or more women a prostitute? sell sex in a single property, it is 1 technically a brothel, which is illegal. 1Should we legalise brothels?Read the two articles to see if these statements are correct:1.The police officer would like to have stricter laws on prostitution.2. The local councillor would like to relax the laws on prostitution. "Its ridiculous to try and eliminate a practice "This is not a practical issue at all, its a moral one which has been going on since the beginning o f and Im dead against any change in the law. In fact, civilisation. There always has been, and always I t h i n k the laws should .be tougher. I agree we will be, a demand for prostitutes. You cant stop it should be concerned about the health and safety of by making it illegal. The problems we have are the women, but the plain fact is, sex for money is because prostitution is not regulated. The women wrong. Sex should not be for sale. The laws we involved are at risk of both physical and emotional have are not just for stating what is allowed and not abuse from the pimps who employ them. Their allowed, but also to show us what is good and working conditions are often poor and there are what is bad. Legalising prostitution creates the considerable health risks. Legalising it would give impression that it is a good thing. Its a sign of great women more control over their lives - their moral weakness in our society. Prostitution may be health, their safety and their finances. From the the oldest profession, but that doesnt mean it police point of view, it would also mean less should be encouraged to continue." obvious prostitution on the streets and a reduction Janet Boyce, local government councillor in related crime such as drug dealing. The current laws are completely impractical. Its time they were changed." Helen Maddocks, senior police officerSpend two minutes thinking about these questions, then discuss them with a partner:1. Which argument is closer to your own opinion? Underline the statements you agree with.2. Are you surprised at the police officers attitude? Why? I Why not?3. Do you agree that prostitution is a sign of great moral weakness in our society?7 Sex for sale Taboos and Issues
  14. 14. Language 1 Language 2Look at this extract from the text: Divide these expressions with law into three This is not a practical issue at all, groups: its a moral one. 1. What the government or the police do.Discuss with a partner. Is prostitution: 2. What offenders or criminals do. 3. What good citizens do.a practical issue or a moral issue?a complicated issue or a straightforward issue? a. tighten the lawan important issue or a non-issue? b. break the lawWhich verb does not collocate with issue: c. defy the law avoid d. obey the law complicate e. observe the law 1 address f. relax the law discuss the issue g. comply with the law h. enforce the law tackle resolve i. ignore the law j. abide by the lawWhich issues is your government addressing atthe moment? Which issues is it avoiding? Which k. change the lawissues do you want your government to tackle? 1. disobey the lawDiscussionWhat would you say in reply to these people? Discuss with a partner. I can earn L1000 a week as 1 dont believe that sleeping a prostitute. That3 about with a prostitute is being four times as much as I unfaithful to my wife. Its would get doing a different only sex - nothing else. job. So why should I stop? Marriage is about love. Lots of girls are forced into "I believe that sex is one of the I f someone wants to accept prostitution. Often they are most beautiful, natural, my money to have sex with illegal immigrants. They cant wholesome things that me, whats the problem? go to the police because they money can buy." Its their life and their are not in the country legally. Steve Martin, actor body. Its my money and none of your business! Prostitution is a problern Its the only way dirty old caused by men. There arent any prostitutes for women. men can get sex. Prostitution Its men who create the is for sad, sad people. The problem and men who make women are sad and the men are even sadder. Id ban it!Taboos and Issues Sex for sale 7
  15. 15. "When angry, count to a hundred; when very angry, swear." Mark TwainDiscussion What would you say?Work in pairs and compare your answers to the Would you swear in the following situations? Whatfollowing questions: would you say?1. H o w often d o y o u swear? 1. Y o u take some milk o u t o f the fridge, but2. W h a t swear words d o y o u use m o s t often? d r o p it o n the floor.3. Are there any swear words y o u w o u l d never 2. Y o u are carrying t w o pints o f beer in a bar. ,, / use? Why? Someone bumps i n t o y o u a n d y o u spill the beer4. In w h a t situations w o u l d y o u t r y t o avoid d o w n y o u r trousers. swearing? 3. Y o u miss the bus t o w o r k b y a few seconds.5. A r e y o u ever offended, upset o r annoyed w h e n 4. Somebody drives i n t o the back o f y o u r b r a n d other people swear? n e w car. 5. Your phone bill is double the n o r m a l amount.Read the articles below. Tick (J)the true sentences.1. M a r t h a Johnson was sacked f r o m her job. A BIG SPLASH2. Mr Slater feels t h a t he has t o swear a t w o r k . The bad language used by John3. John Ashford was arrested f o r swearing. Ashford as he fell out of his4. H e is going t o jail f o r 90 days. sailing boat into a river in Michigan has landed him in big trouble. He appeared in court . . for breaking a 100-year-old state PART OF HIS PERSONALITY something about the awful law which forbids swearing in A sales executive has taken her language. At least now I am in a front of women and children. ex-boss to an industrial court place where people show respect Families were picnicking nearby claiming that his swearing forced for each other." when the accident happened. her to quit her job. For over six Mr Slater told the court that bad months Martha Johnson. 43. put language was part of his His defence team argued that up with the foul language of Jack standards over the years have personality and also common in Slater, managing director of a changed and that it i s now transport company, and his the transport business. "I cant perfectly acceptable t o swear in deputy, D~~~~~wiggins. ~ ~ stop h t swearing," he said. "Im the extreme circumstances, such as men swear continually, the court fucking boss. M Y workers would falling into a river. was told. all think I was fucking soft if I M r Ashford, who faces up to 90 Yesterday Ms Johnson of swearing." days i n jail and a $100 fine, was Worthing, Sussex, who has During the hearing the judge had caught by two sheriffs deputies. recently taken up a new job, said: to warn Mr Slater several times They were fishing from the side "I had a really wonderful job with about his language. t h e case of the river when he fell in. the company but I just had to do continues tomorrow.DiscussionWork in pairs or small groups. Discuss these questions about the texts above.D o you think M a r t h a Johnson was over-reacting? I f so, w h a t d o y o u think she should have done?D o you think Mr Ashford should be in c o u r t ? I f not, w h a t d o y o u think should have happened?8 Swearing Taboos and Issues
  16. 16. LanguageLook at the sentence below from the second text: Now make true sentences using some of the expressions from examples 1 - 4. It is now perfectly acceptable to swear in extreme circumstances. 1.Most people I know find swearing . . . .In these sentences one of the words in italics is 2. My mother / father thinks swearing is . . . .wrong. Cross it out. 3. There are one or two words which I find . . . .1. Swearing in certain situations is completely 4. Swearing at someone in a public place is . . . . unacceptablelrudelinappropriate. 5. I think it is . . . . to swear when you are really2. I found his language deeply upsetting/ annoyed about something. offensivelobscenelshocking. 6. If the Prime Minister swore on TV, I would3. Using that kind of language is perfectly acceptablelOKlgood in some situations. find it . . . .4. Some words that people use are actually very Work in pairs and compare your answers. funnylrudelterrible.DiscussionDiscuss the statements below. Do you agree or not? Why?1. Swearing can be creative and expressive.2. Its useful to be able to swear in English.3. Its difficult to know how to use English swear words.4. You can sound silly if you swear in English.5. People who swear a lot are just uneducated.6. Children should be taught that swearing is wrong.7. You can upset people by saying Jesus Christ.8. People shouldnt use swear words in the street. "Er . . . mind i f we swear?"Language DiscussionThe list below shows that swear words vary in Which of the words and expressions oppositestrength. Different people of different ages find haveyou used or would you use?some words more offensive than others. Here is a Are you offended when people use religious wordsrough guide to some of the most common English as swear words?swear words and expressions: Do you know of anybody who has got into troubleWeaker Stronger by swearing?Damn! Hes a real shit. Most English swear words are connected with sexBlast! Shit! or the body. Is this the same in your language?Hell! Piss off!Bloody hell! Bastard!It was bloody awful! Bitch!Crap! Bollocks! Avoiding swear wordsIt was really crap! Hes a total wanker! Native speakers often avoid swearing by using other similar-sounding words. What do you thinkBullshit! Hes a stupid prick. the following examples avoid?Hes a real dickhead. Hes an arsehole! 1. He told me to F off!Taboo-strength: Fuck off! 2. Its flipping cold, isnt it?Religious swear words can offend much more than 3. Not bleeding likely!words connected with sex, body parts or bodily 4. Oh, sugar!functions. Using God, Jesus Christ or Christ 5. P off!Almighty will greatly offend some people. 6. Hes a real B!Taboos and Issues Swearing 8 1
  17. 17. Discussion Work in pairs. What do you think the answers are to these questions? In 1996 there were 171 countries in the world: 1.In h o w many countries did people in prison o r police custody suffer torture o r ill-treatment? a. 24 6. 67 c. 124? 2. In h o w many countries did people die a s a result of torture o r inhuman prison conditions? a. 16 b. 46 c. 82? Find out the answers from your teacher and then discuss these questions: 1. D o the figures surprise o r shock you o r are they w h a t you would expect? 2. Do you think the figures would be better o r worse for this year? O r a b o u t the same? 3. In which countries would you expect t o find torture happening? 4. W h a t about your o w n country? Reading Read the articles through quickly and answer the questions below: Which countries are mentioned in connection with torture? Do a n y of the articles surprise you? Which? W h y ? CASSIDY ATTACKS PINOCHET US POLICE UNDER FIRE FRANCE GUILTY OF In Chile in 1975, Dr Sheila Cassidy A recent Human Rights Watch TORTURE was beaten, stripped and given report, examining policing in 14 of France became the first European electric shocks a l over her body, l Americas biggest cities, contains country convicted of torture when forcing her to give the name of a some shocking statistics. Following the European Court of Human priest who had asked her for help. 11,000 civil rights complaints Rights found it guilty of torturing a She was later released as a result of against the police last year, only 29 suspected drug dealer during police officers were punished. Crime protests from Britain. Yesterday she questioning. The man was beaten in in New York has halved since 1993, spoke out following the arrest of an effort to obtain more information but complaints about police abuse General Pinochet, the 84-year-old are up by 50%. about his suppliers. The court ex-dictator of Chile. "I think In one case, a suspect was choked to described his treatment at the hands imprisonment for the rest of his life death when arrested by a police of five police officers as being of would be appropriate. I know he is officer in 1994. The officer was a particularly cruel and serious an old man and he is fragile, but so cleared of manslaughter, but the case nature7making it torture under the were the pregnant women who were exposed the police to widespread European Convention on Human raped and tortured," she said. criticism. Rights. Read the articles again and answer these questions: 1. W h y w a s Sheila Cassidy tortured? 2. W h a t was shocking a b o u t the H u m a n Rights Watch report? 3. W h a t information did the French police w a n t ? Discussion Discuss these questions in small groups:! 1. D o you think t h a t the conduct of the US police might sometimes actually be torture? 2. H o w would you define torture? 3. Do you feel t h a t any of the cases of torture mentioned above might in any w a y be justified? 4. Do you think the police in your country torture suspects a n d k n o w n criminals?I 9 Torture Taboos and Issues e
  18. 18. Language 1 Language 2Put the words in italics in the right order to make Complete the article below using the phrasesprepositional phrases. from the previous exercise.1. She was later released ................... LIFE FOR THE TORTURE TWO protests from Britain. (of as result a) The trial of Justin Mathers and Gary Barstow,2. I think imprisonment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . both accused of murder and torture, finished his life would be appropriate. (of rest the for) today at Brigham Crown Court. (1). . . . . . . .3. A suspect was choked to death ........... the six-week trial, the jury had heard evidence of . . . . . . . . . . . a police officer. some of the most horrible crimes ever described (with interview in an) in a courtroom. They had also seen photographs4. The man was beaten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of injuries suffered ( 2 ) . . . . . . . . these two men. obtain more information about his suppliers. Both men were found guilty. The judge passed (to an effort in) sentence immediately, saying: " (3) . . . . . . . the horror of your crimes, I have no hesitation in5. His treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . five sending you to prison (4) . . . . . . . . your lives. police officers was of a particularly cruel and serious nature. (of the hands at) (5) . . . . . . . . . your actions, five people were permanently injured and seven were killed. Two6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . firm evidence, men and three women lost their partners; a dozen he was released from prison. (of the in absence) children lost their parents.7. The government had no choice but to arrest After your arrest, (6) . . . . . . . . the police, you him . . . . . . . . . . what he was writing said that you had enjoyed committing these awful them in the foreign press, but they lived to crimes. Therefore, ( 7 ) . . . . . . . . give you a . regret their actions. (of in view) punishment that matches the awfulness of what8. All political prisoners will have been released you have done, and, (8) . . . . . . . . any remorse . . . . . . . . . . . . . the year. (end the by of) from you, I sentence you to life imprisonment." "No-one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment." Article 5. United Nations. 1984.DiscussionWork in small groups. Look at the situations below. Discuss how much force, if any, it is acceptable forthe police or army to use in each situation in order to get what they want.1. The police arrest someone for a bank robbery. 3. The police catch a member of a terrorist They are absolutely certain they have the organisation. He knows the names of other person responsible, and he already has a members of the organisation. He also has criminal record, but at the moment they have information about where they have stores of no evidence. They need a confession. They arms and explosives. This information will save only have four hours to get one before he must lives. be released. 4. Your country is at war. You capture a high-2. A child has been kidnapped. The kidnappers ranking enemy soldier who has considerable are threatening to kill the child if their knowledge of the enemy plans. This demands are not met. The police catch one of information would certainly save the lives of the kidnappers who knows where the child is many of your soldiers and possibly shorten the being held. She refuses to tell the police. war.Would your response to situation 2 be the same if the child was yours or a friends?Taboos and Issues Torture 9 8
  19. 19. DiscussionDiscuss these questions in pairs or small groups:1. D o you think work is a good place t o find a partner? Why I why not?2. In a work setting, what body parts of a colleague would it be OK t o touch in your country? Tick all the OK parts: hand ... arm ... face ... shoulder ... back ... hair ... stomach ... bottom ...3. What would happen if you did touch the parts of the body that you did not tick?ReadingMake sure you know what these words and expressions mean before you read the article: flirt suggestive photos sexy calendars sue dressed seductively chat u p moment she joined the company 13 woman complains about her boss, FRENCH FLIRT AT WORK years age. "It was being done just and then shes fired," said one The engineering workshops at a to provoke women," said Janin, 37. lawyer specialising in workplace well-known engine-maker based in "When I said we didnt like it, they harassment. Then she sues, and Paris seem as clean and innocent as laughed at me." The company money, if awarded, is usually little a church these days. The nude finally changed their policy when or sometimes nothing at all. photographs and sexy calendars they agreed that the pictures could "Judges will say its because the that used to be on some of the walls be a form of sexual harassment. woman is dressed too seductively," have been taken down or thrown Sexual harassment at work is a he added. away. relatively new issue in France. "Here we dont care about sexual For that, the men in the department French law now allows women to harassment," declared another mostly have one of their female sue for sexual harassment, but it is lawyer who, despite his bravado, colleagues to thank. Brigitte Janin, limited to harassment by a superior asked that his name not be an aerodynamics engineer, said she of a subordinate. Typically, many published. "Being macho is seen as started arguing against the cases do not make it to court. a good thing in the office. Chatting suggestive photographs from the "It usually goes this way: the up beautiful women is natural."Read the text again and correct the statements below:1. Sexual harassment only applies in cases of advances from a subordinate t o a superior.2. Usually a woman is fired after she goes to court.3. Many judges blame a womans behaviour.DiscussionH o w far d o you agree with Brigitte Janin about the photos? Why?D o you think that a woman who dresses seductively should be prepared for unwanted sexualadvances? Give a n example of seductive dress.Can men be sexually harassed by women?Have you ever been in a difficult situation of this kind at work or college? I10 Sexual harassmfni Taboos and Issues
  20. 20. LanguageComplete these sentences with the correct preposition: at about in for UP of with between1.There are lawyers who specialise . . . . . sexual harassment cases.2. Trying to sue . . . . . sexual harassment is a waste . . . . . time.3. If you complain, you just get laughed . . . . . .4. If you flirt . . . . . the men in the office, youre asking for trouble.5. My boss thinks he can chat . . . . . all the women in the office.6. Complaining . . . . . the sexual advances of your boss takes a lot of courage.7. You can pay compliments to a female colleague but there is a fine line . . . . . being friendly and being overfamiliar.DiscussionWork in pairs or small groups. Decide if the scenariosbelow describe a situation of sexual harassment. Shouldanything be done about each situation? If so, what?1.Brian Lake often comes in to work with compliments. "Wow, I love your hair," he often says t o the women in the office, or "Nice skirt." Some women have noticed that he sometimes stares at their breasts when he talks to them.2. Susan Bellford gives the guys massages in the office during breaks. "Shes got good hands," they often say. A couple of the married men dont seem totally comfortable with it and one gay man doesnt seem t o like it at all, but accepts it so as not to make any waves. 5. Jennifer Stewart has a sexy body and is3. James Johnson touches bottoms - mens and proud of it. Shes been known to come to womens. Where most people would simply work in miniskirts and low-cut sweaters. smile, wink or give a pat on the back, James "Why should I be ashamed of what Gods gives a pat on the bottom. "Its my way of given me?" she argues. "I dont think it being friendly," he says. Whats interesting is makes anyone feel uncomfortable. I havent that the men and women in the office seem heard a single complaint from any of the to respect that. "James is James," says one men in the office!" woman. "Hes just a playful guy. He doesnt mean anything by it." 6. Bill Swanson calls all the men in the office mate or my man. He calls all the women4. Ken Patrick tells dirty jokes in the office. sweetie pie or babe. "The people in the office love it," he says with a smile. Not everybody, it seems. Some 7. Shelly Layman is very tactile. She always of the women have been seen leaving the puts her hand on the arm of the person shes office as soon as he starts saying, "Hey, have talking to and always makes a point of you heard the one about the ..." making direct eye contact.Are you a tactile person? Do you touch people a lot? Has anyone ever objected to you touching them?How can you tell when someone does not want to be touched?Taboos and Issues Sexual harassment 10 ?
  21. 21. DiscussionIn Britain it is illegal to have a gun without a licence. Following the Dunblane massacre in Scotland in1996, when a madman killed almost an entire class of primary school children and their teacher, the lawson gun possession have become very strict. The same is not true in the United States, where many moreatrocities involving guns, such as the Columbine incident described below, have taken place.1. H a s anything like Dunblane o r Columbine happened in your country?2. C a n you remember any similar incidents in the news?Read the slogan of the United States National Rifle Association (NRA), which has a lot of politicalinfluence in the US.3. W h a t d o you think about a n organisation that has this as its slogan?4. Are guns legal in your country? Are they easy to get?5. D o you o r does anyone you know o w n a gun? Why? W h y not?ReadingOn April 20, 1999, two teenage boys at Columbine High School near Denver, Colorado, USA, shot over30 fellow students, killing 12 of them - before taking their own lives. The following point of view wasposted on an interactive website a few days later by someone from Britain. Read the text, then answerthe questions below. THE COLUMBINE MASSACRE What is it going to take for America to get the protecting innocent people! Ordinary citizens argue message? How many more young lives are we going that they should be free to arm and defend themselves to see wasted? How can the pro-gun lobby in the US in accordance with the Second Amendment. Defend still have such a powerful voice? After the Dunblane themselves against who? The country isnt under massacre here in 1996, gun control laws, which were attack! The civil war ended over 200 years ago! already strict, were tightened further. There was a Most people in Britain have never seen or handled a nationwide amnesty on handguns. Many who had real gun - even our police dont carry them - but in guns, for whatever reason, gave them up. They were America you can buy one on a Saturday afternoon sick of what guns were capable of. People even shopping trip. What has happened to a country that it questioned whether shooting should remain an can carry on with one massacre after another and do Olympic sport. Dunblane shocked the whole nation nothing? Were supposed to be cousins but the and the effect remains to this day. family resemblance is not very strong any more. I But in the US, politicians are more worried about dont recognise their culture. A country that cant ban upsetting the pro-gun groups and losing votes than guns has lost its head, and its soul.DiscussionAnswer these questions with a partner:1.W h a t is the overall tone of the article - anger, sarcasm, sympathy, something else?2. If you were a n American, would you take offence a t this article?3. Could someone from your country write a similar article with very similar arguments?4. H o w does the writer compare the Dunblane massacre to the Columbine massacre?5. D o you think the writer has ever been to the United States?6. c o u l d the writer apply any of his o r her criticisms t o countries other than the United States?17 Nobody needs a gun Taboos and Issues
  22. 22. Language 1 Language 2Use these words to complete the opinions on guns Look at this sentence from the text:and gun laws below: People even questioned whether shooting should remain an Olympic sport. weapon outlawed in self-defence illegal lives Even is used to emphasise a point you are adding. Use the correct ending for each sentence below:1. I think guns should be made . . . . . . . . . 1.Anybody can buy a gun -2. If guns were . . . . . . . . , then only criminals 2. Some teenagers carry guns around - would have them. 3. I wouldnt use a gun -3. Guns dont take . . . . . . . . . People do. 4. Hardly anybody carries a gun in Britain -4. Anything can be used as a lethal . . . . . . . . . 5. I think guns should be banned completely - A gun is simply one of them. a. they even take them to school.5. I think someone is only justified in using a gun b. even toy ones. ............. . c. even kids can buy them.Circle the opinions above that are most similar to d. even if I was attacked.your own. Do your classmates agree? e. not even the police.DiscussionGuns and you1. In which of the following situations would you use a gun? a. To defend myself against an intruder in my house. b. In self-defence against an attacker on the street. c. To hunt animals. d. For sport on a firing range.2. Do you know where you could buy a gun if you wanted one? "Gun control? Over my dead body!"Guns and filmsAnswer these questions in pairs or small groups: a. Groups who want to ban guns say that it is impossible to think of three films in which a gun never appears. Can you prove them wrong? b. Why do you think guns are so prominent in films? c. Do you think that gun-violence in films has a direct effect on gun-related crime?Guns and kidsIs it OK for children to play with toy guns? Did you do this when you were younger?Would you let your children play with toy guns?Is it all bad news?Do guns have any positive roles in society? Use the expressions below to help you express your ideas. I f we didnt have guns, we wouldnt have ... Its because of guns that we ... We have guns to thank for ... Im not in favour of guns, but I must admit ...Taboos and Issues Nobody needs a gun 17 I
  23. 23. The sale-of human organsDiscussionUnder what circumstances would you allow an organ to be removed from your body? Tick the ones youagree with:a. If I needed a n operation. / Donorcardb. After death, for general medical purposes. I request that after my death:c. To donate a n organ t o a close relative. A. any part of my body may be used for the treatmentd. To donate a n organ t o a close friend. of others or B. my kidneys corneas heart lungs livere. To help anyone in need. pancreas be used for transplantationf. To make money. Signature.. .............. Date.. .......g. Never. In the event of my death, if possible, contact: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tel: . . . . . . . . . IMany people carry an organ donor card, which allowsdoctors to take parts of their bodies if they are killed.Do you carry one? If not, why not? Remember to tell someone close to you that you want to be an organ donor. Their agreement is important it the time ever comes. IReadingRead this article about debt collection in Japan. Does the same thing happen in other countries? JAPANESE URGED TO SELL EYES TO PAY DEBTS The phone calls from the debt to small businesses who are Yamazaki, a small business owner in collector got increasingly more experiencing financial difficulties Tokyo and also a recently-threatened threatening. First, the standard and who cannot raise money in other borrower. "Maybe in the western pressure: "You have to come up with ways. Their methods give a whole world this is different." And indeed it the money. Sell your house quickly ... new meaning to the idiomatic is. The United States, for example, sell your clothes and all your expression, "Itll cost you an arm and outnumbers organ donations in Japan belongings if necessary." But then: a leg!" by 20to 1. a You have dont Aggressive debt collection has Fortunately for Mr Mamoto, he you? Many Our borrowers always been an unpleasant aspect of found the legal help he needed before have One. You can get $281000 for a the business world but this new having to resort to selling off parts of k i b ~ . You can get s W for an 9 development has caused outrage. The his body. He filed the first criminal said the debt On sale of body organs is especially complaint against one of the largest tape recordings of the calls. sensitive in Japan, where people are loan shark companies in Japan, a By this time, the person receiving the often reluctant to even allow the company charging interest rates of 30 calls, Mr Mamoto, a retired donation of an organ after death for to 40 per cent. National television has metalworker, was so frightened that medical purposes. broadcast the recorded telephone when he heard dogs barking, he We believe that our bodies are threats repeatedly in an attempt to thought it was debt collectors corning sacred. I would never allow anyone make Japanese citizens aware of the after him, his lawyer said. to take anything away from my bady ruthless world of debt collection. These shoko loan firms lend money - dead or alive," said Mr HiroshiRead the text again and answer these questions:1.In the telephone threats that were made, what did the debt collector say that shows there have been other victims of these threats?2. H o w did M r M a m o t o get proof of these threats?3. According t o the article, why are there so few organ donors in Japan?4. Which idiomatic expression in the article means very expensive?Discussion1.The debt collector gave prices for certain organs. Where was he possibly getting those figures from?2. D o you think people w h o object t o organ donation are being selfish?18 The sale of human organs Taboos and Issues
  24. 24. Language 1 Language 2Remember this idiomatic expression from the Now put the expressions from the exercisearticle, meaning that something is very expensive: opposite into the sentences below: Itll cost you an arm and a leg! 1.I had to think . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beforeLots of expressions in English have the word and I decided to become an organ the middle. For example: salt and pepper. There 2. Its amazing that this is still a controversialare two things to know about these expressions: issue in this . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The order never changes - you never say cost 3. Its a complicated issue. Theres no simple a leg and an arm. answer. Its not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The words before and after and are almost always the same word class - arm and leg 4. Maybe some day people will change their are both nouns. attitude towards organ donation - well just have to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Match the words below. The first one has beendone for you as an example. 5. In some countries people who are willing to donate their organs are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. sick a. and age 6. These are . . . . . . . . . . . . ethical questions, not2. wait b. and hard medical questions.3. black c. and far between 7. Finding an organ donor used to be more4. leaps d. and bounds difficult, but the situation has improved by5. in this day e. and white ......................6. few f. and foremost 8. People are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of being7. think long8. first ,g. and tired pushed around by debt collectors. h. and seeDiscussionAnswer these questions in pairs or smallgroups:1. Do you think one day doctors will be shopping for organs on the internet? Is there anything wrong with selling organs?2. Would you mind having your body cut up for the sake of science after you die? Would you put a limit on what they can take?3. What would you tell a person who is considering becoming an organ donor? "This is the worst part of the job - having What would you say to encourage or to clear up after a Rugby International!" discourage herlhim?4. How do you feel about using animal organs in human beings? How about using a monkeys heart? Would you like the eyes of a pig?5. Many people dont have the time or just cant be bothered to get an organ donor card. Some countries want a new system where doctors automatically have permission to take your organs unless you have a card which says that you are not an organ donor. A system like this one could simplify and speed things up at hospitals and save lives. Would you be in favour of a system like this?Taboos and Issues The sale of human organs 18
  25. 25. AIDS .. - - -.. 2DiscussionWork in pairs. Answer the questions below: H o w much do you know about HIV? 1. HIV infection can be passed on by which 2. Mark the following true (T) or false (F): of the following means: a. AIDS and HIV are the same thing. a. heterosexual sexual intercourse b. An HIV test will show immediately if b. homosexual sexual intercourse someone is infected with HIV. c. kissing c. Current treatment can eliminate the HIV d. using infected injection equipment infection in some people.Find out the correct answers from your teacher.Note: Although you may still hear the term AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) it is nolonger used widely by doctors. They prefer to talk of late-stage or advanced HIV infection. Beforeeffective treatments, someone with HIV almost certainly developed AIDS. This is no longer the case.ReadingAnswer these questions with a partner. Then read the information below to find the answers:1. Which area of the world is most affected by HIV?2. Is there a cure for HIV?3. Are more men or more women affected by HIV?4. Which age group is most affected by HIV? 1. HIV in the world unlikely that new treatments will ever 5. Obstacles There were 33.4 million people be widely available in the developing Sometimes, for religious, cultural or infected with HIV around the world world. economic reasons, it can be difficult in 1999: 22.5 million in sub-Saharan 3. Who is most affected? for people to use condoms and Africa, 6.7 million in South and Throughout the world, roughly equal protect themselves and their partners. South-east Asia, 1.4 million in Latin numbers of men and women are A woman who is economically America and 0.7 million in the USA. infected. But HIV mostly affects dependent on a man may find it There are about 9,000 new infections young adults and people in early impossible to ask for safer sex. each day - 90% of these in middle age. These are the people Women are most commonly infected developing countries. More than 14 who raise the children, support the through unprotected sex with their million people have already died of elderly and build a countrys husbands or long term partners. the disease, including 2.5 million in economy. The loss of such people Some governments do not accept that 1998. has had and will continue to have a HIV is a problem for them at all. A 2. Treatment serious effect on the economies of few national leaders even deny that Although there is no actual cure, some countries, particularly in some some behaviour happens, such as sex drugs are now available which areas of Africa. between men or drug injecting. This suppress the progress of HIV 4. Stopping the epidemic can make it particularly difficult for infection and many sufferers can live We could slow down the worldwide people in those countries to be aware relatively long and healthy lives. For HIV epidemic if everyone had good of and avoid the risks. We must most people with HIV, however, information about preventing continue to fight prejudice and recent advances in treatment will infection, along with support from increase understanding. Together we have little impact. The high cost of society to help them act on this can make a difference. developing and producing new drugs information. Furthermore, each new Adapted from Understanding HIV and the lack of available money for generation of gay men needs to be infection and AIDS, Terrence healthcare in many countries make it made aware of the risks of HIV. Higgins Trust19 AlDS Taboos and Issues