Lesson Planning


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Lesson Plan

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  • Lesson Planning is definitely important and the time taken to make a plan is rewarded by the lesson running more smoothly with learning outcomes for the student and teacher. Learners respond to structure, which gives stages to the learning process.

    In designing a lesson plan I make sure the stages are clearly explained, that there is a visual component with examples, that there is time for questions, feedback and explanations.

    Constant components of my lesson plans are that there is time to complete the assignment in class and that I am able to work with each student individually. I try not to talk too long or give too many examples, which could lead to boredom or confusion.

    Main Principles include that the lesson is enjoyable and that mistakes are natural. Making mistakes is an essential aspect of learning and students should not be afraid to make them. Positive re-inforcement is very important as well.

    Previous experience is an important part of lesson planning since sometimes things don't work well. Changing an approach to the lesson based on previous outcomes is how a teacher learns.

    Being flexible is very important as sometimes things change during the lesson or more explanation is necessary. Often the leaners will contribute ideas that are valuable to the lesson and it's good to be open to these.

    The five Guiding Principles have to be kept in mind with Challenge as an important one. Ultimately one wants the students to learn new things. It's essential to know who your students are and what level they are at.

    Timing is crucial and often this is where the teacher has to be most creative. If time is running out one has to reveal the most essential aspects of the lesson. Giving homework first or early in the lesson is a good idea.
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Lesson Planning

  1. 2. Main Principles of Communicative Teaching Suitable material Mistakes / Natural Use of target Language Positive reinforcement Involving Enjoyable Meaningful Interactive Communicative Teaching
  2. 3. Answer the 4 questions. Discuss your answers with your peer. Report to the group <ul><li>Why is lesson planning important? </li></ul><ul><li>How is lesson planning important for the teacher? For the learners? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan? </li></ul><ul><li>What constant components are there in your lesson plan? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Why is lesson planning important? <ul><li>Being clear on what you want to teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Being ready to cope with whatever happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Give your teaching a framework, an overall shape. </li></ul><ul><li>A reminder for the teacher when they get distracted. </li></ul><ul><li>It suggests a level of professionalism and real commitment . </li></ul>
  4. 5. How is lesson planning important for the teacher and the learners? <ul><li>For the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t have to think on their feet. </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t lose face in front of their learners. </li></ul><ul><li>They are clear on the procedure to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>They build on previous teaching and prepare for coming lessons </li></ul><ul><li>For the learner </li></ul><ul><li>They realize that the teacher cares for their learning. </li></ul><ul><li>They attend a structured lesson: easier to assimilate </li></ul><ul><li>They appreciate their teacher’s work as a model of well-organized work to imitate. </li></ul>
  5. 6. What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan? <ul><li>Five guiding principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge </li></ul>Balance Flexibility Variety Challenge Coherence
  6. 7. Variety <ul><li>Why vary? </li></ul><ul><li>a - to meet different learning styles: theorist – Activist – Pragmatic – Reflector </li></ul><ul><li>b - to consider different intelligence types. </li></ul><ul><li>c- to keep them interested and avoid monotony. </li></ul><ul><li>What to vary? </li></ul><ul><li>Contents – Activities – Interaction modes – Materials – Aids … </li></ul><ul><li>How to vary? </li></ul><ul><li>VAK Approach </li></ul>
  7. 8. Ways of Varying these different components <ul><li>Tempo/Pace : Activities may be brisk and fast-moving, such as guessing games; or slow and reflective, such as reading or responding in writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization : The learners may work on their own at individualized tasks, or in pairs or groups, or as a full class in interaction with the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Mode and Skill : Activities may be based on the written or the spoken language; and within these, they may vary as to whether the learners are asked to produce (speak/ write) or receive (listen / read ). </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Difficulty : Activities may be seen as easy and non demanding; or difficult , requiring concentration and effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Mood : Activities vary also in mood: light and fun -based versus serious and profound; happy versus sad; tense versus relaxed. </li></ul><ul><li>Stir - Settle : Some activities enliven and excite learners ( such as controversial discussions for advanced levels), or activities which involve physical movement (such as the race dictation) for the lower levels. Others, like dictation, have the effect of calming them down </li></ul><ul><li>Active - Passive : Learners may be activated in a way that encourages their own initiative ; or they may only be required to do as they are told </li></ul>
  9. 10. Coherence <ul><li>Observe a logical pattern to the lesson: there has to be connection between the different activities in the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth transition is one of the pillars that ensures success of the lesson plan during implementation in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>An activity in a lesson builds on a previous one and prepares for the next. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Challenge <ul><li>Learners are intelligent human beings and come to class with knowledge previously acquired. </li></ul><ul><li>The new lesson should add to that knowledge without excess. </li></ul><ul><li>The lesson that does not challenge is a lesson that does not motivate. </li></ul><ul><li>No learning happens if the lesson doesn’t present new items beyond students’ prior knowledge. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Flexibility <ul><li>Two dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>a - ability to use a number of different techniques and not be a slave to one methodology – Principled eclecticism. </li></ul><ul><li>b - ability to change the plan if it shows inappropriacy to the classroom real situation for one reason or the other. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Balance <ul><li>The lesson is a mixture of a number of ingredients: techniques, activities, contents …. The successful teacher is the one who is able to observe the right dosage and makes the learners enjoy a savoury lesson. </li></ul>
  13. 14. What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan? <ul><li>Objectives set out to be achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge of learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and didactic auxiliaries to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks and activities to select and stts’grouping patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction modes. </li></ul><ul><li>Timing and time management </li></ul>
  14. 15. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN <ul><li>1- Information about the learners : </li></ul>How many? Cooperative? Quiet/ Agitated? How old? Who? Students
  15. 16. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN <ul><li>2- OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><li>« Enable learners to… » </li></ul>Students’ needs Textbook Module map Official Program Objectives
  16. 17. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN <ul><li>3- Procedure </li></ul>Logical sequencing Who does what? How much time? How to do? What to do? Procedure
  17. 18. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN <ul><li>4- Aids </li></ul>Realia OHP Lap top Data show Audio-visual aids Board Wall paper Maps Textbook + Worksheets Aids
  18. 19. Anticipated difficulties and reserve tasks <ul><li>What might go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>How to deal with it? </li></ul>
  19. 20. HINTS FOR LESSON MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Prepare more than you need : It is advisable to have an easily presented, light “reserve” activity ready in case of extra time . </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly , note in advance which component(s) of the lesson you will sacrifice if you find yourself with too little time to do everything you have planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an eye on your time, make sure you are aware during the lesson how time is going relative to your plan. Include timing in the plan itself . It is difficult to judge intuitively how time is going when you are busy, and the smooth running of your lesson depends to some extent on proper timing . </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Do not leave the giving of homework to the last minute ! </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the lesson learners' attention is at a low ebb, and you may run out of time before you finish explaining . </li></ul><ul><li>V. If you are doing group work, give instructions and make sure these are understood before dividing the class into groups and even, if practicable, before handing out materials. </li></ul><ul><li>If you do it the other way around , people will be looking at each other and at the materials you have given them, and they are less likely to attend to what you have to say </li></ul>
  21. 22. Suggested format of a lesson plan <ul><li>Goals : A unifying theme, an overall general purpose to accomplish by the end of the lesson period. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Students will increase their familiarity with the conventions of telephone conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives : Explicitly state what you want students to gain from the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>What students will do: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Be sure you know what it is you want to accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>b. Preserve the unity of your lesson </li></ul><ul><li>c. Predetermine whether or not you are trying to accomplish too much </li></ul><ul><li>d. Evaluate students' success at the end of, or after, </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>OBJECTIVES : </li></ul><ul><li>Final learning outcomes that you will need to measure and evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. [ 1 ] Students will develop inner expectancy rules that enable them to predict and anticipate what someone else will say on the telephone. </li></ul><ul><li>[ 2 ] Students will solicit and receive information by requesting it over the phone </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Materials & Equipment : Tape / tape recorder / poster / map / handouts / OHP </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures : There is so much variation here that it is hard to give any &quot;set recipes&quot;, but make sure your plan includes : </li></ul><ul><li>a . An Oral Test </li></ul><ul><li>b . An opening statement or activity as warm-up for the lesson itself </li></ul><ul><li>c . A set of activities and techniques in which you have considered appropriate proportions of time for : </li></ul><ul><li>-- Whole class work </li></ul><ul><li>-- Group and / or pair work </li></ul><ul><li>-- Teacher Talk </li></ul><ul><li>-- Student Talk </li></ul><ul><li>-- Teacher / student Talk </li></ul><ul><li>d . Closure </li></ul><ul><li>e. Homework </li></ul><ul><li>f . Evaluation </li></ul>
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