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Powerpoint ..biomes

  1. 1. B iom es T he W orld’s M ajor C om m unities
  2. 2. What are biomes? • Biomes are the different regions of our planet that have different climates, plants and animals. • A grouping terrestrial ecosystems on a given continent that are similar in vegetation, structure, physiognomy, features of the environment and characteristics of their animal communities.
  3. 3. Terrestrial biomes • Desert Biome • Tundra Biome • Coniferous Forest Biome • Rainforest Biome • Grassland Biome • Deciduous Forest Freshwater Marine Desert Forest Grassland Tundra
  4. 4. 1. Desert Ecosystems  Location: Depending on type of desert, you will find them in various locations.
  5. 5. Desert • Climate: very hot and dry • Temperature: Hot during the day and cold during the night.
  6. 6. • Soil: Sandy, dry and loose; contains minerals like calcite.
  7. 7. Desert Abiotic factors  <10 in/yr of rain  Little to no topsoil due to high winds.  Minerals not deep in soil.  Too dry for decay http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysfl r/taiga.html While there are many types of deserts, they all share one characteristic: They are the driest places on Earth!
  8. 8. Joshua Tree Desert Plant Adaptations:  Spines  Succulents  Thick, waxy cuticle  Shallow, broad roots Barrel Cactus Ocotollio
  9. 9. desert vegetation cactus peyote Fishhook cactus
  10. 10. Desert Animal Adaptations:  Get water from food  Thick outer coat  Burrow during day  Large ears  Smaller animals = less surface area http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/desert_animal_page.htm Javelina Bob Cat Armadillo Lizard
  11. 11. jackrabbit Kangaroo mice Thorny devil Rattle snake Spare foot toads iguana coyote gilamonster
  12. 12. 4 major types of desert Hot and dry desert Semiarid desert Coastal desertCold desert
  13. 13. Cold desert • Characterized by cold winters with snowfall and high overall rainfall throughout the winter and occasionally over the summer. • Have a short, moist and moderately warm summers with fairly long, cold cactus winters. • Usually occur in Antarctic, Greenland and Nearctic realm.
  14. 14. Hot and dry desert • The seasons are generally warm throughout the year and very hot in the summer. The winters usually bring little rainfall. • The 4 major North American deserts of this type are the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin.
  15. 15. Semiarid desert • Summers are moderately long and dry and like hot deserts • Winters normally bring low concentration of rainfall • Summer temperatures usually average between 21-27 0 C. It normally does not go above 38 0 C and evening temperatures are cool at around 10 0 C. • Major deserts of this type include the sage brush of Utah, Montana and Great Basin
  16. 16. Coastal desert • The cool winter’s coastal deserts are followed by moderately long, warm summers. The average summer temperature ranges from 13-24 0 C; winter temperatures are 5 0 C or below. • The maximum annual temperatures are about 35 0 C and the minimum is about -4 0 C. • These deserts occur in moderately cool to warm areas such as the Nearctic and Neotrophical realm. A good example of this is Atacam and Chile.
  17. 17. Threats to the Desert Residential development Off road recreational activities destroy habitat for plants and animals. Some plants are removed by collectors, endangering the population. Sonoran Desert Dry Desert http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/world_biomes.htm
  18. 18. Health Issues in Desert
  19. 19. http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tundra/tundra.html 2. Tundra “treeless plain” Location: Found north of the Arctic Circle
  20. 20. Tundra- coldest biome • Climate :Cold and limited sunlight • Temperature: Average temperature is 23F or 5 0 C.
  21. 21. tundra • Soil: Ground covered with little snow. Below the surface soil is permanently frozen (permafrost). Decomposition is very slow because of the extreme cold.
  22. 22. Tundra Abiotic Factors  <25 in/year  Short growing season http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/taiga.html
  23. 23. Tundra Plant Adaptations Growing close to the ground Having shallow roots to absorb the limited water resources. Trees grow less than 1 m high! cottongrass Reindeer lichen
  24. 24. Perennial s Woody shrubs http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tundra/tundra.html Heaths Examples of Tundra Plants
  25. 25. Many visitors, migration Few predators Little Competition Small ears Insulation, thick coat Arctic fox snowy owl Grizzly Bear Tundra Animal Adaptations
  26. 26. Types of tundra
  27. 27. The Arctic Tundra • Located between the North Pole and Coniferous Forest or Taiga region. It is extremely cold temperatures and land that remains frozen year-round. • A layer of permanently frozen subsoil called permafrost exists consisting mostly of gravel and finer material. • The growing season ranges from 50-60 days. • Location: North America- Northern Alaska, Canada, Greenland Northern Europe- Scandinavia Northern Asia- Siberia
  28. 28. Alpine Tundra • Located on mountains throughout the world at high altitude where trees cannot grow. • The growing season is approximately 180 days. • very windy. • typically covered in snow for most of the year. • Location: North America- Alaska, Canada, U.S.A. and Mexico Northern Europe- Finland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden Asia- Southern Asia( Mt. Himalayan ) and Japan (Mt. Fuji) Africa- Mt. Kilimanjava South America- Andes Mountains
  29. 29. Threats to the Tundra One of the most fragile biomes on the planet The tundra is slow to recover from damage. Oil drilling is proposed in Alaska and other areas! Tufted Saxifrage Polar Bear
  30. 30. 3. Taiga Northern Coniferous Forest Boreal Forest Location: Found only in Northern Hemisphere Northern parts of Alaska, Canada, Asia and Europe.
  31. 31. Taiga/Coniferous Forest “ coming from the cones” • Climate: Very long and cold winter lasting to about half a year; precipitation is in the form of snow about 60 cm. • Temperature: Below -20 0 C in winter and about 15 0 C in summer.
  32. 32. Taiga Soil: • not fertile. It takes very long for needlelike leaves to decompose and decomposition is very slow in cold weather. • A layer of snow covers the ground during much of the year. Soil beneath the snow is grayish on top and brown below and lacks minerals needed by plants to grow.
  33. 33. Taiga Abiotic factors  Winters are long and cold  Averages 100 in/yr precipitation—mostly snow  Soil poor in nutrients and very acidic  Growing season is very short
  34. 34. Balsam Fir  Coniferous (needle-bearing) trees are abundant  Roots long to anchor trees  Needles long, thin and waxy  Low sunlight and poor soil keeps plants from growing on forest floor http://www.inchinapinch.com/hab_pgs/terres/coniferous/plants.htm Fireweed Taiga Plant adaptations
  35. 35. Moose  Adapt for cold winters  Burrow, hibernate, warm coat, insulation, etc. http://www.inchinapinch.com/hab_pgs/terres/coniferous/animals.htm Great Grey Owl Animal Adaptations of the Taiga
  36. 36. mosquito bear hares porcupine squirrel deer
  37. 37. Threats to the Taiga Mining operations can irreparably damage this fragile ecosystem Road construction Clear cutting accelerates soil erosion, degrades wildlife habitat and leads to the loss of diversity.
  38. 38. 4. Rainforest biome Tropical Rainforest Temperate Rainforest
  39. 39. Tropical Rainforest • covers about 6-7% of the earth’s land surface. • It is located close to the equator, in 85 different countries, and the most are in Central and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The Amazon Rainforest is the largest rainforest in the world.
  40. 40. Tropical Rainforest • Climate: The seasons do not change and it has been hot and wet for millions of years. The average temperature ranges from 70-85 degrees. It rains about 100-400 inches per year.
  41. 41. Tropical Rainforest Abiotic factors  high biodiversity and biomass  both hot and moist;  ideal for bacteria and other microorganisms; they quickly decompose matter on the forest floor allowing nutrients to be recycled.
  42. 42. Tropical rainforest Soil: • Lacks minerals and contains little remains of dead plants and animals. • Decomposition is rapid on warm wet soil. • <1 cm of topsoil; not very fertile
  43. 43. Bougainvillea  Sunlight is a major limiting factor  Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients  Little sun reaches the floor  Tropical rainforest is the richest source of plants life on earth.  Plants grow in layers (canopy receives most light). It is the perfect place for growing plants. Tropical Rainforest Plant adaptations Bangul Bamboo
  44. 44.  Many symbiotic relationships  Live in different levels of canopy Wagler’s pit viper Silvery Gibbon Slender Loris Tropical Rainforest Animal Adaptations Many animals are specialists and require special habitat components to survive Camouflage is common
  45. 45. Threats to the Tropical Rainforest  Humans strip the rainforests for uses including logging and cattle ranching.  In addition to the plants and animals that are displaced by this destruction, entire civilizations of people are also without a home.  You can help by promoting sustainable use of the rainforests’ products
  46. 46. Temperate Rainforest • Location: found near coastal areas along the Pacific coast of Canada at the USA, and in New Zealand, Tasmania, Chile, Ireland, Scotland and Norway.
  47. 47. Temperate rainforest Climate: • Also wet, but not as rainy as tropical rainforest. • Rains about 100 inches per year. • It is cooler than tropical rainforests but the temperature is still mild. • has 2 distinct seasons: one long wet winter and a short drier summer.
  48. 48. Temperate Rainforest Soil: • Typically much thicker than the tropical rainforest. • It is structurally more complex, comprising several layers. • Generally much deeper and more fertile than those of tropical rainforests.
  49. 49. Temperate Rainforest Plants: • There are about 10- 20 species of trees on temperate rainforests that are mostly coniferous. Trees in the temperate forest can live for 500-1000 years.
  50. 50. Temperate Forest & Its Animals Bobcat Cougar Chipmunk
  51. 51. 5. Grassland • characterized as lands dominated by grasses rather than large shrubs.
  52. 52. Prairie and Steppe: Grassland areas  They are called by different names- plains or prairies in North America, pampas in Argentina, steppes in Soviet Union, and veldt in South Africa.
  53. 53. Steppe Dry, cold, grasslands Location: Found in Russia and the Ukraine Precipitation:50-75 cm/yr. high Winds. It occurs in all continents.
  54. 54.  most abundant are plants called Bunch grasses, fine bladed grasses that grow in clumps to preserve water Tumbleweed Sweet Vernal Plant adaptations of the Steppe
  55. 55.  Many migrate, hibernate or burrow during extremes in temp and precipitation http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/steppe_animal_page.htm Adaptations of Steppe Animals Mongolian Gerbil Saiga Antelope Gazelle herd
  56. 56. Threats to the Steppe  Overgrazing…nomadic tribes have started to spend more time in one location,  Infrastructure development (roads, buildings, etc)  Unmanaged hunting and poaching is destroying herds of animals Corsac fox Lynx Milk vetch
  57. 57. Sod-forming grasses that won’t dry out or blow away in wind. Fleabane http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/prairie_plants_page.htm Buffalo Grass Prairie Plant Adaptations
  58. 58. Many adaptations to survive in extremes temperature and precipitation Prairie dog Bobcat Prairie Animal Adaptations Geoffrey’s cat
  59. 59. Grassland It has two main divisions, 1. Savannah Tropical grassland 2. Temperate grassland.
  60. 60. Savannas (Tropical Grasslands) Contain the greatest number of grazing animals on Earth. Location: Found in the tropics…near equator Amount of precipitation supports tall grasses but only occasional trees. The word savanna stems from an Amerind term for plains http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/savanna/savanna.html
  61. 61. Tropical Savanna Abiotic Factors Rainy and dry season 25-150 in/yr precipitation Fire plays a large role in this ecosystem http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/savannah.html
  62. 62. Whistling Thorn Umbrella Thorn Acacia Tropical Savanna Plant Adaptations  Grows in Tufts  Resistance to Drought  Many plants have thorns and sharp leaves to protect against predation. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna_plant_page.htm Kangaroos Paws Baobab
  63. 63. Adapt for short rainy season—migrate as necessary Reproduce during rainy season—ensures more young survive http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna_animal_page.htm Zebras Chacma Baboon Tropical Savanna Animal Adaptations
  64. 64. Threats to the Tropical Savanna http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna_animal_page.htm  Invasive species  Changes in fire management  Because of their low elevation, some savannas are threatened by minor rises in sea level associated with global climate change Koala Elephant
  65. 65. Temperate grasslandThis grassland is characterized as having grasses as the dominant vegetation. Location: The major manifestations are veldts of South Africa, the puszta of Hungary, the pampas of Argentina, the steppes of the former Soviet Union and the prairies of Central America.
  66. 66. Temperate grassland Climate: •hot summers and cold winters. •Rainfall is moderate. The amount of annual rainfall influences the height of the grass land vegetation with taller grasses in other regions. Soil: The soil in a temperate grass land is deep and dark with fertile upper layers. It is nutrient –rich from the growth and decay and many branched grass roots. The rotted roots hold the soil together. The soil is fertile because of the remains of plants and animals and dried leaves of plant fell on the ground.
  67. 67. Milk vetch Grasses Sweet vernal
  68. 68. Temperate Grassland Animals
  69. 69. 6. Temperate Deciduous Forests Location:  found in temperate zone (about 480 North lat)  Much of the human population lives in this biome http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tbdf/tbdf.html
  70. 70.  Characterized by an abundance of deciduous (leaf bearing) trees Characterized by 4 seasons  Soils: Deep soil layers, rich in nutrients  Precipitation: 30–100 in/yr in all forms (snow, rain, hail, fog, etc.) Temperate Deciduous Forests Abiotic Factors http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/taiga.html
  71. 71. More diversity in the deciduous forest vs. the coniferous forest due to increased sunlight. Trees adapt to varied climate by becoming dormant in winter White Birch Birchhttp://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_plant_ page.htm Lady Fern Geulder Rose Temperate Deciduous forest Plant adaptations Deciduous forests grow in layers More sunlight reaches the ground compared to a rainforest so you will find more ground dwelling plants.
  72. 72.  Lose Winter Coat  Adapt to many seasons  Eat from different layers of the forest Bald Eagle Fat Dormouse Least Weasel http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_animal_page.htm Temperate Deciduous Forest Animal Adaptations
  73. 73. Threats to Temperate Deciduous Forests http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tbdf/tbdf.html Many forests are cleared to provide housing for humans. Careful use of the resource can provide a renewable system if we don’t take too much habitat away.
  74. 74. Conclusion Biomes as "the world's major communities”, are classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment". The importance of biomes cannot be overestimated. Thus, conservation and preservation of biomes should be a major concern to all. Because we share the world with many other species of plants and animals, we must consider the consequences of our actions. It is important to preserve all types of biomes as each houses many unique forms of life.