Recruitment & selection 2012


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Recruitment & selection 2012

  1. 1. Recruitment & Selection forInternational Assignments
  2. 2. Objectives• To identify factors predictive of success for a global manager• To identify barriers to effective recruitment and selection• To describe staffing issues in an MNE
  3. 3. Recruitment: The process of generating a pool of capable candidates to apply for your job vacancySelection: The process of choosing from the pool of applicants the person most likely to succeed in the job
  4. 4. Underlying key principles.• Individual differences• Prediction
  5. 5. Selection criteria• Reliability• Validity
  6. 6. Discrimination:• Direct• Indirect
  7. 7. Two approaches• Person specification based on asking yourself – how can I describe the person who can fulfil this job description ie description of duties/responsibilities• Job competencies identify knowledge skills and knowledge a person needs to adequately do a job(Rees & Porter)
  8. 8. Example of JD format• JOB DESCRIPTION Job title Department Responsible to: Relationships Purpose of job/overall objectives Specific duties and responsibilities Physical/economic conditions
  9. 9. Alec Rodger’s 7 point plan (1970)• PERSONNEL SPECIFICATION Physical characteristics Attainments General intelligence Specific aptitudes Interests Disposition Circumstances
  10. 10. Five-fold grading system (MunroFraser 1971)• PERSONNEL SPECIFICATION Impact on other people Qualification and experience Innate abilities Motivation Adjustment
  11. 11. Issues (Rees & Porter)To identify appropriate selection criteria:• existing good and bad employee match• Totality of job• Over-specification• Over-reaction to previous failures• Choosing in one’s own image• Emotional intelligence• Danger of using historic performance• Attitude• Working abroad
  12. 12. Information to collect• References• Testimonials• CVs/application forms• Assessment centres• Psychometric test• interview
  13. 13. Interviewing Methods• To predict performance• To provide candidate with information• To sell the position• Problems – Immediate judgement, Interviewer not listening, bias – Lack of planning time, venue, wrong atmosphere
  14. 14. Interviewing Methods (cont)• Strategy – frank & friendly, problem solving• Individual• Sequential• Panel• Other Methods – presentation, test case, in-tray exercises, psychological profile, aptitude tests, assessment centres
  15. 15. Variations in selectionCountry I/Vs Applicatio Reference Personalit Cognitiv Handwriting n form s y tests e tests analysisBelgium 91 74 15 35 30 2(F)Belgium 100 92 12 25 32 12(W)France 94 89 11 17 7 17Italy 96 45 32 8 8 0Germany 60 83 76 2 2 0UK 91 70 74 10 12 0
  16. 16. Culture and job ads• 80% Swedish job ads emphasis interpersonal skills• Germany & UK – 65%• France, Italy, Spain – 50% (but age often specified)Cranet, 2010
  17. 17. Variations in recruitment methodsBrewster et al, 2011 (Cranet, 2010)• Recruitment agencies most popular in UK, Australia, New Zeeland; unpopular in Germany, Norway, Sweden, Greece• Word of mouth common in Turkey, Greece, France• Internal labour market dominant in Japan, USA, UK• Both informal and formal methods used: – formal- headhunting, cross-national advertising, Internet, international graduate programmes – Informal – family, friends
  18. 18. Selection• Assessment centres used un UK, Germany, Netherlands, France• Psychometric testing popular in Spain, Italy, Denmark and Finland, Sweden; very unpopular in Germany, Netherlands and Norway• Interview panels popular in UK, USA, Germany; used somehow in France and Japan• Cross-cultural differences in interviews, assessment centres, psychological testing
  19. 19. Influence of culture on R&S Brewster et al, 2011• Anglo-Saxon tradition – individual factors used to predict performance; competencies frameworks• Australia – fir between the person and the organisation’s values and ways of doing things• France – personal values not considered appropriate; assessment of risk rather than predicted outcomes• Latin America, Mexico, Peru – who the person is, relationships, connections• Regional challenges: India – employee referrals, succession planning and internal recruitment; ethnicity important in Malaysia; Islamic principles – experience, decency etc
  20. 20. Black & Stephens• “Our research has found that the successful completion of a global assignment is linked more closely to the expat’s and the spouse’s adjustment to the new culture than to the expat’s adjustment to the new work role.”
  21. 21. Selection Strategy• Ethnocentric – Home Country bias• Geocentric – Best candidate on worldwide basis, no country bias• Polycentric – Host country bias• Regiocentric – Best candidate on regional basis
  22. 22. International Transfers• For staffing needs• Management Development – eg foreign management, technical skills• Organizational Development• Problems eg repatriation
  23. 23. Failure (in using expatriates)• Costs – Cauldron: $250K-$1 million depending on salary, location, dependents• Black: 16-40% US ex-pats failed• Tung: found European and Japanese failures lower. Are companies judging by the same standards? Japanese placements longer than US
  24. 24. Reasons for failure• Mead says less than 1/3 work related• Tung ranks ex-pat failure in US in descending order: managers’ inability to adapt to different physical/cultural environment; other family problems; overseas work; lack of technical competence; lack of motivation
  25. 25. Culture Shock• “ a sense of psychological disorientation that most people suffer when they move into a culture that is different from their own.”• Can’t recognise cues ; perceptions different• Symptoms – tension & frustration, alienation, need to be alone, depression• Study by Black adjustment < 50 months
  26. 26. Reverse Culture Shock• Reduced financial benefits• Less power, status• Change in jobs & personnel• Poorer housing, loss of domestic help• Solutions – mentor, training, brief managers on changes, debrief manager
  27. 27. Selection Factors Predictive of Expat Success• Strategic Factors – Control of subsidiary, stage of development for MNE, long term strategy vs reaction• Exchange of critical information including technical data• Management development
  28. 28. Selection Factors (cont.)• Professional Skills – technical and interpersonal• Management Skills – able to manage conflict, collaboration, trust• Communication – language proficiency, 2-way conversation, cross-cultural ability• Individual characteristics – flexibility, open minds, ability to cope with stress• Spouse & Family – language skills, spouse’s career, education facilities
  29. 29. Some Other Solutions(based on Black, J.S. et al – “Global Assignments”)• Involve family early in process• Most successful ex-pats are geo-centric• Candidate should be non-judgemental, mature, willing to learn• Experience in similar environment may help but Black found little relationship between previous ex-pat work & ability to adapt• Ethnic affinity
  30. 30. Other Solutions (cont.)• Professional & technical support at subsidiary and head office• Clarify duration to reduce uncertainty• Guaranteed career security on repatriation• Career planning, promotion opportunities• Support for living eg medical, housing, insurance, social events, job for spouse
  31. 31. Summary• Is recruitment necessary?• Source of best not easiest placement• Concentrate on personal qualities• Focus on families• Consider cost & allow adequate time• Communicate, clarify progress