A model for e-education: Extending teaching spaces and extending learning spaces. Insung Yung and Colin LatchemBritish Journal of Educational Technology Vol 42 No 1 2011 6-18
To recognise the advantages of ICT in Education. Draw on the reasons why ICT is not being implemented successfully. Define e-education so as to be able to apply this concept to a model. Analyse the model presented for e-education. Identify ways in which the model can be used to extend teaching and learning spaces. Connect this reading to TPaCK with particular reference to Learning Technology by Design as referenced in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge Puny Mishra & Matthew J Koehler Through discussion identify the perspective of various educational stakeholders.
“The paper proposes a model for e-education in instruction, training initiation and induction based upon the concept of extended teaching spaces involving execution, facilitation and liberation, and extended learning spaces used for acquisition, application and construction cemented in by dialogue and reflection. The proposed model is based upon theory, research and practice in education and information and communication technology (ICT). In this paper, the focus is on K-12 schooling, but the model may be applied to ICT integration in all sectors of education and training.”
According to Bonk & Zhang, 2008; Jonassen, Howland & Marra, 2007 (p 6) ICT has the “potential to revolutionise the classroom by facilitating moves from rote learning and shallow coverage of content to the acquisition of such higher order thinking skills as problem setting, questioning, organising, evaluating and generating knowledge”. “Enable teachers to make presentations using motivating and informative multimedia and facilitate active learning in individuals with different needs” (p 6) Research by Becta, 2007 (p7 ) “applications of ICT resulted in greater interaction and collaboration between teachers and students, curriculum choice and diversity in ways of learning, and improvements in students national test scores, behaviour and attendance” Additionally Kozma , 2003 International study across 28 countries revealed that “technology could promote innovative teaching and learning, constructivist activities among students and collaboration among teachers. (p 7)
As discovered by Robertson, 2002; 2003 “the methodologies for ICT adaption fails to take account of the complex cultural, psychological and political characteristics of schools” (p 7) Baskin and Williams (2006) found “there had been integration of ICT but the question of ICT based pedagogy remains largely unaddressed.” (p 7) Trucano ( 2007) reveals that “despite growing interest in the use of ICT in education there is little evidence of its positive impact on learning outcomes.” (p 7) There is a need for more extensive pre-service and in-service teacher training in ICT based pedagogy. (p.7) TPaCK?? The continual challenge faced by teachers to understand the various terminology .
A = Back to Basics Emphasis Transmission model. Rote learning Drill and practice. One set curriculum No dialogue or reflection Teacher in charge.B = Progressive Education Learning through experience. Life long learning Problem solving and higher order thinking. Metacognition.
Traditional didactism Discovery learning and “to teach” „constructivism‟ Teacher centred. Learners actively Students listen and receive constructing. information to Learner centred.memorise, recall and store in Teachers role as facilitator. long term memory
What is your definition of e-education? Whatever definition you arrive at it must consider the following: “that the quality of learning is influenced more by the instructional design than the technology (Clark, 1983,2001; Kozma, 2001), and that different technologies are needed to support different processing and presentation capabilities ( Ally, 2004) (p 10) “the successful integration of ICT in education can lead to the provision of learner centredenvironments, access to multimedia-rich learning resources, expanded interactivity, improved peer and self assessment, and responsiveness to individual needs” (p10) “We need to change our notion of teaching and learning environments as time and space bound classrooms to flexible, networked and extended virtual spaces (Wahlstedt, Pekkola and Niemela 2008) (p10) The model for e education which is to follow addresses these pointsMaking particular reference to technology‟s ability to change practice through extending teaching and learning spaces
Training InstructionSkill acquisition (ie write words, make and Specific information acquisition ( facts ofrepair things) history, grammatical rules, math )Teachers role: Executer/course manager. Teacher‟s role: Executor / course managerThe core content is provided by the teacher The core content is provided by the teacherand acquired by the learner. and acquired by the learner Initiation InductionFamiliarising the learners with social values Introduction into thought systems andand norms. arriving at personal relationships and judgements.Teacher‟s role: facilitator , encouragingpersonal and academic growth. Teacher‟s role: liberationalist.Emphasis on developing student Encouraging learners t make their wonunderstanding rather than lesson content connections between their current knowledge and experiences and these new understadings.
Teacher‟s role: Execution: No longer the sole occupants of the teaching space. use multimedia to present facts and demonstrate processes in a more engaging way Teaching space is also extended by the work being online (home school access to assessment and feedback)Teacher‟s role: Facilitation Self paced computer-based tutorials can be used to prompt and support the learners, and learning can also be facilitated by interactive IT tools, such as on line help desk p 12 Help provide the support to engage learners socially emotionally and academically using email, conferencing, chat and discussionTeacher‟s role: Liberationalist Open ended inquiry , problem solving and creativity because of the “Web, all places, people, knowledge ideas and artifacts are immediately accessible at the click of a mouse, and anyone anywhere in the world can learn from and contribute to online forums, blogs, wikis and other forms of exchange for learning”. (p13)
Acquisition Where learners can acquire knowledge, information and skills through multi media Web and online interaction. Teachers are not the sole providers of information therefore providing students with opportunities to develop their “research and information fluency” . Students are engaged, motivated and show an increased ability to problem solve.Application Where learners deliberately carry out research , collaborate, manage projects and solve problems Learners are connected – intranet or internet. Where ideas extend beyond the confines of the classroom.Construction Enables learners to work independently/teams to create original ideas. Constructing learning communities.
“Extended teaching and learning spaces can help to support a culture of question posing and reflection by teacher and students alike by exposing them to a wider range of facts, experiences, doubts , and conflicting and competing ideas and opinions they can ever be provided within the confines of the single classroom” (p 15)
What significance/repurcusions/consequences/contributions does themodel for e-education have for the following stakeholders:a) Teachersb) Studentsc) School Leadershipd) Parentse) Policy makersf) University Undergraduate Coordinatorsg) Please be prepared to share your perspective so as to contribute towards a holistic appreciation for the model of e-education.
“Teachers who encourage………… extended teaching spaces and extended learning spaces to facilitate and inspire learning, dialogue, and reflection, involve their classes in real world learning, model digitalage work, and promote digital citizenship and responsibility. They are repositioning their schools in regard to e-education. The environment they are creating conforms to our model of e-education” (p16) .Thank you for your participation.Please use the remainder of the workshop to write your refelctive comments .Viv Rowan