Comparing Frameworks for 21st Century Skills Chapter 3 Chris Dede Focus question: Many groups have called for students to learn 21st centuryskills but what does this actually mean and what has it got to do with technology Viv Rowan
Overview of PresentationFocus debate for this reading:Summary of the Reading:• Rational of Formulating 21st Century Skills.• Current Major Frameworks.• Current Conceptual Frameworks for Digital Literacies• Comparing Alternative Frameworks for 21st Century Skills. – Particularly the orientation and role of ICT’s• Advances in the Assessment of 21st Century SkillsDebateConclusionParticipant comments on Slideshare
Focus for DebateIn your assigned teams use your understanding of the reading to provideat least three reasons to support this statement:We now have the means necessary to move beyond 20 th centuryknowledge in order to prepare all students for a future quite differentfrom the immediate past.” Affirmative: Why is this statement true? Negative: Why is this statement false? Choose one person to report back.
The Rational for formulating 21 Century skills.“Proficiency in the 21st century differs primarily due to the emergence of very sophisticated information and communication technologies” (ICT) (p 51) – Work force: Computers are more able to accomplish human task – Expert thinking: understanding how expert s think has been able to identify the importance of being able to investigate ill defined, unpredictable problems – Collaboration - work in a knowledge society is frequently accomplished in teams – Data Rich - The amount of data available means that critical information consumers. – Digital Disorder - the variety of way in which data can be retrieved and categorised according to individual needs.
“Overall the distinction between perennial and contextual skill isimportant because unlike perennial capabilities, new contextualtypes of human performance are typically not part of the legacycurriculum inherited from 20th century education” p 53The Legacy:•“K – 12 instruction emphasizes manipulating predigested information tobuild fluency in routine problem solving, rather than filtering data derivedfrom experiences in complex settings to develop skills in sophisticatedproblem finding” p 54.•Little time is spent on building capabilities in group interpretation,negotiation of shared meaning, or co construction of problem resolutions”•The use of technological applications and representations is generallybanned from testing, rather than providing n opportunity to measurestudents capabilities to use tools, application and media effectively”
“Current approaches to using technology in schooling largely reflectthe 20th century pedagogy of applying information andcommunication technologies as a means of increasing theeffectiveness of traditional approaches: enhancing productivitythrough tools such as word processors, aiding communication bychannels such as email and threaded a synchronous discussions,and expanding access to information via Web browsers andstreaming videos”All have their place in conventional schooling however…..“non draw on the full potential of ICT’s for individual and collectiveexpression, experience, and interpretation – human capabilitiesemerging as key work and life skills for the first part of the 21stcentury”
Current Major Frameworks for 21st Century Skills Partnership for 21 Century Skills (2006) North Central Regional Education Laboratory (NCREL) and the Metiri Group (2003)Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2005) The above mentioned frameworks include:National Leadership Council for Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP, 2007) International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE, 2007) Educational Testing Services (ETS, 2007)
Partnership for 21 Century Skills (2006)ICT Literacy: Information and communications technology literacy is the ability to use technology to develop 21st century content knowledge and skills, in the context of learning core subjects. Students must be able to use technology to learn content skills – so they know how to learn, think critically, solve problems, use information, communicate, innovate, and collaborate.
Main idea from a comparisons of the frameworks of 21st century skills:“Focuses less on the overlap with 20th century curriculum“….much of what distinguishes 21st century skills from 20th centurycompetencies is that a person and a tool, application, medium, orenvironment work in concert to accomplish an objective that is otherwiseunobtainable” p 63“Frameworks that discuss new literacies based on the evolution of ICT’shelp to illuminate this aspect of 21st century learning “ P 63
Summary of Frameworks for 21st Century Skills• “These twentyfirst century skills frameworks are generally consistent with each other”• The addition of skillsets by other frameworks consist of two major areas – “technical proficiency: a foundational knowledge of hardware, software applications, networks, and elements of digital technology “ – Areas in which are underemphasised such as “students acting autonomously” and “risk taking”
Digital Literacies The “emergence of Web 2.0 media has fuelled a shift in online leading edge applications that reinforces these learning strengths and preferences”.Creativity and innovation Cognitive proficiencyCommunication and Technological proficiencycollaboration ICT proficiencyResearch and information Accessfluency ManageCritical thinking, problem Integratesolving, and decision Evaluatemaking Create.Digital citizenshipTechnology operationsand conceptsSource: National Educational Technology Source: Educational Testing Service, 2007. pp
Digital LiteraciesPlay Fluency in multiple mediaPerformance Active learningSimulation Expression through non linear,Appropriation associational webs ofMultitasking representationsDistributed cognition Co-design by teachers andCollective intelligence students.JudgmentTransmedia navigationNetworkingNegotiationSource Jenkins, 2009 Source: Dede
Digital Literacies“The emphasis is not on proficiency with the tool, but on the types ofintellectual activity performed by a person working with sophisticatedICT’s.”“while some perennial capabilities - like judgment – are listed, other skills– such as performance – are contextual in their emphasis on new type oftwentyfirst century capacities”.“These digital literacies not only represent skills students should master foreffective 21st century work and citizenship, but also describe the learningstrengths and preferences people who use technology now bring toeducational settings.
Advances in Assessment of 21st Century Skills The College and Work Readiness AssessmentAim: measures how students perform on constructed – response tasks that require an integrated set of critical thinking, analytical reasonng, problem soling, and written communication “Critical thinking, analytical reasoning, problem solving, and writing are collective outcomes that cannot fully be taught in any one class or year; so all teachers and faculty have a responsibility to teach for such skills” “Completion of these instruments does not require the recall of particular facts or formulas; instead, the measures assess the demonstrated ability to interpret, analyze, and synthesise information”
Advances in Assessment of 21st Century Skills The Programme for International Students Assessment Aim : “to measure how well fifteen-year-olds. Approaching the end of compulsory schooling, are prepared to meet the challenges of today’s knowledge societies – what PISA refers to as literacies”.The assessment is forward thinking, focusing on young people’s ability to use their knowledge and skills to meet real life challenges, rather than merely on the extent to which they have mastered a specific school curriculum” This orientation reflects a change in the goals and objectives of curricula themselves, which increasingly address what students can do with what they learn at school and not merely whether they can reproduce what they have learnt”
Advances in Assessment of 21st Century Skills Key Stage 3 Literacy AssessmentAim: “ to gauge students’ ICT capabilities at the end of “Key Stage 3” (ages twelve to thirteen) in Great Britain’s national curriculum”“ The test not only assesses students’ ICT skills, but also their ability to use those skills to use a complex set of problems involving research, communication, information management, and presentation”
Assessment - summary• All three forms of assessment are able to cover most of the skills within the Frameworks for twentyfirst century skills.• “The Key Stage 3 has more potential to cover the full range of twentyfirst century capabilities, including digital literacies, because it is conducted in a virtual world and based on activities more sophisticated than making forced-choice decisions based on a number of alternatives.”• The increasing availability of valid assessments for twentyfirst century skills is leading to calls for all states to participate in “international benchmarking”, or comparing their educational processes and outcomes to the best models around the world”
DebateIn your assigned teams use your understanding of the reading to provideat least three reasons to support this statement:We now have the means necessary to move beyond 20 th centuryknowledge in order to prepare all students for a future quite differentfrom the immediate past.” Affirmative: Why is this statement true? Negative: Why is this statement false? Choose one person to report back.
Conclusion• Proficiency in the twentyfirst century differs primarily due to the emergence of very sophisticated information and communication technologies”.• Less emphasis on comparing 21st century skills with 20th century skills.• This is due in part because of what we now know about ICT’s• There is an increased complexity of skills as a result.• Strong emphasis on the acquisition of digital literacies to assist with the conceptualisation, implementation of effective 21 st century skills.• Assessment must embrace the rapidly changing status of ICT’s within teaching and learning.• Challenge: A major, often unrecognised challenge in profesional development is helping teachers, policy makers, and local communities unlearn beliefs, values, assumptions, and cultures underlying schools’ industrial –era operating practices.
CommentsThank you for your participation.Could you please take a few minutes to write and upload your commentsinto Slideshare. Viv Rowan