Discussion of the formation of the USSR from the Old Russia after the Russian Civil War. Stalin's take over of power in 1928. His tragic rule of the USSR the use of the Secret Police and the
Discussion of the formation of the USSR from the Old Russia after the Russian Civil War. Stalin's take over of power in 1928. His tragic rule of the USSR the use of the Secret Police and the beginning of the "Terror": Introduction to the faces of murder.
Russian History Class 4, Fall 2010, Spring 2011Part 3, Stalin and the Secret Police, “The Terror” GCCC Encore Instructor Joe Boisvert
Stalin and the Secret Police From the beginning of their regime, the Bolsheviks relied on a strong secret, or political, police The first secret police, called the Cheka, Established in December 1917 Abolished once Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks had consolidated their power. The original Cheka, was headed by Feliks Dzerzhinskii Then NKVD created under Stalin Nikolai Yezhov, a one-time head of Soviet’s secret police NKVD – Head of Secret Police During Worst of the Purges
Secret Police The Cheka, G.P.U. and O.G.P.U.: Bolshevism's early secret police.(All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-revolution and Sabotage, State Political Directorate, and Unified State Political Directorate) After Civil War NKVD Formed
YAGODA GPU / CHHECKA Leader of Secret Police loved German Pornography Orchids Literary Friendships
Faces of the Secret Police Lavrenti Beria holding Stalin’s Daughter Beria was high ranking member of the Secret Police during the “Terror”
Beria Head of NKVD In the first days of March, 1940, Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria, as head of the NKVD submitted to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) a recommendation that 25 700 Polish citizens - "obdurate and incorrigible enemies of the Soviet rule" - be executed.
Faces of Murder – Stalin’s Friends A. Mikoyan, N. Khrushchev, J. Stalin, G. Malenkov, L. Beria and V. Molotov, the leading members of the Politburo.
Reasons for the Terror in Russia Under Stalin (Why Unnecessary Purges?) 1. Whole Country Stalin believed that Russia had to be united – with him as leader – if it was to be strong. 2. Urgency Stalin believed Russia had 10 years to catch up with the western world before Germany invaded. 3. Paranoia Stalin became increasingly paranoid (seeing plots everywhere) and power-mad (he demanded continuous praise and applause). In 1935, his wife killed herself.
Summary of Terror The most famous aspect of Stalin's Russia was the Terror. This grew from his paranoia and his desire to be absolute autocrat, and was enforced via the NKVD and public 'show trials'. It developed into a centrally-enforced 'cult of Stalin-worship', and a terrifying system of labor camps - 'the gulag'.
Political Opponents 1934: Kirov, a rival to Stalin, was murdered. Although he probably ordered the assassination, Stalin used it as a chance to arrest thousands of his opponents. 1934–1939, Stalin’s political opponents were put on ‘Show trials’, where they pleaded guilty to impossible charges of treason (e.g. Zinoviev and Kamenev 1936/ Bukharin, Tomsky & Rykov 1938). The Army In 1937, the Commander-in-Chief of the Red Army and 7 leading generals were shot. In 1938–39, all the admirals and half the Army’s officers were executed or imprisoned. The Church Religious leaders imprisoned; churches closed down. Ethnic groups Stalin enforced ‘Russification’ of all the Soviet Union. Ordinary people Were denounced/ arrested/ sent to the Gulag (the system of labor camps). 20 million Russians were sent to the camps, where perhaps half of them died. People lived in fear. ‘Apparatchiks’ (party members loyal to Stalin) got all the new flats, jobs, holidays etc.
Cult of Stalin Stalin Changed his name his birth date and anything that could be used to determined the true of his past Censorship of anything that might reflect badly on Stalin Propaganda everywhere - pictures, statues, continuous praise and applause Places named after him Mothers taught their children that Stalin was ‘the wisest man of the age’ History books and photographs were changed to make him the hero of the Revolution, and obliterate the names of purged people (e.g. Trotsky).
Stalin was Enigma, Madman, Genius, Charming, Ruthless, Many Faces Stalin loved Music, Movies, Books His most favorite book was “The Last of the Mohicans” His favorite book was the “Forsyth Saga” He was married and had children. In Early Period he got ahead on his administrative ability and his Charm
Stalin’s Wife Eventually Commits Suicide – Looking at Picture they look so normal Heredity Manic Depressive Borderline Personality Schizophrenic Suffered from Migraines Arthritis, Female Problems Mostly suffered from being Married to Demanding Egotist
Became Leader Five Years After Death of Lenin – He Worshiped Lenin- Prone to Hero Worship, believe in having faith in the future, he did not believe in God. His first Nick Name was Koba When young expressed himself with his fists He went to Seminary where he loved Dogma, but became troublemaker and thrown out Horrible childhood in Russian Georgia Region Father was an Alcoholic abuser, Mother was preoccupied with Religion After the name of Koba Becomes Stalin which means man of Steel
Russia (USSR) Problems Major Problem was that Russia needed to Modernize The Economy Collapsed After the Civil War, Bukharin wanted solution that was fair to Peasants Stalin wanted fast modernization at any costs. Wanted large collective farm and huge industrial Power Houses.
Russian Problems – Stalin's Solutions Many Excesses in the Time of Terror caused by War by Stalin against Prolitrail to force rapid Modernization Lenin and Bukharin NEP Policy offered Free Market in Grain and some Denationalization and Privatization of some land. Stalin Created Series of Five Year Plans not Possible to Achieve but more Political Statements than real Economic Plans. Forced Economic Growth no matter the Human Costs.
Stalin Toppled in Death by Nikita Khrushchev Came into Power with his Charm – Ruled with Terror and Fear – The Country tried to look Normal During Terror
Russian Deaths including WW2 from 1917 till Stalin's Death Russia World War One: 1,700,000 Causalities (Soldiers) Russian Civil War (1917-22): 9 000 000 USSR WW2: 10,000,000 Soviet Union, Stalin's regime (1924-53): 20 000 000 note could be low estimate Two Theories of Number of Deaths Under Stalin – Big Number 50 million plus, the low number is the 20 Million Number
Average of the Most Significant Estimates of Deaths Under Stalin AVERAGE: Of the 17 estimates by different Historical Sources of the total number of victims of Stalin, the median is 30 million. Stalin's mass murders were 'entirely rational' says new Russian textbook praising tyrant many other text book do take exception that Stalin was force to these actions by a need to Modernize Russia. April 2010