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AA 4 RH Y3 Russian/ Soviet History Class 4, Fall 2010 - Spring 2011 part 3, stalin and the secret police, the terror
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AA 4 RH Y3 Russian/ Soviet History Class 4, Fall 2010 - Spring 2011 part 3, stalin and the secret police, the terror


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Discussion of the formation of the USSR from the Old Russia after the Russian Civil War. Stalin's take over of power in 1928. His tragic rule of the USSR the use of the Secret Police and the …

Discussion of the formation of the USSR from the Old Russia after the Russian Civil War. Stalin's take over of power in 1928. His tragic rule of the USSR the use of the Secret Police and the beginning of the "Terror": Introduction to the faces of murder.

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  • 1. Russian History Class 4, Fall 2010, Spring 2011Part 3, Stalin and the Secret Police, “The Terror” GCCC Encore
    Instructor Joe Boisvert
  • 2. Stalin and the Secret Police
    From the beginning of their regime, the Bolsheviks relied on a strong secret, or political, police
    The first secret police, called the Cheka,
    Established in December 1917
    Abolished once Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks had consolidated their power. The original Cheka, was headed by Feliks Dzerzhinskii
    Then NKVD created under Stalin
    Nikolai Yezhov, a one-time
    head of Soviet’s secret police NKVD – Head of Secret Police During Worst of the Purges
  • 3. Secret Police
    The Cheka, G.P.U. and O.G.P.U.: Bolshevism's early secret police.(All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-revolution and Sabotage, State Political Directorate, and Unified State Political Directorate)
    After Civil War NKVD Formed
    Leader of Secret Police loved
    German Pornography
    Literary Friendships
  • 5. Faces of the Secret Police
    Lavrenti Beria holding Stalin’s Daughter
    Beria was high ranking member of the
    Secret Police during the “Terror”
  • 6. Beria Head of NKVD
    In the first days of March, 1940, Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria, as head of the NKVD submitted to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) a recommendation that 25 700 Polish citizens - "obdurate and incorrigible enemies of the Soviet rule" - be executed.
  • 7. Faces of Murder – Stalin’s Friends
    A. Mikoyan, N. Khrushchev, J. Stalin, G. Malenkov, L. Beria and V. Molotov, the leading members of the Politburo.
  • 8. Reasons for the Terror in Russia Under Stalin
    (Why Unnecessary Purges?)
    1.   Whole Country
    Stalin believed that Russia had to be united – with him as leader – if it was to be strong.
    2.   Urgency
    Stalin believed Russia had 10 years to catch up with the western world before Germany invaded.
    3.   Paranoia
    Stalin became increasingly paranoid (seeing plots everywhere) and power-mad (he demanded continuous praise and applause).   In 1935, his wife killed herself.  
    Summary of Terror
    The most famous aspect of Stalin's Russia was the Terror.   This grew from his paranoia and his desire to be absolute autocrat, and was enforced via the NKVD and public 'show trials'.   It developed into a centrally-enforced 'cult of Stalin-worship', and a terrifying system of labor camps - 'the gulag'.
  • 9. The Great Purges, 1934–39
    Political Opponents
    1934: Kirov, a rival to Stalin, was murdered. Although he probably ordered the assassination, Stalin used it as a chance to arrest thousands of his opponents.
    1934–1939, Stalin’s political opponents were put on ‘Show trials’, where they pleaded guilty to impossible charges of treason (e.g. Zinoviev and Kamenev 1936/ Bukharin, Tomsky & Rykov 1938).  
    The Army
    In 1937, the Commander-in-Chief of the Red Army and 7 leading generals were shot. In 1938–39, all the admirals and half the Army’s officers were executed or imprisoned. 
    The Church
    Religious leaders imprisoned; churches closed down.  
    Ethnic groups
    Stalin enforced ‘Russification’ of all the Soviet Union.  
    Ordinary people
    Were denounced/ arrested/ sent to the Gulag (the system of labor camps). 20 million Russians were sent to the camps, where perhaps half of them died.    People lived in fear.   ‘Apparatchiks’ (party members loyal to Stalin) got all the new flats, jobs, holidays etc.
  • 10. Cult of Stalin
    Stalin Changed his name his birth date and anything that could be used to determined the true of his past
    Censorship of anything that might reflect badly on Stalin
    Propaganda everywhere - pictures, statues, continuous praise and applause
    Places named after him
    Mothers taught their children that Stalin was ‘the wisest man of the age’
    History books and photographs were changed to make him the hero of the Revolution, and obliterate the names of purged people (e.g. Trotsky).  
  • 11. Stalin’s Gulags
  • 12. Stalins Propaganda
  • 13.
  • 14. Stalin was Enigma, Madman, Genius, Charming, Ruthless, Many Faces
    Stalin loved Music, Movies, Books
    His most favorite book was “The Last of the Mohicans”
    His favorite book was the “Forsyth Saga”
    He was married and had children.
    In Early Period he got ahead on his administrative ability and his Charm
  • 15. Stalin’s Wife Eventually Commits Suicide – Looking at Picture they look so normal
    Heredity Manic Depressive
    Borderline Personality
    Suffered from Migraines
    Arthritis, Female Problems
    Mostly suffered from being Married to Demanding Egotist
  • 16. Became Leader Five Years After Death of Lenin – He Worshiped Lenin-
    Prone to Hero Worship, believe in having faith in the future, he did not believe in God. His first Nick Name was Koba
    When young expressed himself with his fists
    He went to Seminary where he loved Dogma, but became troublemaker and thrown out
    Horrible childhood in Russian Georgia Region
    Father was an Alcoholic abuser, Mother was preoccupied with Religion
    After the name of Koba Becomes Stalin which means man of Steel
  • 17. Russia (USSR) Problems
    Major Problem was that Russia needed to Modernize
    The Economy Collapsed After the Civil War, Bukharin wanted solution that was fair to Peasants
    Stalin wanted fast modernization at any costs. Wanted large collective farm and huge industrial Power Houses.
  • 18. Russian Problems – Stalin's Solutions
    Many Excesses in the Time of Terror caused by War by Stalin against Prolitrail to force rapid Modernization
    Lenin and Bukharin NEP Policy offered Free Market in Grain and some Denationalization and Privatization of some land.
    Stalin Created Series of Five Year Plans not Possible to Achieve but more Political Statements than real Economic Plans. Forced Economic Growth no matter the Human Costs.
  • 19. Stalin Toppled in Death by Nikita Khrushchev
    Came into Power with his Charm – Ruled with Terror and Fear – The Country tried to look Normal During Terror
  • 20. Russian Deaths including WW2 from 1917 till Stalin's Death
    Russia World War One: 1,700,000 Causalities (Soldiers)
    Russian Civil War (1917-22): 9 000 000
    USSR WW2: 10,000,000
    Soviet Union, Stalin's regime (1924-53): 20 000 000 note could be low estimate
    Two Theories of Number of Deaths Under Stalin – Big Number 50 million plus, the low number is the 20 Million Number
  • 21. Average of the Most Significant Estimates of Deaths Under Stalin
    AVERAGE: Of the 17 estimates by different Historical Sources of the total number of victims of Stalin, the median is 30 million.
    Stalin's mass murders were 'entirely rational' says new Russian textbook praising tyrant many other text book do take exception that Stalin was force to these actions by a need to Modernize Russia. April 2010
  • 22. The End Class 4