Discussion of difficulties in establishing dates in History especially in Civilizations before BC. The date we are trying to pin down is the date for the Exodus by Mosses and the Israelite's from
Discussion of difficulties in establishing dates in History especially in Civilizations before BC. The date we are trying to pin down is the date for the Exodus by Mosses and the Israelite's from Egypt. Part two of the lecture we will show and discuss the beautiful artwork of the New Kingdom.
CLASS FIVE EGYPTIANHISTORY - THE NEWKINGDOM - PART ONETHE PROBLEM WITHHISTORICAL RESEARCHEXAMPLE THE EXODUS –PART TWO THEWONDERFUL THINGS OFEGYPTJoe Boisvert Adjunct Professor Gulf Coast StateCollege Fall 2011 and Spring 2012
Moses and the Exodus from Egyptthe Problem with Dating the Event
Moses and the Exodus Moses, the first prophet, was the leader of the Israelites in the Exodus from Egypt through 40 years of wandering in the Sinai wilderness to Canaan, and transmitter of the Decalogue and Torah to the people at Mount Sinai. According to tradition, he wrote the entire Pentateuch, except for the last section describing his death and burial, which was written by his successor, Joshua.
According to the Pentateuch / Torah theExodus occurred in 1447 B.C. and sinceRamses was mentioned.It was assumed that Ramses II was theoppressive Pharaoh of the Exodus.Gigantic monuments of Ramses’s time fortifiedthis view in the eyes of Victorian scholars.It was assumed that the Exodus must haveoccurred during his time (1279-1213 B.C.).However, there is no historical evidence tosupport this view. Nor is there any sign of thecatastrophic period mention in the Pentateuch.Ramses is also mentioned during the timewhen Joseph was vizier. This was hundreds ofyears before the Exodus.
Rames Battled the Hittites not theHykos Ramses II battled with the Hittites and almost lost his life, but so do the Hittites. In reality it was a stalemate, so they both signed a treaty Ramses II ruled to late to fix other historical events
DATE OF THE EXODUS 1446 BCThis date emphasizes the literal interpretation of the biblical numbers inExodus 12:40 ("Now the time that the sons of Israel lived in Egypt wasfour hundred and thirty years"), Judges 11:26 ("While Israel lived inHeshbon and its villages, and in Aroer and its villages, and in all the citiesthat are on the banks of the Arnon, three hundred years, why did you notrecover them within that time?") and 1 Kings 6:1 ("Now it came about inthe four hundred and eightieth year after the sons of Israel came out ofthe land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomons reign over Israel, in themonth of Ziv which is the second month, that he began to build the houseof the Lord").Hill and Walton offer the following arguments for an early date:"1 Kings 6:1 indicates the Exodus occurred 480 years prior to the 4th yearof Solomons reign. His 4th year is variously dated at 966/960/957B.C., placing the Exodus at 1446/1440/1437.First Solomon’s Reign 966 + From Kings 480 = 1446A Survey of the Old Testament, 108.
Analysis of Dates Using Dates from the Bible and History966 = 4th full year (actually into the fifth) of Solomons reign (971-931) when theTemple was begun 1.+44 yrs = start of Davids reign (1010) 1.+40 yrs = start of Sauls reign (1050) 1.+40 yrs = the time from Saul to Jephthahs statement (1050- 1090)+300 yrs = the time in the land (Jephthahs statement) (1390) 1.+16 yrs = Joshuas leadership (1406) 1.+40 yrs = wilderness wondering (1446) This matches 1 Kings 6:1 where 966 + 480 = 1446!
Exodus Other Dates ??? This exit from Egypt by the Hyksos probably included the Israelites as well. The story of the Exodus is most likely bases on the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt, for there is no other record of any mass exit from Egypt 1552 BC The evidence seems to fit well with Josephus account. Although the Egyptians saw the expulsion of the Hyksos as a great military victory, the Israelites viewed this as a great salvation victory for them
Time of Exodus From Egypt Problem with Date of 1447 There are many Old Testament names that are recognized in these lists, but there are two important place-names that effect this study. The first is number 78, Joseph-El, which indicates the tribe of Joseph was already in Canaan before 1481 BC (Redford 1979, 277) which is the 23rd year of Thutmoses co regency (ANET 1969, 235). The second is number 102, Jacob-El, which also indicates the tribes of Israel were already in Canaan at this time. A date earlier than 1481 BC is needed for the Exodus. It may be argued that the name Israel was not yet used at this time until a league of 12 tribes was formed.
Expulsion of Hyksos – Did Moses Leadthe Jewish People out at this Time?? The great exodus from Egypt according to many Historians was the expulsion of the Hyksos around 1570-50 BC Josephus counted the 430 years from Abrahams entrance into Canaan to the Exodus, and 405 years from the birth of Isaac to the Exodus If this date is correct the Exodus was during the Reign of Ahmose the first Pharaoh of the New Kingdom. The Hyksos in Egypt during time of turmoil possible including the ten plagues during Second Intermediate Period ending with Ahmose.
PHARAOH OF THE EXODUS ??:A. Rameses II:1. Scholars who hold to a late date of the Exodus (c.1290-1225 BC) identify Rameses II (c. 1304-1237) asthe Pharaoh of the Exodus2. In addition the name of the city in Exodus 1:11 isRamesesa. It is possible that Rameses II merely took credit forthe city and the biblical reference was modernized3b. It is possible that the Ramasides was to be identifiedwith the Hyksos who oppressed Israel and that the citywas called Rameses in their time4
Amenhotep II (c. 1436-1410)1. It is possible that Hatshepsut (1490-1469) may havebeen the princess who reared Moses2. Thutmose III (c. 1490-1436?) ruled as co-regent withhis stepmother until her death for 56 years. This allowsfor the time when Moses was in exile in Midian (cf. Acts7:3; Exodus 2:23)3. Amenhotep II (c. 1436-1410) may have been thePharaoh of the Exodus. Note that the Bible does not saythat he drowned but that he led a battle to the watersedge.4. The dream inscription of Tutmose IV (c. 1410-1402?)may indicate that he was not originally intended to bePharaoh. Therefore, his brother would have died in theplagues5
Ahmose I 18th Dynasty First Pharaoh of the New KingdomTempest Stele was erected by the Pharaoh AhmoseI (orthodox dates1570-1546 BC) the founder of dynastyEighteen and the New Kingdom. The stele describes the great storm that struck Egyptduring his reign. now then ... the gods declared theirdiscontent. The gods [caused] the sky to come in atempest of rain, with darkness in the western regionand the sky being unleashed without [cessation, louderthan] the cries of the masses, more powerful than[...], [while the rain raged] on the mountains louder thanthe noise of the cataract which is at Elephantine.
CLASS 5 – PART TWOTHE THINGS OF THENEW KINGDOMGulf State College Encore
The chariot represents the high level ofengineering sophistication reached by theEgyptian chariot builders at King Tuts time
Formula One-like chariot King Tutankhamun, the pharaoh who ruled Egypt more than 3,300 years ago, rode full speed over the desert dunes on a Formula One-like chariot, according to new investigations into the technical features of the boy kings vehicle collection. Discovered in pieces by British archaeologist Howard Carter when he entered King Tuts treasure-packed tomb in 1922, the collection consisted of two large ceremonial chariots, a smaller highly decorated one, and three others that were lighter and made for daily use. "They were the Ferrari of antiquity. They boasted an elegant design and an extremely sophisticated and astonishingly modern technology.
Amazing Engineering in TutsTime The chariot, which is usually on display at the Luxor museum, represents the high level of engineering sophistication reached by the Egyptian chariot builders at King Tuts time "These vehicles appear to be the first mechanical systems which combine the use of kinematics, dynamics and lubrication principles Further studies, in collaboration at the conservation department of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, showed the unique interplay of form and function in King Tuts chariots. These technical underpinnings involve the design of the wheels, the naves, the bearings, and the pole between the cart and the yoke. "The wheels feature a real tire, made of a flexible wood rim, which adapts to soil irregularities. Moreover, the six-spoke wheels are made from elastic wood. This absorbs uniformly the loads transmitted by soil irregularity, so that the vibrations are damped by the wheel itself like the intelligent suspensions in modern cars," Rovetta said. The result is a remarkable level of softness and comfort. Even at speeds of about 25 miles per hour on Egypts irregular soil, King Tuts chariots were efficient and pleasant to ride.
King Tut might have worn somesort of orthopedic shoes King Tutankhamen might have worn some sort of orthopedic shoes specially designed to cope with his club foot condition, an investigation into the pharaohs footwear has suggested. Published in the book, "Tutankhamen Footwear: Studies of Ancient Egyptian Footwear," the research is the first detailed analysis of the 3,300-year-old footwear since King Tut‘s mummy and treasure-packed tomb were discovered by Howard Carter in 1922.
Heart Issues In Ancient Egypt He and several other researchers used CT scans, a type of X-ray, on 22 mummies kept in the Egyptian National Museum of Antiquities in Cairo. The subjects were from 1981 B.C. to 334 A.D. Half were thought to be over 45 when they died, and average lifespan was under 40 back then. Sixteen mummies had heart and blood vessel tissue to analyze. Definite or probable hardening of the arteries was seen in nine.
One mummy had evidence of a possibleheart attack but scientists dont know if itwas fatal. They can not tell how much these people weighed -- mummification dehydratesthe body.Of those whose identities could be determined, all were of high social status, andmany served in the court of the Pharaoh or as priests or priestesses."Rich people ate meat, and they did salt meat, so maybe they had hypertension(high blood pressure), but thats speculation," Thompson said.With modern diets, "we all sort of live in the Pharaohs court," said another of theresearchers, Dr. Samuel Wann of the Wisconsin Heart Hospital in Milwaukee.The oldest mummy with heart disease signs was Lady Rai, a nursemaid toQueen Ahmose Nefertari who died around 1530 B.C. -- 200 years before KingTutankhamun.
New Kingdom - Small Gold Cup Period : New Kingdom Reign of : Seti II Dynasty: XIX Belonged to: Queen Tausert This small lotus-shaped cup was found among the other treasures in the archaeological site of the sanctuary of goddess Bastet in Tell Basta. The lower base of the cup is adorned with some hieroglyphic inscriptions indicating the name of Queen Tausert , the consort of Seti II , who dedicated this cup to the goddess . This cup is presented as an offering to the goddess since lotus was believed to be the sign for eternal life in ancient Egypt .
Egyptians believed in a soul - Ka The Egyptians believed in a soul that lived on after death, called a ka; They believed that providing for the needs of the ancestors assured safety and prosperity for the living; they believed that the afterlife was very similar to this life, and so they ensured that their possessions were buried with them. These beliefs led to elaborate burial practices, the building of tombs by the rich and powerful, and of course the mummification process.
Cats First Domesticated in Egypt All of our cats today are descended form Egyptian wild cats. Egyptians loved their cats, and considered them to be protectors of the house. Most cats did not have names: they were just called Ta- Mieuw, or "The Meower", out of respect for their privacy.
The Egyptians thought a name was magical. Catswere so spoiled in Egypt, that some even worejewelry, such as earrings.After death, the housecat was mummified andgiven a decent burial.One prince of Egypt, Thutmose, had his littlefemale cat, "Ta-Miewet", buried with him in a stonecoffin of her own
Egyptians; Used Sun clocks and water clocks. Sun clocks were formed by means of the construction ofObelisks, tapering monuments. The clock worked much like asundial, by watching the moving shadows throughout the day. By doingthis, the Egyptians were able to divide the day intomorning, afternoon, and night. This invention also led to the discoveryof the longest and shortest years, because when seen atnoon, depending on the time of year, the shadow would be longer, orshorter. Water clocks were some of the earliest clocks used, but didn’trequire the observation of celestial bodies. The earliest one was foundin the tomb of the pharaoh Amenhotep I. Water Clocks were like potsmade of stones, with long slanting sides that allowed water to dripdown at a constant rate through a small hole in the bottom.