Ancient Egyptian HistoryClass 2, Spring 2010<br />Instructor – Joe Boisvert <br />Gulf Coast Community College Encore<br />
Today’s Discussion<br />September 25, 2009<br />October 2nd<br />Maps, <br />Time Lines for Overview of all of Egyptian History, <br />Pottery ??<br />Beginning of Ritual Burial, Why???<br />Introduction to Written<br />Language<br />Maps Introduction and discussion of Upper and Lower Egypt<br />What did Egypt Look like?<br />Transition from Hunting and Gathering to Agriculture<br />More on written language and need for calendar<br />
Ancient Egypt<br />Distribution of the<br />Famous Archeological <br />Sites<br />
The Royal Library of Alexandria, or Ancient Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, <br />Was probably the largest, and certainly the most famous, of the libraries of the ancient world. <br />It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and existed, and functioned as a major center of scholarship, at least until the time of Rome's conquest of Egypt, and probably for many centuries thereafter.<br />
The Library at Alexandria was charged with <br />collecting all the world's knowledge<br />
Upper and Lower Egypt<br />Upper Egypt Starting at First<br />Cataract a Elephantine present day <br />Sight of Aswan Dam<br />The Nile River Flows 750 Miles from <br />The First Cataract to the <br />Mediterranean Sea<br />Nubian was strongly Influenced by Egypt<br />But never officially part of Egypt.<br />The Nile flooded on a predictable<br />Annual Basis Leaving in its wake<br />Very fertile soil for farming.<br />
The Desirable Land<br /><ul><li>Egypt is a special place and the development was different
There because of the special nature of the Nile River is that Region.
Every year in Ancient Times the land is flooded and rich soil is deposited By the Nile River.
Early on because of the rich black soil people turned earlier to Agriculture From the Typical Hunting and Gathering of Primitive Societies.</li></li></ul><li>Predynastic (5,500 - 3,100 BC)<br />Beginning just before <br />the Predynastic period, <br />Egyptian culture was <br />already beginning to resemble greatly the age of the Pharaohs' that would soon come after. The beginning of dynasties and the Old Kingdom<br />
5500 BC Transition from Hunting <br />and <br />Gathering to Agriculture<br /><ul><li>Starting to find evidence of organized, </li></ul>permanent settlements focused around agriculture. <br /><ul><li> Hunting was no longer a major</li></ul> support for existence.<br /><ul><li> The Egyptian diet was made up of domesticated cattle, sheep, pigs and goats, as well as cereal grains such as wheat and barley. </li></li></ul><li>Transition from Hunting and Gathering<br />Artifacts of stone were supplemented by those of metal, and the crafts of basketry, pottery, weaving, and the tanning of animal hides became part of the daily life. <br /><ul><li> The transition from primitive nomadic tribes to traditional civilization was nearly complete</li></li></ul><li>Earliest Human Figure<br />Found in Egypt<br />Dates From<br />4500 to 4000 BC<br />
View of now, shows how the First Cataract of the Nile looks most of the year. Showing the broken up nature of the stream.<br />
The Nile River Blessing’s<br /><ul><li>The Nile Flows 750 Miles from the First Cataract in Upper Egypt to the Mediterain Sea.
The Yearly Flooding and Depositing of Rich Black Soil Creates Unique Opportunities for Wide Scale Farming
In Ancient Times Egypt was called the “The Gift of the River”
The Flood and Redepositing of Soil is Needed Every Year. The Height Of the Flooding is in Mid August.</li></li></ul><li>Like Most Things in Nature the Action of the Nile is Unpredictable.<br /><ul><li>Some years the Floods Fail to come at all and Famine can be the Result.
Some years the Floods are low and not all the cultivated Land is Covered.
The Other Thing That Occasionally happened was a Great Flood Destroying Buildings and Killing Live Stock.</li></li></ul><li>The Nile is Unpredictable<br /><ul><li>Since Normally New Soil is Deposited Every Year the Normal Problems of Killing the Growing Potential is Eliminated. Thus in Egypt it was not necessary to rotate the crops.
Evidence of the growth of cereal crops have been discovered prior to 5000 BC</li></li></ul><li>
Eastern Dessert of Egypt Source of Grey <br />Granite source of fine stone in Antiquity<br />
Prehistoric Egyptian Artifacts 3500 to 3100 BC<br />The Pitt River Knife a Fine Example Of a ripple flaked serrated flint knife Of Prehistoric Period<br />Prehistoric Slate Palette Adorned with Birds Head<br />
Advantages of Agriculture and Society<br />Hunting and Gathering does not require large scale Cooperative Effort like Farming Requires.<br />Societies begin to organize and flourish to accomplish the tasks required by large scale Agricultural Activities.<br />First you need a calendar to predict when to plant and when to harvest.<br />Second you need to store the harvest, cultivate seeds, and distribute the food.<br />
Modern Brick Makers in Egypt Use Same Techniques as in Antiquity bricks formed individually and baked in the hot dessert sun.<br />
The Unification Crown<br />For Upper and Lower Egypt<br />Two Headdresses combined by<br />Inserting the conical White Crown into the Red Crown<br />Used after Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt<br />By Menes First Pharaoh <br />In List of First Dynasty<br />Old Kingdom<br />
Egyptians Died From Many of the Same Diseases We Face<br />MALARIA PRESENTIN ANCIENT EGYPT:<br />INVESTIGATION ON PREDYNASTIC MUMMIFIED REMAINS<br />We examined samples from the Marro's Collection, belonging to the Anthropological and Ethnographic Museum of Turin, to determine the presence of malaria antigens. <br />The specimens we assessed belong to predynastic mummies (3.200 B.C.) from Gebelen.<br />
True writing, or phonetic writing, records were developed independently in four different civilizations in the world, namely Mesopotamia, <br />China, Egypt, and Mesoamerica.<br />
Next Week We Will Discuss Who Had Writing Systems First<br />