0
Hazardous Area Wiring
EEHA
FUNDAMENTALS
&
Tips & Traps

Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013

1
Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

History & Introduction
Dusts & Gases
The Infernal Triangle
The Incide...
History
The UK
One hundred years ago, the UK's worst mining disaster happened when 
440 people were killed by an explosion...
Why Do Coal Mines Explode?
• Deadly mix
• Methane, the main component of natural gas, is combustible, and mixtures of abou...
Introduction
The Spark
Soon after the introduction of electric power into coal mines, it was
discovered that lethal explos...
DUST
Dust are, from the point of view of a dust explosion,
particles of the diameter lower than 0,5 mm. It must
be also co...
GASES
Gaseous explosive atmospheres consists of at
least one explosive gas and/or vapours of
flammable liquids (including ...
Infernal Triangle (DUSTS)
For any fire to occur, there must be fuel,
ignition and oxygen (Classic Fire
Triangle). However,...
Infernal Triangle (GASES)
The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple
model for understanding the ingredients
nec...
Classified Areas
Flammable Gases and Vapour's
• Zone 0 An area in which an explosive
atmosphere is constantly present, or
...
The Incidents & Accidents keep on keeping on

Imperial Sugar Refinery 
Explosion
2008

Texas City Refinery 
Explosion
2005...
Who is RESPONSIBLE
Do YOU see your job role here; if so YOU are responsible!
•
•
•
•
•
•

Design,
Specify,
Install,
Commis...
The STANDARDS
Make sure that YOU are aware of 
the current Local Regulations and 
Standards that are required 
to guide yo...
The REGULATIONS
Make sure that YOU are aware of the current Local Regulations and
Standards that are required to guide you...
The CONSEQUENCES
• YOU – could be liable,
• YOU – could lose your home and your assets,
• YOU – could go to jail for invol...
Who is LIABLE, Criminal and Civil

In the event of a catastrophic failure the
CORONER will be investigating to
determine t...
HOW TO BECOME COMPLIANT
• TRAINING – undertake the training necessary to ensure that
you are qualified to design, select, ...
Tips & Traps

TRAP – other technicians noncompliant Workmanship. READ the
manufacturers specifications prior
to undertakin...
The next STEP (Act NOW)!
 Undertake the required TRAINING NOW!
 Get the latest copy of the REGULATIONS for your
Country ...
Useful Resources
• TRAINING – Optec at r.shackleford@optec.com.au M:+61438383836
• Hazard EX – http://www.hazardexonthenet...
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Hazardous Area Wiring/EEHA OPTEC/AGEES

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If YOU work in the fields of EEHA/Hazardous Area Wiring this slideshow could save your life and the lives of others. Introduction to HAW/EEHA get training now and become compliant and safe for your sake and the sake of others ACT NOW!

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Transcript of "Hazardous Area Wiring/EEHA OPTEC/AGEES"

  1. 1. Hazardous Area Wiring EEHA FUNDAMENTALS & Tips & Traps Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 1
  2. 2. Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. History & Introduction Dusts & Gases The Infernal Triangle The Incidents & Accidents keep on keeping on Who is RESPONSIBLE The STANDARDS The REGULATIONS The CONSEQUENCES Who is LIABLE, Criminal and Civil HOW TO BECOME COMPLIANT Tips & Traps The next STEP (Act NOW)! Useful Resources Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 2
  3. 3. History The UK One hundred years ago, the UK's worst mining disaster happened when  440 people were killed by an explosion which ripped through the coal  mine at Senghenydd, near Caerphilly. It was the morning of Tuesday 14 October 1913. The 950 miners working  at the Universal Colliery had just started their shift.  The blast was so strong, it lifted a two‐ton lift cage hundreds of yards up  one of the mineshafts into the headgear. Windows were smashed on  Coronation Terrace, half a mile away and the blast was heard many miles  beyond that. China The Benxihu colliery disaster in China cost 1,549 lives and is believed to  be the worst coal mining disaster ever. The tragedy occurred on 26 April  1942 in the Honkeiko coal mine, located near Benxi in the Liaoning  province of China. http://www.mining‐technology.com/features/feature‐world‐worst‐coal‐ mining‐disasters‐china/ 3 Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013
  4. 4. Why Do Coal Mines Explode? • Deadly mix • Methane, the main component of natural gas, is combustible, and mixtures of about 5 percent to 15 percent in air are explosive. When air contains approximately 9.5 percent of methane (the most dangerous concentration), it reaches the perfect oxidation point, which means that the right amount of fuel is mixing with the right amount of oxygen, said. This produces water, carbon dioxide and a lot of amount of heat. • It does not [require] much heat to ignite the combustion process and therefore methane explosion can accelerate very fast. • The heat generated by this process raises the temperature of the air within the mine, which causes it to expand in volume. Since hot air cannot expand easily underground, pressure builds in the mine. If this pressure is high enough, it can cause the air ahead of the combustion zone to compress and cause a shock wave. • Ventilation is the most common method to avoid such methane explosions in coal mines. Large fans are used to blow air out or draw air into mines. • Mine explosions can also be triggered when fine particles of coal dust come into contact with a source of heat. • While methane is easier to ignite, the explosion pressure and heat value of methane is not as high as coal dust. In most cases, dust explosions are first caused by methane explosions. • "Dust explosion needs a very high concentration of dust suspended in the air, which is very hard to find in a mine environment. • But, the shock wave caused by methane explosions can blow up coal dust within the mine, and the heat generated by the methane reaction can ignite the dust, which greatly intensifies the energy of the explosion. Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 4
  5. 5. Introduction The Spark Soon after the introduction of electric power into coal mines, it was discovered that lethal explosions could be initiated by electrical equipment such as lighting, signals, or motors. The hazard of fire damp or methane accumulation in mines was well known by the time electricity was introduced, along with the danger of suspended coal dust. At least two British mine explosions were attributed to an electric bell signal system. In this system, two bare wires were run along the length of a drift, and any miner desiring to signal the surface would momentarily touch the wires to each other or bridge the wires with a metal tool. The inductance of the signal bell coils, combined with breaking of contacts by exposed metal surfaces, resulted in sparks which could ignite methane, causing an explosion. Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 5
  6. 6. DUST Dust are, from the point of view of a dust explosion, particles of the diameter lower than 0,5 mm. It must be also considered that in the mixture of particles of lower and higher size, also bigger particles will take part in the process of explosion. The lower particles will burn faster than the bigger ones. Fibres and pulps (of cotton, paper and other such materials) are also considered as dust in the point of explosion if it is fine enough to be ignited. Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 6
  7. 7. GASES Gaseous explosive atmospheres consists of at least one explosive gas and/or vapours of flammable liquids (including aerosols and mists). Their main advantage is their homogeneity in closed vessels (where there is no strong airflow) which means expectable and calculable concentration which will be constant in the whole volume. On the other side, gaseous atmospheres are much easier ignitable (with low concentration and by source of small energy, comparing to dust atmospheres). Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 7
  8. 8. Infernal Triangle (DUSTS) For any fire to occur, there must be fuel, ignition and oxygen (Classic Fire Triangle). However, for a combustible dust explosion, you must also add dispersion and confinement — the “Dust Explosion Pentagon.” Removal of any one element prevents an explosion, though not necessarily a fire. Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 8
  9. 9. Infernal Triangle (GASES) The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model for understanding the ingredients necessary for most fires. It has been replaced in the fire fighting and protection industry partially by the fire tetrahedron. The triangle illustrates a fire requires three elements: heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen). The fire is prevented or extinguished by removing any one of them. A fire naturally occurs when the elements are combined in the right mixture. Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 9
  10. 10. Classified Areas Flammable Gases and Vapour's • Zone 0 An area in which an explosive atmosphere is constantly present, or present for long periods. • Zone 1 An area in which an explosive atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation. (Rough Guide: 10 hours or more / year but less than 1,000 hours / year) • Zone 2 An area in which an explosive atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation and if it occurs it will exist only for a short time. (Rough Guide: Less than 10 hours / year) Combustible Dusts • Zone 20 An area in which combustible dust, as a cloud, is present continuously or frequently, during normal operation, in sufficient quantity to be capable of producing an explosive concentration of combustible dust in a mixture with air. • Zone 21 An area, in which combustible dust, as a cloud, is occasionally present during normal operation, in a sufficient quantity to be capable of producing an explosive concentration of combustible dust in a mixture with air. • Zone 22 An area, in which combustible dust, as a cloud, may occur infrequently and persist for only a short period, or in which accumulations of layers of combustible dust may give rise to an explosive concentration of 10 Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013combustible dust in a mixture with air.
  11. 11. The Incidents & Accidents keep on keeping on Imperial Sugar Refinery  Explosion 2008 Texas City Refinery  Explosion 2005 http://www.hazardexonthenet.net/ Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 11
  12. 12. Who is RESPONSIBLE Do YOU see your job role here; if so YOU are responsible! • • • • • • Design, Specify, Install, Commissioning, Inspection, Audit. • • • • • • • • Asset Owner Supplier, Electrical Engineer, Mechanical Engineer, Electrical Fitter, Electrician, Auditor, Regulator. Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 12
  13. 13. The STANDARDS Make sure that YOU are aware of  the current Local Regulations and  Standards that are required  to guide your work in Hazardous  Areas/ EEHA. THERE IS NO EXCUSE! Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 13
  14. 14. The REGULATIONS Make sure that YOU are aware of the current Local Regulations and Standards that are required to guide your work in Hazardous Areas/ EEHA. THERE IS NO EXCUSE! Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 14
  15. 15. The CONSEQUENCES • YOU – could be liable, • YOU – could lose your home and your assets, • YOU – could go to jail for involuntary manslaughter or criminal negligence, • YOU – could be fined a considerable amount, • YOU – may have to live with the knowledge that YOU were responsible for the loss of life and livelihood of many people. ARE YOU RESPONSIBLE? Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 15
  16. 16. Who is LIABLE, Criminal and Civil In the event of a catastrophic failure the CORONER will be investigating to determine the cause of the incident and whom is responsible. The CORONER will determine If there has been criminal negligence and then refer the matter to the criminal court system. Every rock will be turned over ever work practice associated with that site will be investigated; as they say in the classics you can run but you cannot hide. Depending on the findings of the Coroners Court either criminal proceeding will occur and or civil proceedings. The outcomes could be a jail term loss of assets, fines; essentially a considerable amount of unpleasantness for YOU!. 16 Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013
  17. 17. HOW TO BECOME COMPLIANT • TRAINING – undertake the training necessary to ensure that you are qualified to design, select, install, commission and inspect all items and apparatus within EEHA/HAW Classified Areas ( in many countries this training is mandatory!) • REGULATIONS – ensure that you are aware of the regulations of the country that you will be undertaking EEHA/HAW work (many suppliers ignore this important matter) • STANDARDS – make sure you are aware of the IEC and all relevant Standards in the country where you will be undertaking EEHA/HAW Work. IGNORANCE IS NO EXCUSE Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 17
  18. 18. Tips & Traps TRAP – other technicians noncompliant Workmanship. READ the manufacturers specifications prior to undertaking the installation! Make sure you have the correct tools including torque wrenches and drivers. ASSUME NOTHING TIP – understand exactly what the gases and dusts are present in the Classified Areas. Understand the protection techniques required. Understand the dynamics in the industrial environment within which you will be working and select the correct equipment. ASSUME NOTHING!!! Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 18
  19. 19. The next STEP (Act NOW)!  Undertake the required TRAINING NOW!  Get the latest copy of the REGULATIONS for your Country or Region  Get the latest copy of the RELEVANT STANARDS  Take responsibility for YOUR ACTIONS now and work smart to protect yourself and your colleagues and the general public from a potential disaster! Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 19
  20. 20. Useful Resources • TRAINING – Optec at r.shackleford@optec.com.au M:+61438383836 • Hazard EX – http://www.hazardexonthenet.net/ • IEC – http://www.iec.ch/ • CSB USA – http://www.csb.gov/ • TRAINING – Optec at r.shackleford@optec.com.au M:+61438383836 Presented by Dr Rovel Shackleford (EEHA) December 2013 20
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