Energysources

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Energysources

  1. 1. ENERGY SOURCES
  2. 2. TYPES OF SOURCES <ul><li>RENEWABLE: CAN BE REGENERATED IN A SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME OR IS BASICALLY UNLIMITED </li></ul><ul><li>NON-RENEWABLE: CAN’T BE REPLACED IN A SHORT AMOUNT OF TIME AND IS LIMITED </li></ul>
  3. 3. NON-RENEWABLE <ul><li>FOSSIL FUELS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NATURAL GAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OIL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FISSION </li></ul>
  4. 4. RENEWABLE <ul><li>HYDRO </li></ul><ul><li>SOLAR </li></ul><ul><li>WOOD </li></ul><ul><li>TRASH </li></ul><ul><li>GEOTHERMAL </li></ul><ul><li>WIND </li></ul><ul><li>FUSION </li></ul>
  5. 5. GEOTHERMAL
  6. 6. <ul><li> Natural steam from the production wells power the turbine </li></ul><ul><li>generator. The steam is condensed by evaporation in the cooling </li></ul><ul><li>tower and pumped down an injection well to sustain production. </li></ul>© 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  7. 7. Like all steam turbine generators, the force of steam is used to spin the turbine blades which spin the generator, producing electricity. But with geothermal energy, no fuels are burned. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  8. 8. Turbine blades inside a geothermal turbine generator. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  9. 9. Turbine generator outdoors at an Imperial Valley geothermal power plant in California. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  10. 10. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  11. 12. DRY STEAM POWER PLANT In dry steam power plants, the steam (and no water) shoots up the wells and is passed through a rock catcher (not shown) and then directly into the turbine. Dry steam fields are rare. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  12. 13. THE GEYSERS CALIFORNIA The first geothermal power plants in the U.S. were built in 1962 at The Geysers dry steam field, in northern California. It is still the largest producing geothermal field in the world. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  13. 14. 20 plants are still operating at The Geysers. Wastewater from nearby cities is injected into the field, providing environmentally safe disposal and increased steam to power plants. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  14. 15. FLASH STEAM POWER PLANT <ul><li>Flash steam power plants use hot water reservoirs. In flash plants, as hot water is released from the pressure of the deep reservoir in a flash tank, some of it flashes to steam. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Flash technology was invented in New Zealand. Flash steam plants are the most common, since most reservoirs are hot water reservoirs. This flash steam plant is in East Mesa, California. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  16. 17. In a binary cycle power plant (binary means two), the heat from geothermal water is used to vaporize a &quot;working fluid&quot; in separate adjacent pipes. The vapor, like steam, powers the turbine generator. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  17. 18. In the heat exchanger, heat is transferred from the geothermal water to a second liquid. The geothermal water is never exposed to the air and is injected back into the periphery of the reservoir. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  18. 19. This power plant provides about 25% of the electricity used on the Big Island of Hawaii. It is a hybrid binary and flash plant. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  19. 20. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  20. 21. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  21. 24. Geothermal power could serve 100% of the electrical needs of 39 countries (over 620,000,000 people) in Africa, Central/ South America and the Pacific. © 2000 Geothermal Education Office
  22. 25. FUSION POWER
  23. 26. STAR POWER www.td.anl.gov
  24. 27. ADVANTAGES <ul><li>UNLIMITED SUPPLY </li></ul><ul><li>NO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>NO RADIATION </li></ul>
  25. 28. FUELS <ul><li>DUETERIUM: COULD LAST MILLIONS </li></ul><ul><li>OF YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>TRITIUM IS BRED FROM LITHIUM </li></ul><ul><li>LITHIUM: COULD LAST FOR ATLEAST 1000 YEARS </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>COMBINING HEAVY HYDROGEN ISOTOPES INTO HELIUM RELEASES THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF POWER </li></ul>en.wikipedia.org
  27. 30. www.jet.efda.org
  28. 31. <ul><li>Dueterium + Dueterium  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tritium +Proton  Helium + neutron </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. FUSION REACTIONS <ul><li>To get molecules to fuse, the repulsion forces must be overcome by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity (as in stars) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic fields on plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid pulse of energy to a fusion fuel (hydrogen bomb or a pulse of a laser, ion or electron beam) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. How can a plasma be confined ? www.jet.efda.org
  31. 34. STAR FUSION en.wikipedia.org
  32. 35. PLASMA <ul><li>Plasmas occur at very high temperatures - the electrons are stripped from the atomic nuclei. (Image courtesy CEA, France) </li></ul>www.jet.efda.org
  33. 36. HYDROGEN BOMB en.wikipedia.org
  34. 37. Magnetic confinement <ul><li>pinching the field lines at the end -> reflection (“mirror”) </li></ul><ul><li>-> linear arrangement </li></ul>Particles move freely along field lines: how to stop the losses in that direction ? two solutions <ul><li>however: a pure toroidal field does not work </li></ul><ul><li>need a helical field </li></ul><ul><li>closing the field lines on themselves </li></ul><ul><li>-> toroidal confinement </li></ul>www.jet.efda.org
  35. 38. TOKAMAK (MAGNETIC FIELD) www.jet.efda.org
  36. 39. TORUS THE VACUUM CHAMBER OF THE TOKAMAK www.jet.efda.org
  37. 40. MAGNETIC FIELD IN TOKAMAK www.jet.efda.org
  38. 41. TOKAMAK www.jet.efda.org
  39. 42. HEATING THE PLASMA www.jet.efda.org
  40. 43. ITER <ul><li>estimated cost : </li></ul><ul><li>4 000 Million Euro </li></ul>ITER will be a nuclear machine: 1.5 x 10 20 neutrons/s www.jet.efda.org 2.5%, 0.7  T ,  P 10 Q (P fus /P in ) 80+ P  (MW) 40-90 P aux (MW) 0.5, 1.85  ,  5.3 B t (T) 15(17) I P (MA) 850 V P (m 3 ) 2 a (m) 6.2 R (m)
  41. 44. What is a plasma : fourth state of Matter Increasing Temperature A plasma is electrically conducting and very reactive www.jet.efda.org

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