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Bilingual Power Pt Pres

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Languages in Siciety

Languages in Siciety

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  • Transcript

    • 1. LANGUAGES IN SOCIETY
    • 2. OUTLINE
      • Introduction
      • Diglossia
      • Additive & Subtractive context
      • Language shift & language maintenance
      • Language decline & death
      • Language resurrection
      • Language conflict
      • Language and Nationalism
      • English as a Global Language
      • Conclusion
    • 3. Introduction
            • Bilingual & Multilingual constitute between 1/2 & 2/3 of the world's population
            • Bilingual individuals exist in networks, communities and sometimes in regions
            • Language minority is rarely stable in its size, strength and safety..
            • In this chapter we will examine: language communities, language contact, language change & language conflict
            • Sociolinguistic study …
    • 4. Diglossia
      • Definition:
      • Two languages for one community..
      • Low language
      • High language
      • Intergenerational transmission…
    • 5. Community characteristics Diglossia + Diglossia _ Individual Bilingualism + Everybody in the community can use both languages for different purposes high or low Most people are bilingual but there is no restriction to one language for a specific purpose Individual Bilingualism _ Community is divided into 2 different groups each group has his language Where a linguistically diverse society has been forcibly Changed to relatively monolingual society
    • 6. Additive and Subtractive Context
      • Additive bilingual situation: where the addition of a second language and culture of a second language is unlikely to replace or displace the first language and culture.. this case reflects language stability and maintenance
      • Subtractive bilingual situation: when the second language and culture are acquired with pressure to replace or demote the first language… this case reflects language death & language shift
    • 7. Language shift & language mai nte nance FACTORS ENCOURAGING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE FACTORS ENCOURAGING LANGUAGE LOSS
      • Political, Social and Demographic Factors
      • Large number of speakers living closely together
      • Recent &/or continuing in-migration
      • Stability in occupation
      • Employment available where home language is spoken daily
      • Small number of speakers well dispread
      • Long & stable residence
      • Occupational shift especially from rural to urban areas
      • Employment requires use of the majority language
    • 8.
      • Low social & economic mobility in main occupation
      • Educated leaders loyal to their community
      • Ethnic group identity rather than identity with majority language community nativism, racism & ethnic discrimination
      • Potential community leaders are alienated from their language community by education
      • High social & economic mobility in main occupation
      • Ethnic identity is denied to achieve social & vocational mobility this is forced by nativism, racism and ethnic discrimination
    • 9. B. Cultural Factors
      • Mother tongue institution ..
      • Cultural & religious ceremonies in the home language
      • Nationalistic aspirations as a language group
      • Mother tongue the homeland national language
      • Emotional attachment to mother tongue giving self-identity & ethnicity
      • Emphasis on education in mother tongue schools
      • Lack of mother tongue institution
      • Cultural & religious activity in the majority language
      • Few nationalistic aspiration
      • Mother tongue not the only homeland national language, or mother tongue spans several nations
      • Self identity derived from factors other than shared home language
      • Emphasis on education in majority language
    • 10. C. Linguistic Factors
      • Mother tongue is standardized & exists in a written form
      • Use of an alphabet which makes printing & literacy relatively easy
      • Home language is international status
      • Home language literacy used in community & with home land
      • Mother tongue is non-standard & / or not in a written form
      • Use of a writing system which is expensive to reproduce & relatively difficult to learn
      • Home language of little or no international importance
      • Illiteracy in the home language
    • 11. Language decline & death
      • Due to social changes & social networks
      • Some times we notice language activist such as in Puerto Rico, some groups resist to the use of Spanish
      • Language shift reflect a pragmatic desire for social & vocational mobility
      • Education can play in the fast decline of a minority language & in slow resurrection
    • 12. Language resurrection
      • It takes much time to grow
      • The language can be rapidly massacred
      • but the revival of a language is along term process. It is driven by the desire of man identity
      • Teachers, students & parents are the important individuals for revitalization
      • they are the language Activists.
    • 13. Language conflict
      • In civil war there is an attempt to social control so they attempt to enforce their language
      • Is rooted in:
      • a. political power straggles
      • b. economic tensions
      • c. issues about rights & privileges
    • 14. Language and Nationalism
      • Languages are fated according to wider social, economical & political issues:
      • Key symbol of a national identity
      • Badge of loyalty
      • Negative connotation: it is associated to racism & language imperialism
      • United States Nationalism favors the replacement of immigrant languages by English
      • Bilingualism is seen as an obstacle to Nationalism
      • In the world of the Internet , the global economy and ease of transport between countries , the growth of economical & political interdependence give new mean known as Supra-Nationalism which has its effects on language
    • 15. English categories In the world English lies in three categories English as first language English as second language English as foreign language
    • 16. The Future of English Estimates for number of English speakers in the world
    • 17. The Spread of English
      • English dominates many prestigious domains and functions
      • This wide spread of English ensures that
      • Anglo culture, Anglo institution & Anglo ways of thinking and communicating are spreading
    • 18. Spread of English ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES English is a universal UTILITARIAN language English is a part of IMPERIALISM dominance by the US and the Anglo-Saxon
    • 19. Estimates of First Language English & Spanish Speakers
    • 20. Conclusion
      • The English language is spreading rapidly mostly as a second and foreign language. It has different effects on the future of minority languages.
      • Bilingualism & Multilingualism in English and another language or languages is globally increasing
    • 21. Languages in society Presented By Roula El Danna BBE 6590