Bilingual Power Pt Pres


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Languages in Siciety

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  • Bilingual Power Pt Pres

    2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Diglossia </li></ul><ul><li>Additive & Subtractive context </li></ul><ul><li>Language shift & language maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Language decline & death </li></ul><ul><li>Language resurrection </li></ul><ul><li>Language conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Language and Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>English as a Global Language </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual & Multilingual constitute between 1/2 & 2/3 of the world's population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual individuals exist in networks, communities and sometimes in regions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language minority is rarely stable in its size, strength and safety.. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In this chapter we will examine: language communities, language contact, language change & language conflict </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic study … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Diglossia <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Two languages for one community.. </li></ul><ul><li>Low language </li></ul><ul><li>High language </li></ul><ul><li>Intergenerational transmission… </li></ul>
    5. 5. Community characteristics Diglossia + Diglossia _ Individual Bilingualism + Everybody in the community can use both languages for different purposes high or low Most people are bilingual but there is no restriction to one language for a specific purpose Individual Bilingualism _ Community is divided into 2 different groups each group has his language Where a linguistically diverse society has been forcibly Changed to relatively monolingual society
    6. 6. Additive and Subtractive Context <ul><li>Additive bilingual situation: where the addition of a second language and culture of a second language is unlikely to replace or displace the first language and culture.. this case reflects language stability and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Subtractive bilingual situation: when the second language and culture are acquired with pressure to replace or demote the first language… this case reflects language death & language shift </li></ul>
    7. 7. Language shift & language mai nte nance FACTORS ENCOURAGING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE FACTORS ENCOURAGING LANGUAGE LOSS <ul><li>Political, Social and Demographic Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of speakers living closely together </li></ul><ul><li>Recent &/or continuing in-migration </li></ul><ul><li>Stability in occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Employment available where home language is spoken daily </li></ul><ul><li>Small number of speakers well dispread </li></ul><ul><li>Long & stable residence </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational shift especially from rural to urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Employment requires use of the majority language </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Low social & economic mobility in main occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Educated leaders loyal to their community </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic group identity rather than identity with majority language community nativism, racism & ethnic discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Potential community leaders are alienated from their language community by education </li></ul><ul><li>High social & economic mobility in main occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic identity is denied to achieve social & vocational mobility this is forced by nativism, racism and ethnic discrimination </li></ul>
    9. 9. B. Cultural Factors <ul><li>Mother tongue institution .. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural & religious ceremonies in the home language </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalistic aspirations as a language group </li></ul><ul><li>Mother tongue the homeland national language </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional attachment to mother tongue giving self-identity & ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on education in mother tongue schools </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of mother tongue institution </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural & religious activity in the majority language </li></ul><ul><li>Few nationalistic aspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Mother tongue not the only homeland national language, or mother tongue spans several nations </li></ul><ul><li>Self identity derived from factors other than shared home language </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on education in majority language </li></ul>
    10. 10. C. Linguistic Factors <ul><li>Mother tongue is standardized & exists in a written form </li></ul><ul><li>Use of an alphabet which makes printing & literacy relatively easy </li></ul><ul><li>Home language is international status </li></ul><ul><li>Home language literacy used in community & with home land </li></ul><ul><li>Mother tongue is non-standard & / or not in a written form </li></ul><ul><li>Use of a writing system which is expensive to reproduce & relatively difficult to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Home language of little or no international importance </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy in the home language </li></ul>
    11. 11. Language decline & death <ul><li>Due to social changes & social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Some times we notice language activist such as in Puerto Rico, some groups resist to the use of Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Language shift reflect a pragmatic desire for social & vocational mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Education can play in the fast decline of a minority language & in slow resurrection </li></ul>
    12. 12. Language resurrection <ul><li>It takes much time to grow </li></ul><ul><li>The language can be rapidly massacred </li></ul><ul><li>but the revival of a language is along term process. It is driven by the desire of man identity </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers, students & parents are the important individuals for revitalization </li></ul><ul><li>they are the language Activists. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Language conflict <ul><li>In civil war there is an attempt to social control so they attempt to enforce their language </li></ul><ul><li>Is rooted in: </li></ul><ul><li>a. political power straggles </li></ul><ul><li>b. economic tensions </li></ul><ul><li>c. issues about rights & privileges </li></ul>
    14. 14. Language and Nationalism <ul><li>Languages are fated according to wider social, economical & political issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Key symbol of a national identity </li></ul><ul><li>Badge of loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Negative connotation: it is associated to racism & language imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>United States Nationalism favors the replacement of immigrant languages by English </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism is seen as an obstacle to Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>In the world of the Internet , the global economy and ease of transport between countries , the growth of economical & political interdependence give new mean known as Supra-Nationalism which has its effects on language </li></ul>
    15. 15. English categories In the world English lies in three categories English as first language English as second language English as foreign language
    16. 16. The Future of English Estimates for number of English speakers in the world
    17. 17. The Spread of English <ul><li>English dominates many prestigious domains and functions </li></ul><ul><li>This wide spread of English ensures that </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo culture, Anglo institution & Anglo ways of thinking and communicating are spreading </li></ul>
    18. 18. Spread of English ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES English is a universal UTILITARIAN language English is a part of IMPERIALISM dominance by the US and the Anglo-Saxon
    19. 19. Estimates of First Language English & Spanish Speakers
    20. 20. Conclusion <ul><li>The English language is spreading rapidly mostly as a second and foreign language. It has different effects on the future of minority languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism & Multilingualism in English and another language or languages is globally increasing </li></ul>
    21. 21. Languages in society Presented By Roula El Danna BBE 6590