Bilingual Power Pt Pres
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Bilingual Power Pt Pres

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Languages in Siciety

Languages in Siciety

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Bilingual Power Pt Pres Bilingual Power Pt Pres Presentation Transcript

  • LANGUAGES IN SOCIETY
  • OUTLINE
    • Introduction
    • Diglossia
    • Additive & Subtractive context
    • Language shift & language maintenance
    • Language decline & death
    • Language resurrection
    • Language conflict
    • Language and Nationalism
    • English as a Global Language
    • Conclusion
  • Introduction
          • Bilingual & Multilingual constitute between 1/2 & 2/3 of the world's population
          • Bilingual individuals exist in networks, communities and sometimes in regions
          • Language minority is rarely stable in its size, strength and safety..
          • In this chapter we will examine: language communities, language contact, language change & language conflict
          • Sociolinguistic study …
  • Diglossia
    • Definition:
    • Two languages for one community..
    • Low language
    • High language
    • Intergenerational transmission…
  • Community characteristics Diglossia + Diglossia _ Individual Bilingualism + Everybody in the community can use both languages for different purposes high or low Most people are bilingual but there is no restriction to one language for a specific purpose Individual Bilingualism _ Community is divided into 2 different groups each group has his language Where a linguistically diverse society has been forcibly Changed to relatively monolingual society
  • Additive and Subtractive Context
    • Additive bilingual situation: where the addition of a second language and culture of a second language is unlikely to replace or displace the first language and culture.. this case reflects language stability and maintenance
    • Subtractive bilingual situation: when the second language and culture are acquired with pressure to replace or demote the first language… this case reflects language death & language shift
  • Language shift & language mai nte nance FACTORS ENCOURAGING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE FACTORS ENCOURAGING LANGUAGE LOSS
    • Political, Social and Demographic Factors
    • Large number of speakers living closely together
    • Recent &/or continuing in-migration
    • Stability in occupation
    • Employment available where home language is spoken daily
    • Small number of speakers well dispread
    • Long & stable residence
    • Occupational shift especially from rural to urban areas
    • Employment requires use of the majority language
    • Low social & economic mobility in main occupation
    • Educated leaders loyal to their community
    • Ethnic group identity rather than identity with majority language community nativism, racism & ethnic discrimination
    • Potential community leaders are alienated from their language community by education
    • High social & economic mobility in main occupation
    • Ethnic identity is denied to achieve social & vocational mobility this is forced by nativism, racism and ethnic discrimination
  • B. Cultural Factors
    • Mother tongue institution ..
    • Cultural & religious ceremonies in the home language
    • Nationalistic aspirations as a language group
    • Mother tongue the homeland national language
    • Emotional attachment to mother tongue giving self-identity & ethnicity
    • Emphasis on education in mother tongue schools
    • Lack of mother tongue institution
    • Cultural & religious activity in the majority language
    • Few nationalistic aspiration
    • Mother tongue not the only homeland national language, or mother tongue spans several nations
    • Self identity derived from factors other than shared home language
    • Emphasis on education in majority language
  • C. Linguistic Factors
    • Mother tongue is standardized & exists in a written form
    • Use of an alphabet which makes printing & literacy relatively easy
    • Home language is international status
    • Home language literacy used in community & with home land
    • Mother tongue is non-standard & / or not in a written form
    • Use of a writing system which is expensive to reproduce & relatively difficult to learn
    • Home language of little or no international importance
    • Illiteracy in the home language
  • Language decline & death
    • Due to social changes & social networks
    • Some times we notice language activist such as in Puerto Rico, some groups resist to the use of Spanish
    • Language shift reflect a pragmatic desire for social & vocational mobility
    • Education can play in the fast decline of a minority language & in slow resurrection
  • Language resurrection
    • It takes much time to grow
    • The language can be rapidly massacred
    • but the revival of a language is along term process. It is driven by the desire of man identity
    • Teachers, students & parents are the important individuals for revitalization
    • they are the language Activists.
  • Language conflict
    • In civil war there is an attempt to social control so they attempt to enforce their language
    • Is rooted in:
    • a. political power straggles
    • b. economic tensions
    • c. issues about rights & privileges
  • Language and Nationalism
    • Languages are fated according to wider social, economical & political issues:
    • Key symbol of a national identity
    • Badge of loyalty
    • Negative connotation: it is associated to racism & language imperialism
    • United States Nationalism favors the replacement of immigrant languages by English
    • Bilingualism is seen as an obstacle to Nationalism
    • In the world of the Internet , the global economy and ease of transport between countries , the growth of economical & political interdependence give new mean known as Supra-Nationalism which has its effects on language
  • English categories In the world English lies in three categories English as first language English as second language English as foreign language
  • The Future of English Estimates for number of English speakers in the world
  • The Spread of English
    • English dominates many prestigious domains and functions
    • This wide spread of English ensures that
    • Anglo culture, Anglo institution & Anglo ways of thinking and communicating are spreading
  • Spread of English ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES English is a universal UTILITARIAN language English is a part of IMPERIALISM dominance by the US and the Anglo-Saxon
  • Estimates of First Language English & Spanish Speakers
  • Conclusion
    • The English language is spreading rapidly mostly as a second and foreign language. It has different effects on the future of minority languages.
    • Bilingualism & Multilingualism in English and another language or languages is globally increasing
  • Languages in society Presented By Roula El Danna BBE 6590