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Cancer disease (2)
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Cancer disease (2)

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  • 1. When good cells go bad
  • 2. The Cell Cycle and Cancer
  • 3. ?What is cancer Caner is defined as the continuous . uncontrolled growth of cells .A tumor is a an abnormal proliferation of cells Benign tumors stays confined to its original location Malignant tumors are capable of invading surrounding tissue or invading the entire body Tumors are classified as to their cell type Tumors can arise from any cell type in the body      
  • 4. This video shows what the cancer is
  • 5. Animation: How Cells Reproduce ((cancer
  • 6. Normal and Cancer cells 1. Click on picture for cell cycle animation – will go to www.cancerquest.org) 2. Use alt-tab keys to go between website and power point presentation. 3. Click on blank space to proceed to next slide.)
  • 7. Cancer continued; three cancer types Carcinomas; constitute 90% of cancers, are  cancers of epithelial cells Sarcomas; are rare and consist of tumors of  connective tissues (connective tissue, muscle, .(bone etc Leukemias and lymphomas; constitute 8% of  tumors. Sometimes referred to as liquid tumors. Leukemias arise from blood forming cells and lymphomas arise from cells of the immune system (.(T and B cells
  • 8. Some Major Types of Cancer In general, a cancer is named according to the type of  tissue in which it first forms  Sarcomas: cancer of connective tissue  Carcinomas: cancer arising from epithelium  Lymphomas: cancer of lymphoid tissue  Leukemias: cancer of stem cells  Gliomas: cancer of brain cells
  • 9. Cancer is a disease of the cell cycle. Some of the . body’s cells divide uncontrollably and tumors form Tumor in Colon Tumors in Liver
  • 10. While normal cells will stop dividing if there is a mutation in the .DNA, cancer cells will continue to divide with mutation
  • 11. Due to DNA mutations, cancer cells ignore the .chemical signals that start and stop the cell cycle 2 animations of cancer cells dividing: click on picture
  • 12. Normal cells show contact inhibition Cancer cells lack contact inhibition
  • 13. They keep growing And growing And growing And growing
  • 14. Cancer Spreads Step-by-Step
  • 15. This Cancer Cell Is Surrounded by White Blood Cells
  • 16. 4 Cell division 3 DNA repair G2 1 Mitosis G1 Cell grows, doubles in size S 2 Chromosome duplication G1/S checkpoint
  • 17. Outside cell Signal molecule Signal–receptor binding Receptor Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Protein molecules Cellular response Nucleus Changes in gene expression Stepped Art p. 183
  • 18. • Benign: localized and of small size • Cells that closely resemble, and may function, like normal cells • May be delineated by a fibrous (Basal lamina) capsule • Become problems due to sheer bulk or due to secretions (e.g. hormones)
  • 19. Normal Moles Are Common Examples of Benign Growths
  • 20. Cancer : Malignant Malignant tumors: high rate of division, properties may vary compared to cells of origin. Most malignant cells become metastatic Invade surrounding tissue and establishment of secondary areas of growth: Metastasis
  • 21. Main Features of Benign and Malignant Tumors
  • 22. Smoking Number one factor in cancer, either direct  ((smoker) or indirect (secondhand smoke Related to cancers of oral cavity, larynx, esophagus,and lungs Accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths  Most have very low survival rate (e.g. 13% lung cancer sufferers survive beyond 5 yrs 
  • 23. Lungs of Non-Smoker and Smoker
  • 24. Other Factors Also May Lead to Cancer Chemical carcinogens  Carcinogens: cancer-causing substances that can  lead to a mutation in DNA Asbestos, vinyl chloride, and benzene Hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke Aflatoxin: fungal product    Radiation  UV from the sun and tanning lamps  X-rays: medical and dental  Radon, cosmic rays, and gamma radiation 
  • 25. X-rays
  • 26. (Skin Cancer (1 million new cases in U.S. per year 1~  Almost all cases related to UV light exposure from  sun or tanning lamps Increasing, may be due to outdoor recreation or  moving to regions with more sun exposure Lightly pigmented people higher risk, genetic  characteristics can affect the susceptibility
  • 27. Melanoma
  • 28. Other Factors Also May Lead to Cancer Chemical carcinogens  Carcinogens: cancer-causing substances that can  lead to a mutation in DNA Asbestos, vinyl chloride, and benzene Hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke Aflatoxin: fungal product    Radiation  UV from the sun and tanning lamps  X-rays: medical and dental  Radon, cosmic rays, and gamma radiation 
  • 29. Some Industrial Chemicals Linked to Cancer
  • 30. Biopsy Is the Only Sure Way to Diagnose Cancer Biopsy  Removal and microscopic examination of tissue  Seven common cancer signs: CAUTION 
  • 31. Cancer Treatment and Prevention When a person is diagnosed with cancer, a variety of  weapons are available to combat it  Chemotherapy drugs  Radiation therapy  Surgery
  • 32. Chemotherapy and Radiation Kill Cancer Cells Radiation therapy  Used when cancer is small or has not  spread Radioisotopes used, e.g., Ra-226 and  Co-60 Chemotherapy and radiation destroy  healthy cells More precise treatments  Monoclonal antibody treatment  Interferon treatment; limited at  present
  • 33. Good Lifestyle Choices Can Limit Cancer Risk Avoid tobacco completely  Maintain a desirable weight; eat a low-fat diet with  plenty of fruits and vegetables . Make sure your living and work environment is safe  from carcinogens Protect your skin from the sun’s UV rays 
  • 34. SUMMARY Normal Cell Division Cancer Cells DNA is replicated 1. Mutations occur in the 1. .properly DNA when it is .replicated Chemical signals start. 2 .and stop the cell cycle Chemical signals that. 2 start and stop the cell Cells communicate with. 3 .cycle are ignored each other so they don’t become Cells do not. 3 .overcrowded communicate with each .other and tumors form