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When good cells go bad
The Cell Cycle and Cancer
?What is cancer
Caner is defined as the continuous
. uncontrolled growth of cells
.A tumor is a an abnormal proliferation ...
This video shows what the
cancer is
Animation: How Cells Reproduce
((cancer
Normal and Cancer cells

1. Click on picture for cell cycle animation –
will go to www.cancerquest.org)
2. Use alt-tab key...
Cancer continued; three cancer types
Carcinomas; constitute 90% of cancers, are 
cancers of epithelial cells
Sarcomas; ar...
Some Major Types of Cancer
In general, a cancer is named according to the type of 
tissue in which it first forms

 Sarc...
Cancer is a disease of the cell cycle. Some of the
. body’s cells divide uncontrollably and tumors form
Tumor in Colon
Tum...
While normal cells will stop dividing if there is a mutation in the
.DNA, cancer cells will continue to divide with mutati...
Due to DNA mutations, cancer cells ignore the
.chemical signals that start and stop the cell cycle

2 animations of cancer...
Normal cells show
contact inhibition

Cancer cells lack
contact inhibition
They keep growing
And growing
And growing
And growing
Cancer Spreads Step-by-Step
This Cancer Cell Is Surrounded by
White Blood Cells
4
Cell
division

3
DNA
repair

G2

1

Mitosis

G1

Cell grows,
doubles in
size

S

2

Chromosome
duplication

G1/S checkpo...
Outside cell
Signal molecule

Signal–receptor
binding

Receptor
Plasma
membrane

Cytoplasm

Protein
molecules

Cellular re...
• Benign: localized and of
small size
• Cells that closely resemble,
and may function, like
normal cells
• May be delineat...
Normal Moles Are Common
Examples of Benign Growths
Cancer : Malignant

Malignant tumors: high rate of division, properties may vary compared
to cells of origin. Most maligna...
Main Features of Benign and
Malignant Tumors
Smoking
Number one factor in cancer, either direct 
((smoker) or indirect (secondhand smoke

Related to cancers of oral c...
Lungs of Non-Smoker and Smoker
Other Factors Also May Lead to
Cancer
Chemical carcinogens 
Carcinogens: cancer-causing substances that can 
lead to a m...
X-rays
(Skin Cancer (1
million new cases in U.S. per year 1~ 
Almost all cases related to UV light exposure from 
sun or tannin...
Melanoma
Other Factors Also May Lead to
Cancer
Chemical carcinogens 
Carcinogens: cancer-causing substances that can 
lead to a m...
Some Industrial Chemicals Linked
to Cancer
Biopsy Is the Only Sure Way to
Diagnose Cancer
Biopsy 
Removal and microscopic examination of tissue 

Seven common canc...
Cancer Treatment and Prevention
When a person is diagnosed with cancer, a variety of 
weapons are available to combat it
...
Chemotherapy and Radiation Kill
Cancer Cells
Radiation therapy 

Used when cancer is small or has not 
spread
Radioisoto...
Good Lifestyle Choices Can
Limit Cancer Risk
Avoid tobacco completely 
Maintain a desirable weight; eat a low-fat diet wi...
SUMMARY
Normal Cell Division

Cancer Cells

DNA is replicated
1. Mutations occur in the
1.
.properly
DNA when it is
.repli...
Cancer disease (2)
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Transcript of "Cancer disease (2)"

  1. 1. When good cells go bad
  2. 2. The Cell Cycle and Cancer
  3. 3. ?What is cancer Caner is defined as the continuous . uncontrolled growth of cells .A tumor is a an abnormal proliferation of cells Benign tumors stays confined to its original location Malignant tumors are capable of invading surrounding tissue or invading the entire body Tumors are classified as to their cell type Tumors can arise from any cell type in the body      
  4. 4. This video shows what the cancer is
  5. 5. Animation: How Cells Reproduce ((cancer
  6. 6. Normal and Cancer cells 1. Click on picture for cell cycle animation – will go to www.cancerquest.org) 2. Use alt-tab keys to go between website and power point presentation. 3. Click on blank space to proceed to next slide.)
  7. 7. Cancer continued; three cancer types Carcinomas; constitute 90% of cancers, are  cancers of epithelial cells Sarcomas; are rare and consist of tumors of  connective tissues (connective tissue, muscle, .(bone etc Leukemias and lymphomas; constitute 8% of  tumors. Sometimes referred to as liquid tumors. Leukemias arise from blood forming cells and lymphomas arise from cells of the immune system (.(T and B cells
  8. 8. Some Major Types of Cancer In general, a cancer is named according to the type of  tissue in which it first forms  Sarcomas: cancer of connective tissue  Carcinomas: cancer arising from epithelium  Lymphomas: cancer of lymphoid tissue  Leukemias: cancer of stem cells  Gliomas: cancer of brain cells
  9. 9. Cancer is a disease of the cell cycle. Some of the . body’s cells divide uncontrollably and tumors form Tumor in Colon Tumors in Liver
  10. 10. While normal cells will stop dividing if there is a mutation in the .DNA, cancer cells will continue to divide with mutation
  11. 11. Due to DNA mutations, cancer cells ignore the .chemical signals that start and stop the cell cycle 2 animations of cancer cells dividing: click on picture
  12. 12. Normal cells show contact inhibition Cancer cells lack contact inhibition
  13. 13. They keep growing And growing And growing And growing
  14. 14. Cancer Spreads Step-by-Step
  15. 15. This Cancer Cell Is Surrounded by White Blood Cells
  16. 16. 4 Cell division 3 DNA repair G2 1 Mitosis G1 Cell grows, doubles in size S 2 Chromosome duplication G1/S checkpoint
  17. 17. Outside cell Signal molecule Signal–receptor binding Receptor Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Protein molecules Cellular response Nucleus Changes in gene expression Stepped Art p. 183
  18. 18. • Benign: localized and of small size • Cells that closely resemble, and may function, like normal cells • May be delineated by a fibrous (Basal lamina) capsule • Become problems due to sheer bulk or due to secretions (e.g. hormones)
  19. 19. Normal Moles Are Common Examples of Benign Growths
  20. 20. Cancer : Malignant Malignant tumors: high rate of division, properties may vary compared to cells of origin. Most malignant cells become metastatic Invade surrounding tissue and establishment of secondary areas of growth: Metastasis
  21. 21. Main Features of Benign and Malignant Tumors
  22. 22. Smoking Number one factor in cancer, either direct  ((smoker) or indirect (secondhand smoke Related to cancers of oral cavity, larynx, esophagus,and lungs Accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths  Most have very low survival rate (e.g. 13% lung cancer sufferers survive beyond 5 yrs 
  23. 23. Lungs of Non-Smoker and Smoker
  24. 24. Other Factors Also May Lead to Cancer Chemical carcinogens  Carcinogens: cancer-causing substances that can  lead to a mutation in DNA Asbestos, vinyl chloride, and benzene Hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke Aflatoxin: fungal product    Radiation  UV from the sun and tanning lamps  X-rays: medical and dental  Radon, cosmic rays, and gamma radiation 
  25. 25. X-rays
  26. 26. (Skin Cancer (1 million new cases in U.S. per year 1~  Almost all cases related to UV light exposure from  sun or tanning lamps Increasing, may be due to outdoor recreation or  moving to regions with more sun exposure Lightly pigmented people higher risk, genetic  characteristics can affect the susceptibility
  27. 27. Melanoma
  28. 28. Other Factors Also May Lead to Cancer Chemical carcinogens  Carcinogens: cancer-causing substances that can  lead to a mutation in DNA Asbestos, vinyl chloride, and benzene Hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke Aflatoxin: fungal product    Radiation  UV from the sun and tanning lamps  X-rays: medical and dental  Radon, cosmic rays, and gamma radiation 
  29. 29. Some Industrial Chemicals Linked to Cancer
  30. 30. Biopsy Is the Only Sure Way to Diagnose Cancer Biopsy  Removal and microscopic examination of tissue  Seven common cancer signs: CAUTION 
  31. 31. Cancer Treatment and Prevention When a person is diagnosed with cancer, a variety of  weapons are available to combat it  Chemotherapy drugs  Radiation therapy  Surgery
  32. 32. Chemotherapy and Radiation Kill Cancer Cells Radiation therapy  Used when cancer is small or has not  spread Radioisotopes used, e.g., Ra-226 and  Co-60 Chemotherapy and radiation destroy  healthy cells More precise treatments  Monoclonal antibody treatment  Interferon treatment; limited at  present
  33. 33. Good Lifestyle Choices Can Limit Cancer Risk Avoid tobacco completely  Maintain a desirable weight; eat a low-fat diet with  plenty of fruits and vegetables . Make sure your living and work environment is safe  from carcinogens Protect your skin from the sun’s UV rays 
  34. 34. SUMMARY Normal Cell Division Cancer Cells DNA is replicated 1. Mutations occur in the 1. .properly DNA when it is .replicated Chemical signals start. 2 .and stop the cell cycle Chemical signals that. 2 start and stop the cell Cells communicate with. 3 .cycle are ignored each other so they don’t become Cells do not. 3 .overcrowded communicate with each .other and tumors form
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