Nsri2012.trf.sem.frank rijsberman sanitation

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  • 1. Reinventing the Toilet:creating aspirational sanitation solutionsthat everybody can affordFrank RijsbermanFormer Director Water, Sanitation & HygieneGlobal Development Program
  • 2. Reinventing The Toilet13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 2
  • 3. 1775: Cummings invents the flush toilet, i.e. patents the S-bend waterseal that stops the smell and allows people to move toilets indoors © 2010 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 3
  • 4. More people today use dry latrines… Photo: Frank Rijsberman 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 4
  • 5. 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 5
  • 6. © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 6
  • 7. © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 7
  • 8. What happens when pits are full? Waste returned to the environment – spreading diseaseManual emptying Mechanical emptying © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |
  • 9. The Sanitation Crisis and Opportunity•  Sanitation delivers huge impact: no innovation in the past 200 years has done more to save Shared toilet in Kenyan slum lives and improve health.•  ~2.6 billion people around the world do not have access to ‘improved’ sanitation.•  ~1.1 billion people still defecate in the open.•  Diarrheal disease is the second largest killer of children under 5, with more than 1 million children dying of it every year.•  Conventional sanitation—a flush toilet connected to a centralized sewer system—is affordable only to a small fraction of developing country inhabitants.•  Sanitation for low-income consumers is ‘onsite sanitation’—pit latrines and septic tanks.To meet the needs of 2.6 billion peoplewithout safe sanitation, we must reinventthe toilet and identify new ways to capture,treat, and recycle human waste intoenergy, fertilizer, and even clean water. Source: WSTF, Kenya 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 9
  • 10. Impacts beyond health: Sanitation as a human right  Restricted toilet access increases urinary tract infections and causes psychological stress for women.  Women face security risks when going to defecate at night or early morning (often the only times it is allowed for them to do so).  Sanitation is linked to menstrual management; managing menstruation with rags that must be cleaned and dried in secret restricts movement and engagement with public sphere (e.g., schools).  These costs are hard to quantify, but real. © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 10
  • 11. BMGF Grant Making Initiatives1.  Sanitation Science and Technology: Reinvent the toilet We are funding the development of new tools and technologies, such as latrine design, pit emptying, sludge treatment and disposal or reuse of waste. We aim to develop scalable business models and technologies across the sanitation value chain.2.  Delivery models at scale: Ending Open Defecation (CLTS++) We are supporting efforts to stimulate demand for improved sanitation within communities; encourage local entrepreneurs to offer a range of affordable, desirable products; strengthen the policy and regulatory environment; build the capacity of local government; and, use effective monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.3.  Policy and Advocacy: Sanitation policies that work for the poor We are investing in advocacy to disseminate successful approaches to sanitation and encourage changes in policy and funding priorities necessary to accelerate access to sustainable sanitation. Although we are now focusing on sanitation, we will continue to support our grantees working in water and hygiene. Going forward, we will provide limited new funding to effective, sustainable approaches to clean water and safe hygiene with a high potential for scale-up, primarily following up on existing grants. © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |
  • 12. Sustainable Sanitation Services•  Whole Value Chain Approach: containment, emptying, transport, processing, reuse•  Opportunities to improve sanitation service delivery along the entire sanitation value chain.•  Life cycle costing approach – not only initial investment.•  Sanitation service ladder 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 12
  • 13. Reinventing the Toilet
  • 14. Moving sanitation products and services to scale Reinvent  the  Toilet:  a waterless, hygienic toilet Overall Specifications:   Affordable: less than $0.05/person/day now, moving towards $0.01/person/day (endgoal).   Safe: remove all pathogens from the environment.   Appealing: sustained use > 5 years.   User-centered: users create demand.   Sustainable: service providers (public or private) can recoup complete lifecycle costs (make a business work). © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 14
  • 15. REINVENT THE TOILET CHALLENGE   Challenge issued to top-20 universities early 2011   8 grants awarded of $400K each for first year effort   Plus 50 more grants of $100K each   Reinvent the Toilet Fair at BMGF August 2012   Prototypes displayed at Foundation courtyard   Bill Gates personally inspected them and handed out Reinvent the Toilet Awards   First Prize $200K: California Institute of Technology   A solar-powered toilet that generates hydrogen and electricity © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 15
  • 16. CALTECH: 1st Prize  A self-contained, solar-powered toilet and wastewater treatment system.   A solar panel will produce enough power for an electrochemical reactor designed to break down water and human waste into hydrogen gas.   The gas can then be stored for use in hydrogen fuel cells to provide a backup energy source for nighttime operation or use under low-sunlight conditions.13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 16
  • 17. 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | | 17
  • 18. Prof Michael HoffmannCalTechFellow, Academy of ScienceWinner Toilet Challenge
  • 19. 2nd Prize, Loughborough University, UK   A toilet that transforms feces into a biocharcoal (biochar) through hydrothermal carbonization (decomposition at high temperatures without oxygen and in water) of fecal sludge.   The proposed system will be powered from heat generated by combusting the produced biochar and will be designed to recover water and salts from feces and urine.13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 19
  • 20. Treatment of solids and liquids Components Partial separation Hydrothermal reactor Decompression Final separation Liquids Salt removal as appropriate Water Recycle From Ion Exchange From flash drum Cl2 generated on demand © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |
  • 21. 3rd Prize: University of Toronto, Canada   A technology for treating solid waste streams through mechanical dehydration and smoldering (low temperature, flameless combustion) that will sanitize feces within 24 hours.   Urine will be passed through a sand filter and disinfected with ultra-violet light. 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 22
  • 22. Process Overview urine, wash water fecal solids diarrheal water + some solids diarrheal solids Sand Filter sand sand Belt Drying filtered liquid with small particles sterilized Smoldering sand UV Disinfectiondisinfected <15 W ignition ash water 23 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |
  • 23. RTTC: Upgrading Human Waste CTO Fuel Gas withPlasma-Driven Gasification—TU Delft, Netherlands Innovative nature and advantages of plasma-driven gasification •  Plasma gasification has not yet been applied to upgrade human waste. •  Cleaner product gas and less char, tars, and soot. •  Efficient conversion of syngas to electricity in solid oxide fuel cells. •  In comparison to other plasma methods, the microwave plasma source has potential for multifold higher energetic mass yield (g. H2 / kWh-1 total electric energy used)1. •  Modular equipment, highly compact, and portable. 1 Jasiński M., “Application of atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source for production of hydrogen via methane reforming”, The European Physics Journal D 54, 179-183 (2009). 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 25
  • 24. RTTC : Data and design–mineralization of sanitation wastesfrom community ablution blocks—University of KwaZulu-Natal A three-way-split pedestal will provide the starting material for separation and combustion processes to make water, ash, and carbon dioxide gas. Data will be gathered or determined in order to develop a process flow diagram and material and energy balances with go/ no-go criteria to guide further development. Processes and Technologies: Sludge extrusion, drying, combustion, urine separation, distillation, reverse osmosis membrane, micro-/nano -University of KwaZulu-Natal reinvented toilet proposed process filtration, and deodorization.flow diagram 13 november 2012 © 20112Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 26
  • 25. RTTC : Advanced Toilet With On-Site Water Recovery—EAWAG, Switzerland Overall concept is based on a shared toilet for four families, which separates bodily waste at the source (Fig. 1, left) and incorporates a logistical concept for transporting diluted urine and dry feces (Fig. 1, center) to a resource recovery plant (RRP) (Fig. 1, right). Filter residuals from the toilet (fig. 2) are then transported to the RRP.”Fig.1. Community resource recoveryplant for urine diverting toilet Fig. 2.On-site water recovery by gravity separation and filtration 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 27
  • 26. RTTC : Novel Pneumatic Toilet—National Univ. of Singapore Novel pneumatic toilet system •  A decentralized modified pneumatic urine-diversion dehydration toilet for small communities (5-6 households). •  Separate collection and treatment of urine and feces. •  Urine shall be concentrated by advance adsorption desalination leading to a fertilizer suitable for reuse in agriculture and subsequent production of clean fresh water. •  Feces shall be transferred by pneumatic system to a nearby central collection system, dried and combusted, with the final ashes to be reused in agriculture. •  The heat generated by combustion shall be used to provide hot water for the advance absorption desalination system resulting in clean potable water. 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 28
  • 27. Think differently: technologies to processhuman waste & recover resources  Plasma-driven gasification to fuel gas  Pyrolysis to bio-char  Hydrothermal carbonization and burn  Smoldering & combustion to ash  Solar-powered electrochemical cell  Accelerated dry aerobic digestion  Fermentation to bio-diesel  Struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate) precipitation from urine  Many more projects ongoing  Some already at stage of implementation for millions (footnote: composting toilet; biogas toilets) © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 29
  • 28. Sanitation services: Improvedemptying of septic tanks and latrines Containment A “retrofit” solution for the “installed capacity” of latrines and septic tanks Fecal Sludge Solid Waste Emptying/Transport Collection/Transport 2A: Reinvented FS 2C: Reinvented Solid Truck Waste Cart? Storage/ Processing 2B: Neighborhood Waste Processing Plant and1. Reinvented Toilet Carbon Finance Household Scale Integration13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 30
  • 29. Community Led Total Sanitation ++It’s Not About Giving Away Toilets Enabling Environment •  Policy, strategy, and direction •  Program methodology •  Partnerships •  Monitoring and evaluation •  Financing •  Implementation capacity •  Institutional arrangements Sanitation Sanitation Supply Demand Technical training Research-based interventions Financing products Marketing of products and services Product development Stimulating community Marketing training and HH demand Small business Incentive schemes training 13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 31
  • 30. Difficult to get people to give uptheir “nice” outdoor toilet © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 32
  • 31. Top 3 Investment Opportunities   CLTS++, a behavior change program to create demand for sanitation in rural areas: could serve 50% of the rural population currently without basic service. Demonstrated to be effective at scale of tens of millions of people. Targeted subsidies for the poor likely critical .   Sanitation as a Business, latrine emptying and fecal sludge processing services at an annual cost of US$10 per household: could serve 200 million low-income urban people, 20% of the latrines currently emptied manually. Product and development innovation package, key elements have already demonstrated as feasible.   Reinvented Toilet, off-the-grid toilet that processes/recycles human waste at household scale affordably: could serve a billion low income urban people, 100% of the latrines currently emptied manually (and potentially many more people). Research, product development and market development for a product currently at the proof-of- concept / prototype stage. Source: Rijsberman and Zwane, 2012, Water and Sanitation, Copenhagen Consensus 2012 – released 2 May 201213 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 34
  • 32. Economic returns to investment – in terms of public health Intervention   Investment Benefit People served Risk   (US$ M)   Cost   (M)   Ra0o   CLTS++   3,000   4-7   600   low   Sanitation as 320   23-47   200   medium   a Business   Reinvented 125   40   1000   high   Toilet   Source: Rijsberman and Zwane, 2012, Water and Sanitation, Copenhagen Consensus 2012 – released 2 May 201213 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 35
  • 33. Recapping• Yes, we think the Toilet should be Reinvented• Longer term we are looking for “the cell phone of sanitation” – an aspirational product you and I would want to use• In the short term we will invest in improved sanitation services serving existing on-site solutions: emptying and processing of fecal sludge• Not only technology development – but sustainable sanitation services / business models• We also continue CLTS++ work at scale of millions: We are funding programs that aim to move 30 million people into Open Defecation Free Communities, primarily in rural areas• Sanitation: An opportunity to engage for Rotary.13 november 2012 © 2012 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation | 36
  • 34. Thank You© 2011 Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. All Rights Reserved.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries.