12 13 earcos assessment workbook - bambi


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12 13 earcos assessment workbook - bambi

  1. 1. Best Practice in Assessment EARCOS WEEKEND WORKSHOP Seoul Foreign School October 2012 Presenter: Bambi Betts Teacher Training Center for International Educators bambibetts@aol.com www.TheTTC.org
  2. 2. 2 YOUR BELIEFS ABOUT ASSESSMENT Agree Disagree 1. The primary purpose of assessment is to make judgments about whether a student should move on to the next grade level or course. 2. Most learning we expect students to do in school can effectively be assessed through written tests. 3. Self-assessment is an essential component of all assessment. 4. The type of assessment tool should be determined by the learning outcomes it is designed to assess. 5. Everything that a teacher assesses in her own class should be taught. 6. A well-designed assessment process contributes to improved student learning. 7. Grading is important for motivating students. 8. The form of assessment to be used will influence the choice of teaching strategies. 9. To a great extent, students determine what’s worth learning through our assessment tools. 10. Most learners will typically try harder under the threat of failure. 11. Students should have clear criteria for success on any assessment task. 12. Assessment results should be used regularly to inform and modify instruction. 13. All assessments should ‘count’ toward a final evaluation (grade). 14. Students should have access to and be taught how to use assessment results to improve their learning. 15. Summative (end of unit) results are more accurate predictors of long term retention than ongoing, formative data. 16. Assessments should be developed before teaching. 17. A summative assessment should be designed so that students will do just as well six months later as they do the first time they take the assessment. 18. The fundamental purpose of assessment is to sort and rank students. 19. Quantitative data are more useful in planning for learning than qualitative data. 20. To be effective, feedback must be as immediate as possible. 21. A grade can be sufficient feedback. 22. In most cases, the same assessment tool should be used for all students 23. Feedback is essential for learning and therefore required on EVERY assessment.TTC EARCOS at SFC Oct. 2012 2 Best Practice in Assessment
  3. 3. 3 ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLESThose which are now considered axioms Essential Not Essential 1. Assessment is inherently a process of professional judgment. 2. Assessment influences student motivation and learning. 3. A culture of ‘penalty’ disrupts learning.Effective assessment : 4. Improves student learning. 5. Recognizes learning differences. 6. Begins with clear statements of intended learning. 7. Relies on adequate pre-assessment 8. Requires process both DURING and AFTER learning. 9. Requires timely, actionable feedback. 10. Measures what is truly valued. 11. Enhances instruction. 12. Is valid. 13. Is fair and ethical. 14. Requires alignment between the tool and the intended learning. 15. Is efficient and feasible. 16. Promotes learner self-reliance. 17. Allows and encourages the student to demonstrate personal (individual) development of understanding, knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and processes. 18. Is authentic and contextual. 19. Captures what is most essential to be learned. TTC EARCOS at SFC Oct. 2012 3 Best Practice in Assessment
  4. 4. 4 WHERE DOES ASSESSMENT ‘FIT’ IN CURRICULUM? WHAT IS ASSESSMENT?ASSESSMENT IS…Fundamentally… TTC EARCOS at SFC Oct. 2012 4 Best Practice in Assessment
  5. 5. 5 TRADITIONAL TODAY Focus was assessment Focus is assessment learning learning BIG IDEAUse evidence about learning to adapt instruction to meet student needs and to help student self-adjust. THINK BACK…What is the worst test or assessment you have ever taken? What made it that way? Common characteristics of ‘poor’ assessments WHY ARE SCHOOLS RETHINKING ASSESSMENT? TTC EARCOS at SFC Oct. 2012 5 Best Practice in Assessment
  6. 6. 6 FENWICK’S FINDINGS ON ALIGNMENT What the research revealed WHAT WOULD BE THE IDEAL RELATIONSHIP IN YOUR SCHOOL? 1. Do I teach everything in the curriculum? 2. Is it OK to teach things that are NOT in the curriculum? 3. DO I assess everything in the curriculum? 4. Is it OK to assess things that are NOT in the curriculum?TTC EARCOS at SFC Oct. 2012 6 Best Practice in Assessment
  7. 7. 7A ‘Pretender’ Assessment This student received 11/11 on her quiz. The teacher assumed she understood. When asked in an interview what elevation was, the student could not respond. She also could not explain the connection between the pictures and the spheres. When the interviewer asked, "What do you think about when you hear the word elevation?" The student responded, "Like the stuff. … I forgot some of this." When asked to explain the bottom section of spheres, the student responded, "This is water (pointing to hydrosphere). And this one is rock (pointing to lithosphere). No, the rock fits atmosphere better, but Im not sure." The interviewer then asked why balloons and a spider were included. The student responded, "Im not sure. I dont know." Upon hearing this, the teacher saw that, just because students could match pictures with words, did not mean they understood that the spider represented all living things which made up the biosphere. The 100% showed performance without understanding.Assessment Showing Understanding This sheet was used to record working ideas of the main concepts in the chapter. Students could record initial conceptions. By providing a word bank, students were encouraged to use the scientific vocabulary in their responses (Figure 3). The teacher would make individual comments such as, "Describe what you mean by …" or "Explain how this can happen." TTC EARCOS at SFC Oct. 2012 7 Best Practice in Assessment
  8. 8. 8 CATEGORIES OF ASSESSMENTCategory CategoryCategory CategoryTTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 8 Best Practice in Assessment
  9. 9. 9 WHAT IS ASSESSMENT? For those just joining…ASSESSMENT IS…Fundamentally… FROM YOUR RECENT EXPERIENCE…Think of a recent assessment you did with your students. Was the PRIMARYpurpose:FOR STUDENTS to learn through engaging in the task, bothabout the content and their own learning processes?FOR YOU, THE TEACHER to gather data for your next stageof teaching?FOR ‘OFFICIAL’ REASONS – you needed to make a ‘fixed’judgment for reporting or other official purposes TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 9 Best Practice in Assessment
  10. 10. 10 AS, OF, FOR? What might be the teacher’s prime (and perhaps subsidiary) purpose for the below assessment activities? AS- FOR -OF1 A teacher gives a pre-test to find out where the kids are before starting to teach a unit2 A teacher observes students working in groups in order to generate data to evaluate a report card grade for a disposition of effective collaboration3 A teacher gives an end of year exam worth 20% of the final grade4 A teacher completes running records for reading5 A teacher asks students to use different colored cups (red/amber/green) to indicate their understanding of a topic as the teacher is doing a mini lecture.6 A teacher asks students to peer assess the work of a classmate7 A teacher asks students to write down the most important thing they learned in class today and leave it on the door as a post-it as they exit the class8 A teacher involves students in a deep contextual task which is used in the generation of a final grade and/or report card comments9 A test is used to determine which group students should work in for the next activity within a small flexible group model10 The teacher tells students that she does not want them to raise their hands in class – she will call on students at random11 The teacher asks all the students in the class to write the answer to the question on a personal whiteboard and hold it up12 The teacher asks students in a math class to work in groups on large and visible whiteboards around the room13 A teacher assigns a final written task at the end of a unit and grades it prior to moving on to the next unit14 A teacher gives a group of students their marked draft work with the grades received – but does not tell the students which piece of work received which grade. She asks them to work out which is which – and then15 A student sits a final 3 hour paper at the end of her AP course16 A teacher leaves grades off a piece of marking and gives only comments17 A teacher gives students 10 minutes at the start of class to respond to the comments she has written in last night’s homework – and then responds in turn to those comments when next marking the books18 A student takes a proficiency test to be allowed to utilize the expensive sound and light equipment unsupervised in the school’s new auditorium19 A student takes an assessment task, the results of which will be used in determining which Math level she will be entered for in next year’s class groupings20 A teacher gives students examples (ranging from excellent to poor) of a task and then asks them to develop a rubric to evaluate the task21 A music teacher assesses a student giving her final recital to parents22 A kindergartener creates rectangular and triangular prisms using play dough and cocktail sticks23 A teacher designs a creative, aligned task as one of the main assessments for her unit TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 10 Best Practice in Assessment
  11. 11. 11Collect Evaluate Feedback Record Include asevidence evidence to learner evidence evidence of in ‘final’ report ASSESSMENT ‘FOR and AS’ LEARNING ‘DURING’ LEARNING ASSESSMENT ‘OF AND FOR’ LEARNING AFTER LEARNING BIG IDEAS The primary purpose for an assessment is the starting point for its design. All form as of assessment can be used AS and FOR learning – it how we use the data that changes the game. Type Definition & Examples AS OF FOR TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 11 Best Practice in Assessment
  12. 12. 12 KEY LEARNINGS ON ASSESSMENT Which learning Common Practices we see in would cause us What we have learned schools to reconsider this practice?1. Assessments are designed primarily to provide The assessment tool must be carefully data for the grade book. A matched to the learning being assessed.2. Teachers plan assessments only after most of Students who are regularly assessed in the teaching for a particular unit has taken place. B context retain more of their learning for longer.3. Assessment tools collect evidence of things the teacher never intended to assess. C Effective assessment should improve learning, not just audit it.4. Assessment tools are ‘mismatched’ with the desired learning (e.g. written tests when speaking is the real intended outcome) D Planning backwards improves both teaching and learning.5. Feedback is given to the learner well after the assessment opportunity. E Not every assignment should be considered as a full assessment.6. Teachers keep secrets from students about what makes a good product or performance. F Provide learners with clear criteria for what ‘success’ looks like.7. Nearly every assignment is ‘graded’, recorded, and ‘averaged’ with other grades to generate a report card grade. G The most effective assessments allow teachers to improve real-time teaching and learning.8. Assessments are more often ‘school box’ tools rather than authentic products or performances. P PRACTICE 1: BACKWARDS DESIGN 1 What do we want learners to achieve? 2 What assessment tasks will provide BEST evidence of our intended learning? 3 What will it take to be successful at teach p task? 4 How will we distinguish degrees of achievement? 5 What learning experiences will be needed for learners to be successful at the tasks? TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 12 Best Practice in Assessment
  13. 13. 13 P PRACTICE 2: BEGIN WITH CLEAR INTENDED LEARNING ‘UNDERSTANDINGS’ An understanding is: TRANS-DISCIPLINARY UNDERSTANDINGS SUBJECT-SPECIFIC UNDERSTANDINGS Knowledge of the past and its trends can help  Manipulation of rhythm creates musical patterns. explain current events. p  Numbers represent quantities. Human beings have important traits in common  Societies have formal processes to make laws and to yet differ from one another reforms laws. Critical readers question the text, consider various  Scientists construct and use models to generate perspectives and look for author’s bias in order to knowledge and to advance understanding. think, live and act differently. SKILLSA skill is: TRANS-DISCIPLINARY SKILLS SUBJECT-SPECIFIC SKILLS  Work effectively with others  Sing music written in two parts  Solve problems  Use a microscope  Conduct research  Analyze literature  Listen actively  Pass a ball  Write for a purpose  Read a geographical map  Distinguish between fact and opinion DISPOSITIONSA disposition is…. EXAMPLES∞ Trustworthy ∞ Kind ∞ Polite ∞ Responsible ∞ Independent ∞ Concerned for others ∞ A risk-taker CONTENT KNOWLEDGE/FACTSKnowledge/facts are EXAMPLES  Describe patterns of trade from ancient times to present  List the basic needs of living organisms and describe  Know the relative location of, size of, and distances between places. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 13 Best Practice in Assessment
  14. 14. 14 P WHAT TYPE OF LEARNING IS EACH? S=skill K=knowledge/content U=Enduring understanding D = dispositionThe learner: Type1. Dictates stories.2. Compares and orders objects according to a given attribute.3. Uses materials independently. p4. Knows that animals have external features that help them thrive in different5. Identifies the elements of poetry.6. Uses appropriate expression when speaking.7. Takes risks.8. Presents personal position on issues9. Differentiates between evidence and opinion10. Uses productivity tools11. Analyzes chronological relationships and patterns.12. Knows the major influences of the Greeks and Romans on Western Civilization.13. Empathizes with people living in other times and places14. Identifies specific geographic features.15. Knows the concepts of city-states, democracy, voting, and government in the Greek and Roman worlds16. Uses reference materials independently17. Reads to gather information18. Organizes and synthesizes information from various sources.19. Recognizes the effect the Holocaust has on present-day society in Europe20. Adds single digits.21. Understands the basic features and processes of the earth.22. Know the rules of soccer.23. Understands that numbers are quantities.24. Understands that supply and demand affect price.25. Uses diagrams, graphs, tables and charts to communicate information;TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 14 Best Practice in Assessment
  15. 15. 15P PRACTICE 3: ALIGN ASSESSMENT TOOLS WITH INTENDED LEARNING ASSESSMENT TYPES Type Description Examples Student selects from a pre-set list of responsesp (visual, written or oral) Student creates own response within a limited framework (visual,written or oral) Written work on a topic, question, issue with an academic audience. Tasks which require students to make or do something for a particular audience and purpose (simulated or real). Tools designed to collect and record evidence of work processes, and understanding ‘of the moment’. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 15 Best Practice in Assessment
  16. 16. 16 CHOOSING THE ‘BEST’ ASSESSMENT A. SELECTED RESPONSE B. CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE C. ACADEMIC PROMPT (ESSAY) D. CONTEXTUAL PRODUCT OR PERFORMANCE E. OBSERVATIONWhich approach to assessment will give you the best possible evidence of the intended learning? 1. Writes effectively for various audiences and purposes. 2. Contributes productively to both large and small groups. 3. Adapts to change; is flexible 4. Uses music vocabulary correctly. 5. Applies knowledge of melody, harmony, pitch, tone quality and rhythm. 6. Exhibits self-confidence and self-motivation. 7. Chooses appropriate strategies to solve mathematical problems in a variety of contexts. 8. Applies knowledge of physical forces in appropriate settings. 9. Shows empathy and respect. 10. Thinks creatively 11. Understands that a nation’s resources affect its dependence on other nations. 12. Uses appropriate graphic and electronic tools and techniques to process information 13. Accurately draws common objects from observation. 14. Uses large muscles with ease 15. Guides and leads others. 16. Predicts potential consequences of actions in a range of settings. 17. Carefully weighs evidence on all sides of a dispute, problem, or controversy before making a judgment. 18. Knows different forms of government and relates these to countries in the world. BIG IDEA The key design principle when designing as assessment is ALIGNMENT, not variety. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 16 Best Practice in Assessment
  17. 17. 17 WHAT TYPE OF ASSESSMENT WILL PROVIDE THE MOST VALID EVIDENCE OF LEARNING? Intended Learning Task Type 1. Explains the methods and reasoning behind the a solution to determine reasonableness of the solution and to verify results 2. Represents problems in a variety of forms 3. Asks questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas. 4. Judges which ways of representing a problem are more effective 5. Plays a variety of roles in group discussions. 6. Knows the characteristics of a healthy lifestyle. 7. Uses a variety of strategies to understand a problem. 8. Predicts the outcome of an experiment. 9. Creates three-dimensional structures and arrangements.10. Uses trial and error and the process of elimination.11. Designs and conducts a scientific investigation.12. Applies the basic language of logic in mathematical situations13. Differentiates between pertinent and irrelevant information when solving problems14. Demonstrates planning is an important part of the design process.15. Differentiates between basic valid and invalid arguments. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 17 Best Practice in Assessment
  18. 18. 18 UNIT ASSESSMENT PLANNING MATRIX: SAMPLE Selected response Constructed Academic prompt Contextual Task On-going Tools Intended Learning ResponseUnderstands that safety is paramount in a science lab 2 full lab practicalsKnows the fundamentals of human and plant 2 short answer Doctor’s office taskreproduction testsUnderstands that organisms change over generations Darwin essay Doctor’s office taskSystematically approaches experimental procedures 2 lab practicals Anecdotal notes 2 timesCollects, records and communicates experimental Doctor’s office task;evidence 2 lab practicalsDraws conclusions based on the analysis and evaluation Recommendationof evidence taskSkills and strategies for reading informational text Weekly logs Doctor’s office taskWorks effectively in a team Team work rubric 3 timesInformation Technology communication tools Doctor’s office task; 2 full lab practicalsCommitment to excellence through timely completion 2 open Doctor’ office taskof work response HW journalsPositive attitude to work checklist 2 times; anecdotal notes TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 18 Best Practice in Assessment
  20. 20. 20 HOW DO WE BEST ASSESS DISPOSITIONS?Select a disposition that is valued at your school. Select an age group to work with.Make a list of the habitual behaviors associated with that disposition. MIDDLE SCHOOL COPING WITH COMPLEXITY RUBRIC (INTEL) 4 3 2 1Seeking I seek out challenging I usually like to work I can work on I get frustrated andChallenges problems because I learn on challenging challenging problems if want to quit when I from them. problems because I I have a lot of direction work on challenging feel good when I solve and help. problems. Working on difficult them. tasks gives me pleasure and satisfaction.Using When I have to solve a When I have to solve a Usually when I have to I will not try to solve aStrategies really confusing really confusing solve a really confusing problem if I do not problem, I know some problem, I know how problem, I do not have directions on how strategies that will help to start. know what to do, and I to do it. me start and keep going. have to ask someone to tell me how to start and how to keep going.Analysis On my own, I can break a I can break a big With help, I can break I am usually big problem into smaller problem into smaller a problem into smaller overwhelmed by parts and work on the parts and work on the parts and work on the complex problems and pieces in the best order pieces in a logical pieces. cannot figure out to complete the task order. where to start. efficiently and well.Persistence If I do not get an answer I keep working when I With encouragement, I If I do not get an right away, I just try a do not get an answer can continue working answer right away, I different strategy. right away. if I do not get an get frustrated and I continue to work I work hard on answer right away. often quit working. enthusiastically on meaningful problems I have difficulty meaningful problems even when I know that I will not work on working on meaningful even when I know that they may not have meaningful problems problems unless I they may not have simple, correct that do not have a know they have a right simple, correct answers. answers. right answer. answer.Concentration I can quickly and easily I can switch back and I get confused if I have I cannot work on more switch from doing one forth between doing to work on more than than one thing at a kind of a thing to two different things one thing at a time. time. another without losing without losing track of track of what I am doing. what I am doing. I get distracted when I can only work when it I can concentrate on one there are lots of things is really quiet and I I can concentrate on going on, and it is hard have no distractions. thing even if there are a one thing when there lot of other things going for me to concentrate. are other things going on around me. on. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 20 Best Practice in Assessment
  21. 21. 21 DISPOSITIONS RUBRIC Needs Attention Approaching Habitual Exemplary Need Attention Approaching Habitual Exemplary You usually ask the You do some You often think You think You have You need to be You are You are Thinkers teacher instead of thinking before independently, carefully before Principled difficulty being reminded to be generally consistently thinking asking the sometimes speaking or honest, fair and honest, fair and honest, fair and honest, fair and independently teacher needing teacher acting true to yourself true to yourself true to your self true to self and direction and others and others and others others You seldom ask You hesitate to You frequently You ask logical You seldom You are You You consistently questions to initiate ask questions ask questions and thought Caring thinks about beginning to be acknowledges show empathy Inquirers your own learning and questions that are usually provoking how others feels aware of how the feelings of towards others are not always relevant to questions others feel others and specific to topic topic relevant to express concern topic You have difficulty You are You You You You are You sometimes You consistentlyCommunicators with basic beginning to communicate communicate Well- demonstrates a increasing your initiate and initiate and communication communicate well ideas creatively balanced limited range of range of participate to participate in ideas interests interests with increase variety various new adult of interests experiences encouragement You are reluctant to You hesitate You You are You usually You reflects on You are You cognitively try new experiences before demonstrate enthusiastic Reflective focuses only on major topics or beginning to think and self Risk Takers without teacher beginning new positive about new task completion skills only recognise evaluate daily encouragement experiences attitude when experiences importance of situations and independently trying new and challenges details and self experiences experiences or assesses activities You show a limited You show You are You are You focus on With You You knowledge base and knowledge on knowledgeable enthusiastic your own ideas encouragement acknowledge independentlyKnowledgeable prior experiences only selected about a variety and Open- and opinions begins to the rights and see a situation interests of interests knowledgeable minded understand opinions of from another about a wide another person’s others view point range of perspective interests TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 21 Best Practice in Assessment
  22. 22. 22 Creativity and Innovation Excerpted from Assessing Outcomes and Improving Achievement: Tips & tools for Using Rubrics, edited by Terrel L. Rhodes. Copyright 2010 Association of American Colleges and Universities Self- Direction Catalina Foothills School Trait Novice Basic Proficient Advanced You lack strategies to set personal goals You have difficulty using strategies in the You apply strategies to set meaningful You independently utilize strategies to setGoal Setting and rarely participate in goal setting. goal-setting process without on-going goals, seeking minimal assistance. quality goals which are above Teacher usually sets goals for You. teacher assistance. expectations. You are unfocused and consistently off You require frequent redirection to focus You occasionally need redirection to focus You independently maintain focus andFocus task during the learning process. on the learning process. on the learning process. persevere during the learning process. You lack strategies to learn, rarely engage You applies strategies and problem-solves You applies strategies and problem-solves You apply strategies independently forSelf-Instruction in problem solving or seeking help. with frequent teacher assistance, with occasional teacher/appropriate self-instruction, solving problems and sometimes seeking inappropriate help. assistance. seeking appropriate help only if necessary. You rarely monitor learning progress and You monitor learning progress with You monitor learning progress and self- You monitor learning progress, self-Self-monitoring consistently require teacher guidance. frequent teacher intervention. corrects with occasional teacher guidance. correcting as needed.Effective Use of You rarely use resources effectively and You frequently require teacher guidance to You select and use resources with minimal You independently identify and effectivelyResources needs consistent teacher guidance. select and use resources effectively. teacher guidance. use relevant resources.Self-Evaluation You rarely reflect upon learning without You frequently requires teacher prompting You occasionally reflect upon learning You independently reflect upon learning,and Reflection teacher prompting to identify strengths to reflect upon learning, identify strengths independently, identifying strengths and identifying strengths and weaknesses, and weaknesses, use feedback, and modify and weaknesses, use feedback, and modify weaknesses, using feedback, and using feedback and modifying work work. work. modifying work. accordingly. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 22 Best Practice in Assessment
  23. 23. 23 P PRACTICE 4: USE CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT In what context, in the world beyond school, might all this learning matter?Describe a task which would give you the BEST evidence that the student had reached theintended understandings, knowledge, skills and/or dispositions simultaneously.Intended learning from a unit from the first year of a modern language class:The learner: p • can make himself understood in everyday conversation • applies basic rules of syntax and grammar • uses dialogue • demonstrates how language can be used to persuadeTask which would provide the best possible evidence:From a middle school humanities unitThe learner: knows essential facts about dynasties of ancient China explains how the contribution of the various dynasties as well as the negative factors impacted the development of civilization effectively uses visuals as a means of communication draws a reasonable conclusion from a body of facts speaks appropriately for the intended audienceTask which would provide the best evidence: TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 23 Best Practice in Assessment
  24. 24. 24 ONE BICYCLE, PLEASEBACKGROUND:It is now January. Your parents have agreed to help you buy a bicycle as soon as you learnto ride. You would really like to have a bicycle so you can ride to your friends house 2blocks away. Your parents give you pocket money of 2 dollars each week. In addition,they have agreed to put in $50 to help you buy the bicycle.TASK:Your job is to make a plan which lists all the steps you will have to take inorder to have your bicycle by June. My plan TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 24 Best Practice in Assessment
  25. 25. 25 ONE BICYCLE, PLEASE... CRITERIAThe teacher who developed this task decided on the following criteria. What other outcomes might beassessed through this task?These are the things you need to do to be successful at this task: Your self- assessment1= Needs more work2= You did the job, but not well3= You did the job4= You did the job well 1 2 3 41. Your plan or list has at least 4 steps.2. Your list is clear enough that you could give it to a friend and she couldfollow it.3. Each step makes sense; this means you shouldactually be able to do each in the real world.4. The steps follow each other logically.5. You show how much time each step might take. Your teachers assessment 1 2 3 41. Your plan or list has at least 4 steps.2. Your list is clear enough that you could give it to a friend and she couldfollow it.3. Each step makes sense; this means you shouldactually be able to do each in the real world.4. The steps follow each other logically.5. You show how much time each step might take. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 25 Best Practice in Assessment
  26. 26. 26 THE M&M’S SHIPPING CONTAINERBACKGROUND: Many companies these days are looking to find ways to become more efficient and saveproduction costs. The M&M Company (which makes M&Ms) is no exception. The company is looking tominimize the cost of production of their packaging, and maximize the amount of what is safely andefficiently packaged and shipped.TASK: Your team is one of many in the packing department for M & M’s. The manager of the shippingdepartment has found that the cheapest material for shipping comes as a flat piece of rectangularpaperboard (the piece of paper you will be given). She is asking each work team in the packingdepartment to help solve the problem:Your task is to design the individual package (the one found on the shelf at a shop), built out of the givenmaterial that will hold the largest volume of M&M’s, and also be safe and economical for shipping. Youwill then write up your findings in a short report to the shipping manager.AUDIENCE: Your report, with any supporting materials, is for the shipping manager.CRITERIA FOR EXCELLENCE Poor Excell. 1 2 3 41. The container you design is, in fact, the most efficient packaging possible.2. The report tells about your research methods.3. Your research methods are good ones for the task4. You offer more than one solution.5. Computations are correct.6. The report contains graphs, visuals or other materials to support the design of the container.7. There is evidence in the report that all members of your team made effective contributions (generic group work rubric will be applied)STANDARDS ASSESSEDBig Understandings  Teamwork can help produce strong solutions.  Efficiency is an important ingredient in a viable economy.  There is more than one solution to most problems.Content and skill standards:  Use of appropriate graphs  Application of appropriate numerical operations  Application of three dimensional geometrical shapes, volume and area.School-wide Skills  Applies appropriate research skills  Works effectively in a team TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 26 Best Practice in Assessment
  27. 27. 27 OIL SLICKSBACKGROUND: Oil spills have become all too frequent in many parts of theworld. Although we know much about the potential effects, there is still much to beresearched. Vast quantities of oil are lost each year and dozens of life forms andsystems are at risk.TASK: You are a member of an emergency team at an international oil company.An oil tanker aground on a reef is leaking oil that forms a circular soil slick about 0.03m thick. It is found that the radius of the slick was increasing at 0.096 metres/minutewhen the radius was 150 metres. Your task is to find out the rate at which the oil isleaking from the tankers, compare it to other such incidents and make somerecommendations about both prevention and clean-up.AUDIENCE: Your report will be sent to the director of the companyPROCEDURE: 1. Discuss with your team what steps will need to be taken. 2. Work out the actual rate of leakage. 3. Write a report to your director which includes the results of this particular incident, as well as makes a comparison to others. Use the criteria below for your report.CRITERIA FOR EXCELLENCE 1. The mathematical details of this particular incident are accurate, including:  Elegance of solution  Accurate use of mathematical tools 2. You have made logical comparisons to other similar incidents 3. Your recommendations are feasible. 4. The language of the report is clear and clearly communicates the essential message TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 27 Best Practice in Assessment
  28. 28. 28 CARE TO DANCE? Second Language Assessment TaskBackground: Some of your classmates are planning a school dance. You are quite excitedabout this, as it will be your very first one. There is one small problem. Your parents arenttoo sure that you should go. They are worried about your safety, about you staying up toolate, about the music being too loud, etc., etc., etc.,!!!Your Task: You have three to five minutes to persuade your parents to allow you to go tothe school dance. You will be talking to either your mother or your father. You will beyourself. Your parent will be played by a teacher.Procedure:1. Look back at all the vocabulary we have learned during our last unit. Review and practiceas many words as you think will help you accomplish the task.2. Be thinking about how you will persuade your parents, using the vocabulary and otherthings we have been learning. You may even want to practice having the conversation withsomeone, although we will have plenty of opportunities during call.3. The conversation will take place sometime during the next two weeks, during class.4. Your conversation will be taped (audio). You will have a chance to listen to the tape athome and do a self-assessment.Assessment Criteria 1 2 3 41. You use a wide range of vocabulary we have studied.2. Most of your statements are full sentences.3. The conversation flows; few stops and starts.4. You use verb tenses correctly.5. You use at least 2 verb tenses.6. You use appropriate expression in your voice.7. Your statements make sense; the parent can understandwhat you are saying.8. Your conversation lasts at least 3 minutes.1= Not accomplished; standard not met2= Barely accomplished; standard barely met3= Meets standard4= Exceeds standard TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 28 Best Practice in Assessment
  29. 29. 29 BIG IDEA: WHY CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT? 1. Creating an assessment in a context automatically guides the teacher in making necessary design decisions such as: Should I give students a second chance? How ‘long’ should it be? How much time should I give the students to do the product of performance? 2. The brain learns and retains best in context. Contextual assessment works with the brains natural processes. 3. Learners who have continual opportunities to learn and be assessed in context do as well or better on tests of more basic knowledge and skills than those who do not. 4. Data from contextual assessment gives us a stronger profile of how our standards and benchmarks play out in terms of the life-long learner goals most schools strive for. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT Yes No 1. Does the task assess the learning standards it was designed to assess? 2. Is the audience as authentic as possible? 3. Does it measure several intended learnings simultaneously, including knowledge, skills, and/or dispositions? 4. Does it require students to use processes which are similar to those used by people working on a similar task in the larger world? 5. Is the product or performance the same or similar to products used in the world beyond school? (i.e. -- not unique to the school setting) 6. Are there clear criteria for students about how the product or performance will be evaluated? 7. Is there a provision made for self-assessment by students? 8. Does it assess for what is most essential? (Does it pass the “ten year test”?)TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 29 Best Practice in Assessment
  30. 30. 30 A CONTEXTUAL ASSESSMENT TASK TEMPLATEWrite the task in language appropriate for the student. The task sheet will be given to the student.What skills, knowledge, understandings and/or dispositions will this task assess?BACKGROUND: Create the setting or context.THE TASK: What product or performance will the student actually make or do?AUDIENCE: Who is the natural audience for this product or performance?(Note: sometimes this is already imbedded in the task description)PROCEDURE: What are the steps involved in arriving at the product or performance?CRITERIA: What makes the product or performance excellent? Criteria Analytic rubric Holistic rubric ALTERNATIVE PERFORMANCE TASK TEMPLATERole What role is the student assuming?Audience At whom is the task directed?Situation What is the ‘real-life’ context in which the task is set?Product/Performance and Purpose What will be created and for what purpose?Standards Criteria for success What are the elements and requirements for a successful performance task? Some or many of these elements will comprise your scoring categories.Scoring Guide (e.g. generic and/or analytic rubric(s), task checklist). Construct a scoring guide that will guide the evaluation of the students performance task. What qualities and criteria for the performance will you be looking for and evaluating in terms of what student knows, understands, and/or can do (reference Standards and Criteria for Success above)?(Adapted from UbD) TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 30 Best Practice in Assessment
  31. 31. 31 EVALUATING AN ASSESSMENT IDEA FOR VALIDITY A Checklist How likely is it that a student could do well on the assessment Very Somewhat Unlikely only by: Likely likely1. trying random strategies?2. making clever guesses based on limited understanding?3. parroting back or ‘plugging in’ what was learned, without much thought or understanding?4. making a ‘good-faith’ effort, with lots of hard work and enthusiasm to produce nice-looking products /performances, but with limited understanding?5. meeting all the scoring criteria but without necessarily having understood the content very well?6. applying natural ability to be articulate and intelligent, without necessarily having understood the content well?7. really having understood the key ideas as reflected in wise use, explanation, justification, empathy, self-assessment etc.?8. providing lots of accurate and appropriate content knowledge, but without having to use much higher-order thinking ( critical analysis, careful judgment, integrative thought, creative application etc.)? TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 31 Best Practice in Assessment
  32. 32. 32 P PRACTICE 5: DETERMINE HOW THE DATA WILL BE USED ‘record’ book achievement (report card) feedback to teaching for evidence of Use data to Record in a Evaluate & Include asTASK students current learner modify1. Notes from a planned observation of a student’s behavior2.p A piece of homework3. The teacher asks student to write down one question they have about today’s learning.4. A teacher’s notes made during a classroom discussion on student participation5. Teacher observes students working in a team.6. Notes taken by each student are collected by the teacher following a lesson.7. An oral presentation following a 6 week unit of work.8. An end of chapter test.9. A role-play in modern language class after a unit10. An essay test11. A museum display produced by a team of students at the end of a unit12. Portfolios for all students in a grade level, collated around grade-wide criteria. th th13. A set of math tasks given to all 4th, 8 and 10 grade students each term, set by the K-12 Math department14. A speech performed by each 12th year student, designed by a team of high school teachers.15. A writing assessment given to all students in grades 3-1016. A school-designed, annual fitness test given to all students17. An ISA or MAP test18. An IB exam or AP exam19. Results of a national exam BIG IDEA All forms of assessment can be formative. It is a question of how we use the data.TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 32 Best Practice in Assessment
  33. 33. 33 FORMATIVE OR SUMMATIVE BIG IDEA All forms of assessment can be formative. It is a question of how we use the data.Collect Evaluate Feedback Record Include asevidence and to learner evidence of achievement in ‘final’ report ASSESSMENT ‘FOR’ LEARNING ONGOING/FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT ‘OF AND FOR’ LEARNING SUMMATIVE FULL ASSESSMENT PRACTICE 6: ON-GOING ASSESSMENT P On- going assessment: p EXAMPLES OF ONGOING ASSESSMENT TOOLS WHITE BOARD FEEDBACK TICKET TO LEAVE HAND SIGNALS BELL RETELL MUDDIEST POINT TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 33 Best Practice in Assessment
  34. 34. 34 EXAMPLES OF ONGOING ASSESSMENT TOOLSName: Description: What to do with the data:Minute paper During the last few minutes of the class period, ask Review responses and note any useful students to answer on a half-sheet of paper: "What is comments. During the next class periods the most important point you learned today?" and, emphasize the issues illuminated by your "What point remains least clear to you?". The purpose students comments. is to elicit data about students comprehension of a particular class session.Chain Notes Students pass around an envelope on which the Go through the student responses and teacher has written one question about the class. determine the best criteria for When the envelope reaches a student he/she spends a categorizing the data with the goal of moment to respond to the question and then places the detecting response patterns. Discussing response in the envelope. the patterns of responses with students can lead to better teaching and learning.Memory Students fill in cells of a two-dimensional diagram for Tally the numbers of correct andmatrix which instructor has provided labels. For example, in a incorrect responses in each cell. Analyze music course, labels might consist of periods differences both between and among the (Baroque, Classical) by countries (Germany, France, cells. Look for patterns among the Britain); students enter composers in cells to incorrect responses and decide what demonstrate their ability to remember and classify key might be the cause(s). concepts.Directed Ask students to write a layman’s "translation" of Categorize student responses accordingparaphrasing something they have just learned -- geared to a to characteristics you feel are important. specified individual or audience -- to assess their ability Analyze the responses both within and to comprehend and transfer concepts. across categories, noting ways you could address student needs.One-sentence Students summarize knowledge of a topic by Evaluate the quality of each summarysummary constructing a single sentence that answers the quickly and holistically. Note whether questions "Who does what to whom, when, where, students have identified the essential how, and why?" The purpose is to require students to concepts of the class topic and their select only the defining features of an idea. interrelationships. Share with students.Exam Select a type of test that you are likely to give more Try to distinguish student comments thatEvaluations than once or that has a significant impact on student address the fairness of your grading from performance. Create a few questions that evaluate the those that address the fairness of the quality of the test. Add these questions to the exam or test as an assessment instrument. administer a separate, follow-up evaluation. Respond to the general ideas represented by student comments.Application After teaching about an important theory, principle, or Quickly read once through thecards procedure, ask students to write down at least one applications and categorize them real-world application for what they have just learned to according to their quality. Pick out a determine how well they can transfer their learning. broad range of examples and present them to the class.Student- Allow students to write test questions and model Make a rough tally of the questions yourgenerated answers for specified topics, in a format consistent with students propose and the topics that theytest course exams. This will give students the opportunity cover. Evaluate the questions and usequestions to evaluate the course topics, reflect on what they the goods ones as prompts for understand, and what are good test items. discussion. You may also want to revise the questions and use them on the upcoming exam. P PRACTICE 7: WHAT FEEDBACK PROCESSES ADVANCE LEARNING? Feedback is: p TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 34 Best Practice in Assessment
  35. 35. 35 THE FEEDBACK PROCESSDuring learning or after a ‘chunk’ of learning: CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK 1. Does it assist the learner to understand the learning goal? 2. Does it offer the learner SPECIFIC strategies on how to close the gap between the desired learning and his present position on that learning? 3. Is the feedback understandable to the learner (e.g. is the rubric or comment in ‘kid’ language? Do I use kid-friendly voice, tone, vocabulary?) 4. Does the learner have the opportunity to act on the feedback, WITHOUT PENALTY? 5. Is it timely? Does it occur DURING learning? FEEDBACK IN PRACTICE M= do more of L=do less of 1. Providing the feedback BEFORE the learner gets another chance to retrieve incorrectly again. 2. Giving feedback in the form of a grade only. 3. Spending as much time on feedback for ‘correct’ answers as to incorrect answers. 4. ‘Count’ all retrieval opportunities. 5. Give only one chance for retrieval. 6. Give plenty of opportunity to retrieve WITHOUT penalty. 7. Put feedback into ‘kid’ language. 8. Feedback even low performance in a way that does not imply failure 9. Delay feedback. 10. Use language in our feedback which refers to the specific learning. 11. Provide students with evidence that effort on their part actually does result in better learning. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 35 Best Practice in Assessment
  36. 36. 36P PRACTICE 8: Teaching and assessing SELF ASSESSMENTSELF ASSESSMENT:p CIRCLE OF LEARNING WAYS LEARNERS CAN SELF ASSESS SELF ASSESSMENT METHODSSelected andConstructed  Circle those you are certain are correct.  Put a check by the ones you ‘guessed’.Response  For all those you are uncertain about, put a star by your second choice.‘Academicpropmpt’ tasks  Rubrics  Criteria lists  Based on what we have been working on , there are 3 things which would make this better. Find them and attempt to improve your work.Contextual Tasks  Criteria listsProducts and  Rubricsperformances  Prompt questions such as:  Describe your thinking  Describe your problem-solving process.  If you had another week to work on this, where would you focus your attention? TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 36 Best Practice in Assessment
  37. 37. 37P PRACTICE 9: COMMON ASSESSMENTS YES NO Not Sure1. Are there particular learning standards for which it would be helpfulto have data from more than one course (e.g. writing)?2. Is there consistency in the grading of similar work products acrossmost subject areas?p3. Is there reasonably strong agreement on what each trans-disciplinarystandard (such as writing, oral presentation, problem-solving) ‘looks’ likeat each grade level or band of grade levels?4. Is there clear agreement about the difference in key standards at thetransition grade levels (e.g. between elementary and middle and middleand high)?5. Are there clear guidelines for teachers about specific assessmentpractices which are required in grades with more than one section, orcourses with more than one teacher?6. Is there concern that the forms of assessment used in someclassrooms may not be providing the real picture of studentachievement? CHARACTERISTICS Used beyond a single classroom Developed by a team of teachers internally Assess a few essential standards Evaluated by someone other than the student’s teacher. COMMON ASSESSMENT TASKSEXAMPLES TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 37 Best Practice in Assessment
  38. 38. 38 A TRANS-DISCIPLINARY SKILLS MAP TEMPLATEMake a list of 4-5 SKILLS which you think should be taught and assessed in many subject areas and grade levels.Who will take primary responsibility for teaching and assessing each of the trans-disciplinary skills? English Social Studies Math Science Modern Art Music PE /ESL Language TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 38 Best Practice in Assessment
  39. 39. 39 P PRACTICE 10: HOW DO WE BEST EVALUATE EVIDENCE?FIRST WAYSECOND WAYTHIRD WAYFOURTH WAYFIFTH WAY p TWO TYPES OF CRITERIA TASK SPECIFIC GENERIC GENERIC CRITERIA FOR TASKS INVOLVING BEING A TEAM MEMBER Points Evaluation Element Possible Self Teacher 1. You come to the group prepared to work. 5 2. You complete all individual tasks for the group on time and with quality. 10 3. You participate in a constructive, positive manner. 15 4. You encourage others to participate in a constructive manner. 10 5. You listen actively, not just wait your turn to speak. 10 6. You support your position in a strong and thoughtful manner. 10 7. You disagree in an agreeable manner. 10 8. You work at understanding others’ ideas. 15 9. You share the responsibility of helping the group get the job done according to directions on time. 5 10. You help the flow of new ideas. 10 TOTAL: _______ _______ _______ TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 39 Best Practice in Assessment
  40. 40. 40 GENERIC CRITERIA - ORAL PRESENTATION PointsI .You Are Prepared possible Self Teacher a. You know your material without having to refer too much to notes. b. Your presentation is organized (introduction, body, and conclusion). c. You provide details, elaboration, examples, and explanations to support your topic. d. You start on time, stick to your topic, and end on time. e. You followed assignment guidelines. II. You Use Effective Presentation Skills a. Your voice is clear and strong and can be heard and understood by everyone. You make eye contact, show warmth, and make your audience feel b. comfortable. You are enthusiastic. You smile and seem interested in your topic. c. d. You encourage participation; ask questions, and use audience ideas and statements in your presentation. e. You allow time for your audience to think and answer questions. III. You Use Visuals, Handouts, and Activities to Engage the Audience a. As a human visual, you are dressed neatly and maintain good posture. b. Visuals and/or handouts are neatly done and can easily be read by the audience. c. Visuals, handouts, or activities are appropriate to topic and help the audience learn. d. Visuals, activities or handouts are creative. e. You provide a variety of teaching materials. IV. You Anticipate Possible Problems and Use Strategies to Deal with Them a. Students not paying attention. b. Students talking/fooling around. c. Students not participating. d. Distractions such as announcements, fire drills, visitors to class. e. Students asking questions you cant answer. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 40 Best Practice in Assessment
  41. 41. 41 ELEMENTARY CRITERIA FOR EXCELLENT WRITING1. I used many interesting words. • • • • • •2. Every sentence starts with a different word. • • • • • • 3. When people read my writing, they are interested and don’t seem bored. • • • • • • 4. I know I was clear because when I ask the reader questions, he can answer them correctly. • • • • • •5. My spelling made it easy for the reader to read my work. • • • • • •(BBetts model) TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 41 Best Practice in Assessment
  42. 42. 42 GENERIC CRITERIA FOR INVESTIGATING A CONTROVERSIAL ISSUE Possible Earned AssessmentElement Points Self Teacher1. You gather sufficient information and support materials for your position.2. You use material from newspapers, magazines, news reports, and resource materials.3. You organize the information and prepare an argument for your position.4. You use sufficient examples and details to support the argument.5. Your position/argument is clearly stated.6. You listen to, ask probing questions about, and understand the opposing position.7. You state the strengths and weaknesses of each position.8. You discuss the positions/arguments with your opponent, criticizing ideas, not the person. Listening is active and polite.9. Opposing students try to reach a consensus or develop an alternative. You demonstrate evidence of compromising. Total: Pomperaug Regional School District, Middlebury, CT Through an agreement with the Maryland Assessment Consortium, permission is granted to Maryland Public Schools to reproduce this material for non-profit, educational use. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 42 Best Practice in Assessment
  43. 43. 43 RUBRICSA rubric is:Two purposes: Holistic Analytic RUBRIC FOR ORAL PRESENTATION5 - Excellent: You clearly describe the question studied and provide strong reasons for its importance. Specificinformation is given to support the conclusions that are drawn and described. Delivery is engaging andsentence structure is consistently correct. Eye contact is made and sustained throughout the presentation.There is strong evidence of preparation, organization, and enthusiasm for the topic. The visual aid is used tomake the presentation more effective. Questions from the audience are clearly answered with specific andappropriate information.4 - Very Good: You describe the question studied and provide reasons for its importance. An adequateamount of information is given to support the conclusions that are drawn and described. The delivery andsentence structure are generally correct. There is evidence of preparation, organization, and enthusiasm forthe topic. The visual aid is mentioned and used. Questions from the audience are answered clearly.3 - Good: You describe the question studied and state the conclusions but supporting information is not asstrong as 4 or 5. The delivery and sentence structure are generally correct. There is some indication ofpreparation and organization. The visual aid is mentioned. Questions from the audience are answered.2 - Limited: You state the question studied, but fail to fully describe it. No conclusions are given to answer thequestion. The delivery and sentence structure is understandable, but with some errors. Evidence ofpreparation and organization is lacking. The visual aid may or may not be mentioned. Questions from theaudience are answered with only the most basis response.1 - Poor: You make a presentation without stating the question or its importance. The topic is unclear and noadequate conclusions are stated. The delivery is difficult to follow. There is no indication of preparation ororganization. Questions from the audience receive only the most basic, or no, response. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 43 Best Practice in Assessment
  44. 44. 44 MULTIMEDIA PROJECT SCORING RUBRICScore Multimedia Collaboration ContentLevels The integration of media objects Working together jointly to The topics, ideas, concepts, such as text, graphics, video, accomplish a common knowledge, and opinions that animation, and sound to intellectual purpose in a manner constitute the substance of the represent and convey superior to what might have presentation. information. Videotapes which been accomplished working include sound and images fit alone. this definition. I have used multimedia in We were a very effective team. I have met all criteria of the 5 creative and effective ways that Division of responsibilities previous level and one or more exploit the particular strengths capitalized on the strengths of of the following: reflects broad of the chosen format. All each team member. The final research and application of elements make a contribution. product was shaped by all critical thinking skills; shows There are few technical members and represents notable insight or understanding problems, and none of a serious something that would not have of the topic; compels the nature. been possible to accomplish audiences attention. working alone. Presentation blends 3 or more My team worked together on all The project has a clear goal 4 multimedia elements in a aspects of the project. There was related to a significant topic or balanced, attractive, easy-to- an effort to assign roles based on issue. Information included has follow format. Elements include the skills/talents of individual been compiled from several original student work. With members. All members strove to relevant sources. The project is minor exceptions, all elements fulfill their responsibilities. useful to an audience beyond the contribute rather than detract students who created it. from the presentations overall effectiveness. Presentation uses 2 or more We worked together on the The project presents information 3 media. There are some technical project as a team with defined in an accurate and organized problems, but the viewer is able roles to play. Most members manner that can be understood to follow the presentation with fulfilled their responsibilities. by the intended audience. There few difficulties. Disagreements were resolved or is a focus that is maintained managed productively. throughout the piece. Presentation uses 2 or more Presentation is the result of a The project has a focus but may 2 media, but technical difficulties group effort, but only some stray from it at times. There is an seriously interfere with the members of the group organizational structure, though viewers ability to see, hear, or contributed. There is evidence of it may not be carried through understand content. poor communication, unresolved consistently. There may be conflict, or failure to collaborate factual errors or inconsistencies, on important aspects of the but they are relatively minor. work. Multimedia is absent from the Presentation was created by one Project seems haphazard, hurried 1 presentation. student working more or less or unfinished. There are alone (though may have received significant factual errors, guidance or help from others). misconceptions, or misunderstandings. Multimedia score = Collaboration score = Content score = Copyright San Mateo County Office of Education TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 44 Best Practice in Assessment
  45. 45. 45 Rubric For Assessing the Analytical Thinking Process of PROBLEM SOLVINGPROBLEM SOLVING involves developing and testing a method or product for overcoming obstacles orconstraints to reach a desired outcome. It includes four criteria that can be assessed: a. Accurately identifying obstacles to solving a problem(s). b. Proposes more than one way of solving the problem(s). c. Identifying how the problem(s) was solved and explaining what happened. d. Explaining your decision for solving the problem(s) that way.4 a. I accurately and thoroughly described several obstacles and arranged them in order of importance. b. I proposed several creative and reasonable ways of my own to solve the most important problem(s). c. I identified how the problem was solved and I have shown a deep understanding of the problem and solution by thoroughly explaining what happened.. d. I provided a clear, complete explanation of the reasons why I decided to solve the problem that way and why I didnt choose the other ways..3 a. I accurately described various obstacles and identified the most important. I proposed several ways of my own to solve the most important problem(s) but theyre not all reasonable b. or creative. c. I identified how the problem was solved and I explained it briefly. d. I provided a clear, complete explanation of the reasons why I decided to solve the problem that way.2 a. I described at least two obstacles OR I did not identify the most important. b. I proposed only two ways to solve the most important problem(s). c. I identified how the problem was solved but I didnt explain it. d. I wrote a brief answer about this but it is not very clear of complete.1 a. I described only one obstacle. b. I proposed only one way to solve the most important problem(s). c. I did not identify how the problem was solved. d. I did not explain why I solved the problem that way. TTC EARCOS SFC Oct. 2012 45 Best Practice in Assessment