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CRC Campus Chaplaincy, University of Toronto Marcia BoniferroOffice of Student Conflict Resolution, York University Marcelle Mullings
STUDENT LEADERSHIP MODELSHow are student leaders involved in the conduct process at your campus?
STUDENT LEADERSHIP MODELSStudent Conduct Boards Peer Conduct Boards Peer Appeal Boards Mixed Conduct Boards (Staff & Faculty)Administrative Hearings Adjudicate cases Co-adjudicate with staff Student residence life staff able to assign sanctionsAdvocacy/Advising Assist students to understand conduct process Provide support at hearings
CROSS-CANADA SURVEYSurvey of 16 Canadian Universities shows… 12 - Peer Conduct/Appeal Boards 11 - Mixed Boards 8- Peer Conduct Advisors 4 - Student Residence Life Staff able to assign sanctions 1 – Adjudicate cases 1 - Education / Awareness
BENEFITS OF INCLUDING STUDENT LEADERS IN CONDUCT PROCESS What are the benefits of including student leaders in the student conduct process at the University level?
BENEFITS OF INCLUDING STUDENT LEADERS IN CONDUCT PROCESS More inclusive process if representatives of all community members involved Shared responsibility for success of community Student engagement/investment in campus life Students may perceive that University is taking them more seriously and that their views are valued
BENEFITS OF INCLUDING STUDENTLEADERS IN CONDUCT PROCESS Encourages student self-governance Helps to rebut notion of us against them (staff versus students/student organizations) Enjoyable for student conduct professionals to be exposed to student leaders as well as struggling students
RESEARCH STUDYChassey, Richard A. “Development of Critical Thinking Skillsamong Student Judicial Board Members.” Journal of StudentConduct Administration, 2009. Extensive review revealed only 3 studies on student board members Chassey’s own research showed: Rapid change in cognitive and communication skills amongst student board members Significant increase in their level of critical thinking ability over academic year Increase in self-reported skills: Perspective taking Listening to others Working with others Improved confidence
RESEARCH STUDY“…the correlations indicate that the increase in criticalthinking ability was more closely associated withnumber of semesters of board membership than withclass year. This suggests it is membership on a board,not a board member’s academic experience, that wasdriving the increase in critical thinking ability.” (Chassey, 2009)
RESEARCH STUDY“Learning how to take the perspective of others andhow to listen effectively were consistent themes acrossthe responses to the survey. This suggests experienceas a board member breaks through the lingeringegocentrism sometimes found in late adolescents andyoung adults.” (Chassey, 2009)
CHALLENGES OF INCLUDINGSTUDENT LEADERS IN CONDUCTWhat are the challenges ofincluding student leaders in thethe student conduct process?
CHALLENGES OF INCLUDING STUDENT LEADERS IN CONDUCT Lack of maturity to address challenging/complex cases Intimidated by student participants Scheduling High rate of turnover Inability to ask necessary/pertinent questions Tendency towards black/white thinking Gender imbalance
STUDENT LEADERSHIP BEST PRACTICES1. Learning Outcomes2. Assessment/Evaluation3. Training4. Ongoing Professional Development5. Encouragement/Affirmation
1. Learning OutcomesPerspective Taking Open MindListening to Others Calm EmotionsWorking with Others ResponsibilityCritical Thinking LeadershipConfidence PersuasionCommunication ObjectivityPatience Empathy (Chassey, 2009)
RESEARCH TOOL Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS). CAS Self Assessment Guide for Student Conduct Programs. CAS: 2009. Suggested learning outcomes include: Knowledge acquisition, integration, construction and application Cognitive complexity Intrapersonal development Interpersonal competence Humanitarianism and civic engagement Practical competence (ex. communication skills, professionalism)
2. Assessment/EvaluationCONTENT Learning and development of student conduct board members and advisers/mentors/educators Effects of educational programming/campaigns Effectiveness of student conduct boards targeting special groups (e.g. residence and student organizations) Recidivism ratesFEEDBACK From student leaders about student conduct system From student participants in conduct processes From staff and faculty involved in conduct cases From persons harmed in cases
Assessment/Evaluation CAS suggests periodic performance evaluations of individual hearing boards including: Whether student conduct boards accurately follow the institution’s procedural guidelines General impressions of the student conduct system according to students, faculty, staff and the community Developmental effects on students and student conduct board members Annual trends in case load, rates of recidivism, types of offenses, efficacy of sanctions Effects of programming designed to prevent behavioural problems Unique aspects of special function or special population student conduct boards (eg. student organization boards, residence boards) (CAS, 2009)
Assessment/Evaluation CAS suggests the assessment process include: Establishing a process and review team (staff, faculty and students) Compiling and reviewing documentary evidence Judging performance Creating action plan for future improvements (CAS, 2009)
3. TrainingTraining for Student Conduct Boards could/should include:Content Philosophy Critical Thinking Process Preparation Hearing Decorum Questioning Skills Evidence Standards of Proof Sexual Misconduct / Relationship ViolenceFormat Retreats Multiple Training Days Mock Hearings (National Centre for Higher Education Risk Management, 2011)
Conduct Board Training An overview of all judicial policies and procedures An explanation of the operation of the judicial process at all levels including authority and jurisdiction An overview of the institution’s philosophy on student conduct Roles and functions of all student conduct bodies and their members Review of constitutional and other relevant legal rights and responsibilities An explanation of sanctions An explanation of pertinent ethics (ex. privacy, bias) A description of available personal counseling programs and referral sources An outline of interactions which may involve police, attorneys, witnesses, parents, media An overview of developmental and interpersonal issues likely to arise amongst students (CAS, 2009)
Other TrainingTraining for Advisers/Mentors/Educators could include:Advising/Mentoring PhilosophyCommunication SkillsHelping ConversationsDiversityCitizenshipCommunication Campaigns Enough is Enough
4. Ongoing Professional Development Asking Questions Writing Reasons Decision Letter Writing Restorative Justice Conflict Resolution LGBT Awareness Diversity Mock Hearings
5. Encouragement / Affirmation Mid/End of year celebrations Certificates Awards nights/ceremonies Co-curricular transcript
BIBLIOGRAPHYChassey, Richard A. (2009). “Development of Critical Thinking Skills among Student Judicial Board Members.” Journal of Student Conduct Administration. Longwood University.Commission for Student Conduct and Legal Issues of the American College Personnel Association (ACPA). (2010). Student Conduct Board Manual and Reference. Retrieved from http://www2.myacpa.org/publications/internal-publications.Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS). (2009). CAS Self Assessment Guide for Student Conduct. Retrieved from https://store.cas.edu/catalog/index.cfmDublon, Felice. (2008). “Demystifying Governance: The Influential Practitioner.” Student Conduct Practice: The Complete Guide For Student Affairs Professionals. James M. Lancaster and Diane M. Waryold, eds. Stylus.Pavela, Gary. (2008). “Can We Be Good Without God? Exploring Applied Ethics with Members of Student Conduct Hearing Boards.” Student Conduct Practice: The Complete Guide For Student Affairs Professionals. James M. Lancaster and Diane M. Waryold, eds. Stylus.