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Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
Chemical formula and equation, mol concept
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Chemical formula and equation, mol concept

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  • 1. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011CHEMICAL FORMULA AND EQUATION1. Write the chemical formula of the compound in the table below. Ion Chloride Nitrate Hydroxide Sulphate Carbonate oxide Sodium Magnesium Lead(II) Copper (II) Iron (II) Iron (III) Aluminium2. Write balanced chemical equation for the following chemical reactions. (a) Heat solid of copper (II) carbonate …………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) Nitric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide …………………………………………………………………………………………. (c) Hydrochloric acid reacts with zinc metal …………………………………………………………………………………………. (d) Copper(II)nitrate reacts with magnesium …………………………………………………………………………………………. (e) Chlorine gas reacts with lithium hydroxide …………………………………………………………………………………………. (f) Hydrogen gas reacts with lead(II) oxide ………………………………………………………………………………………….3. Avogadro constant, NA is defined as the number of particles in one mole of a substance [1 Mol any substance consist of 6.02 X 1023 particles]. Calculate the number of particles in: (a) 0.1 mol of calcium (b) 1.5 mol of iron (c) 2.0 mol of oxygen gas (d) 1.5 mol of helium
  • 2. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011 (e) 2.0 mol hydrogen chloride4. Calculate the number of moles of the following substances. (a) 6.0 x 1023 aluminium (b) 1.8 x 1021 argon (c) 1.2 x 1023 bromine gas (d) 2.4 x 1020 carbon dioxide (e) 3.0 x 1023 ammonia5. Calculate the mass of following substances.a) 1.5 mol of chlorine gas b) 2.5 moles of oxygen gasc) 2.0 moles of sulphuric acid d) 0.5 moles of ammonia, NH3e) 2.5 moles of lead (II) carbonate f) 0.5 moles copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 Molar volume: The volume of one mole of the gas [22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP, standard temperature and pressure] [24 dm3 mol-1 at Room condition]
  • 3. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 20116. Calculate the volume of gases below. (a) 0.5 mol of chlorine at STP. (b) 0.2 mol of carbon dioxide at Room condition. (c) 1.5 mol of methane at room condition. (d) 0.5 mol of helium at room condition. (e) 2.5 mol of ammonia at STP7. Calculate the number of moles of the gases below. (a) 250 cm3 of carbon dioxide in room temperature. (b) 500 cm3 of hydrogen sulfide at STP. (c) 200 cm3 of hydrogen chloride in room temperature. (d) 750 cm3 of neon in room temperature. (e) 300 cm3of ammonia at STP.8. Magnesium powder reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce salt and hydrogen gas. (a) Write the balance chemical equation for this reaction. …………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) If 2.4 g of magnesium powder is added into excess hydrochloric acid, calculate, (i) The mass of salt formed. (ii) The volume of hydrogen gas liberated at room temperature.9. Lead is extracted according to the following equation. C + PbO  CO2 + Pb
  • 4. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011 (a) Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. …………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) Determine the number of moles of lead extracted from 0.5 mole of lead (II) oxide. (c) Calculate the number of moles of carbon required to extracts 0.5 mole of lead(II) oxide. (d) What is the mass of lead are produced if 44.6 g of lead (II) oxide is heated with excess carbon. [ RAM : Pb = 207, O = 16, C = 12 ]10. Excess sodium carbonates is added into 50 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 copper(II) chloride. The chemical equation for the reaction is as follows: CuCl2 + Na2CO3  NaCl + CaCO3 (a) Balance the chemical equation for the reaction. (b) Calculate the mass of copper(II)carbonate.11. A hydrocarbon is burnt completely in air to form 17.6 g of carbon dioxide gas and 7.2 g of water. What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon compound? Given that the relative atomic mass of C = 12, H=1, O =16]12. 5g of calcium carbonate is added to excess hydrochloric acid. (a) Write balanced chemical equation for the reaction. ………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • 5. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011 (b) Determine the volume of carbon dioxide gas evolved at room temperature13. When sodium bicarbonate is heated, it decomposed to sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide and water. (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the decomposition of sodium bicarbonate on heating. …………………………………………………………………………………………. (b) If 8.4 g of sodium bicarbonate decomposes, calculate (i) The volume of carbon dioxide gas evolved at room temperature. (ii) The mass of sodium carbonate formed.Concentration of acids and alkalis.(STOICHEIOMETRY) The concentration of a solution is the mass (in gram) or the number of mole of solute dissolved in a solvent to form 1.00 dm3 of solution. Concentration, g dm-3 Mass of solute, g Volume of solution , dm3 Concentration, mol dm-3 / Number of mole of solute, mol molarity Volume of solution , dm3 Titration Formula MaV2 = a MbVb bMa = Concentration of the acid, Mb = Concentration of the alkaliVa = Volume of used acid, Vb = Volume of used alkalia = the number of mole of acid, b = the number of mole of alkali Dilution M1V1 = M2V21. 100cm3 of HCl 2.0 mol dm-3 reacts completely with excessive zinc powder. Calculate the volume of gas released at room temperature? (Molar volume = 24 dm3 at room temperature).
  • 6. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 20112. 5 g of Calcium carbonates dissolves in 100 cm3 of nitric acid 0.5 mol dm-3 to produce salt, carbon dioxide gas and water. (i) Write out the equation. ……………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Calculate the moles of calcium carbonates used. (RAM Ca =40, C = 12, O = 16). (iii) Calculate the moles of acid. (iv) Calculate the volume of gas produced.3. X g sodium carbonate reacts completely with 100 cm3 hydrochloric acid 1.0 moldm-3 to produce sodium chloride, carbon dioxide and water. Find X. (relative atomic mass: Na =23, C = 12, O = 16)4. 10 g of copper(II) oxide reacts completely with 100 cm3 hydrochloric acid to form copper(II) chloride and water. Calculate the molarity of acid used. (JAR Cu =64, O = 16 )5. The concentration of sodium hydroxide solution is 8.0 g dm-3. (a) What is the molarity of the solution?
  • 7. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011 (b) What is the molarity of the solution produced when 100 cm3 of distilled water is added to 50 cm3 of this solution?6. In the titration experiment, 25.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is titrated with sulphuric acid from a burette. 18.50 cm3 of sulphuric acid is needed for complete neutralization. (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the neutralization. ……………………………………………………………………………… (b) Calculate the number of mole of sodium hydroxide used in this experiment. (c) Calculate the number of moles of sulfphuric acid needed to exactly neutralize 25.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3sodium hydroxide. (d) Calculate the molarity of sulphuric acid.7. 1.25 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid reacts completely with 25.0 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium carbonate. (a) Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. ……………………………………………………………………………… (b) Calculate the number of mole of sodium carbonate used in this experiment. (c) Calculate the volume of hydrochloric acid needed to exactly neutralize 25.0 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium carbonate.PAPER 2: STRUCTURE1.2. Diagram 1 shows the set-up of the apparatus for an experiment to determine the empirical formula of an oxide of copper.
  • 8. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011 Oxide of copper Dry hydrogen gas Heat Diagram 1 Table 1 shows the results of an experiment after heating, cooling and weighing are repeated until a constant weight is obtained. Substance Mass(g)Mass of combustion tube + porcelain dish 18.75 gMass of combustion tube + porcelain dish + oxide of copper 20.75 gMass of combustion tube + porcelain dish + copper 20.35 g Table 1 (a) What is meant by empirical formula?…………………………………………………………………………………………. [1 mark] (b) Based on Table 5 results, (i) Calculate the mass of copper and the mass of oxygen used in the experiment. [2 marks] (ii) Calculate the mole ratio of copper atoms to oxygen atoms. Given that the relative atomic mass of Cu, 64; O ,16. [2 marks] (iii) State the empirical formula of this oxide of copper. ……………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (iv) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in this experiment. ………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 9. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011 [1 mark] (c) Describe the steps that should be taken to ensure that all the air in the combustion tube has been expelled , before any heating is carried out. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… [3 marks]2. (a) Culculate the relative molecular or formula masses of the following substances. (i) Ethanol, C2H5OH. Given that relative atomic mass of H = 1, C = 12, O = 16. [1 mark] (ii) Zinc nitrate, Zn(NO3)2 Given that relative atomic mass of O = 16 , N = 14, Zn = 65 . [1 mark] (b) A closed glass bottle contains 4 mol molecules of oxygen, O2. (i) What is the number of oxygen molecules in the bottle? [1 mark] (ii) How many oxygen atoms are there in the bottle? [1 mark] (c) Find the number of moles of atoms in a sample containing 9.03 × 1020 atoms of copper.
  • 10. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011 [1 mark] (d) Calculate the mass, in gram, of 3.5 moles of copper(II) carbonate, CuCO3. Given that relative formula mass of CuCO3 = 124 [1 mark] (e) When silver carbonate, Ag2CO3 is heated, it will decompose to produce silver metal, carbon dioxide gas and oxygen gas as shown in the equation below. 2Ag2CO3(s)  4Ag(s) + 2CO2(g) + O2(g) A student heats 8.28 g silver carbonate. Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide gas, CO2 collected at room temperature. Given that relative atomic mass of C = 12, O =16, Ag = 108, [3 marks]3. Diagram 3 shows 3.1 g of copper (II) carbonate being heated strongly in attest tube. The gas given out is passed into limewater in a test tube through a delivery tube. Copper(II) carbonate Heat strongly Lime water Diagram 3 (a) State the observation made when copper(II)carbonate powder is heated until the reaction is complete. ………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark]
  • 11. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011 (b) Write the chemical equation to represent the reaction that takes place. ………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (c) Calculate the number of moles of copper(II)oxide produced. [2 marks] (d) Calculate the volume of gas produced at STP. [2 marks] (e) (i) What can be observed if the product is heated in a stream of hydrogen gas? ………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the mass of the substance produced. [2 marks] PAPER 2 : ESSAY4. (a) The information Carbonis regarding substance X • below 85.70% • Hydrogen 14.30% • Relative molecular mass = 56
  • 12. Chemical formula and equation Mole concept f4 2011 (i) Determine the empirical formula of substance X. [Given that the relative atomic mass of C = 12 , H = 1] (ii) Determine the molecular formula of substance X. (iii) Based on the answers in (a)(i) and (a)(ii) , compare and contrast the empirical formula and the molecular formula. [ 8 marks](b) Magnesium can react actively with oxygen to form magnesium oxide. Describe an activity that can be carried out in the laboratory to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide. Include the calculations involved in your answer. Given that the relative atomic mass for O = 16, Mg = 24. [11 marks]

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