The Need For Energy


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The Need For Energy

  1. 1. The Need for Energy
  2. 2. What do we need energy for? How do we measure energy in food? Why do all body cells have to carry out respiration? Who can remember the respiration equation? Revision
  3. 3. Discuss All body cells carry out aerobic respiration to produce energy. Discuss the problems below. Glucose + Oxygen H 2 0 + Energy + C0 2 Where does the glucose come from? How does it reach the cell? Where does the oxygen come from? How does it reach the cell? How does the cell get rid of the carbon dioxide? Where does it go?
  4. 4. Energy and the Breathing System <ul><li>To release the energy in food it must be </li></ul><ul><li>combined with oxygen in the body during </li></ul><ul><li>respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing supplies the cells with oxygen and </li></ul><ul><li>removes carbon dioxide (the waste product of </li></ul><ul><li>respiration). </li></ul>Notes
  5. 5. Structure of the Lungs Trachea Bronchus Bronchiole Alveoli (air sacs) Right lung Rib Intercostal Muscle (between ribs)
  6. 6. Structure of the Lungs <ul><li>Stick in and label your copy of the lung diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>Add and label the diaphragm. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the route taken by an oxygen molecule from when it is breathed in until it reaches the alveoli. </li></ul>Notes Help Success Guide 60 Torrance p 154
  7. 7. Alveoli Oxygen Carbon dioxide Oxygen dissolves in the moisture and then diffuses into the epithelial cell Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli epithelia to the red blood cell This is where gas exchange takes place
  8. 8. Alveoli <ul><li>Stick in your copy of an alveolus. </li></ul><ul><li>Add arrows to show the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Colour your diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a table that lists the features of the alveoli, and why this makes gas exchange efficient. </li></ul>Notes Help Success Guide 61 Torrance p 157
  9. 9. Summary Answer the questions on page 61 of the Success Guides in full sentences. Notes
  10. 10. Activity Place your hands on your ribs just above your stomach. Take a deep breath and slowly let it out. What is happening to your ribs as you breathe?
  11. 11. Breathing Breathing in Ribs move up and out. Diaphragm contracts and flattens. O 2 CO 2 Breathing out Ribs move down and in. Diaphragm relaxes and rises.
  12. 12. Breathing Next to your copy of the breathing diagram, describe what is happening to: the ribs the diaphragm the thorax volume the pressure in the chest Help Success Guide p62 Notes
  13. 13. Experiment Composition of Inhaled and Exhaled air Copy the diagram and colour the bicarbonate indicator to show the colour change. Inhaled air Exhaled air
  14. 14. <ul><li>Draw a table comparing the percentage of gases present in inhaled and exhaled air. </li></ul><ul><li>-Highlight the important differences. </li></ul>Notes
  15. 15. Ciliated Epithelium <ul><li>Use the class books to draw a labelled diagram of ciliated epithelium cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the secretions and cilia help keep the lungs clean. </li></ul>Notes
  16. 16. But how does that oxygen get to all the cells in our body? So now we know how oxygen enters our blood stream.
  17. 17. How often does your heart muscle beat in a day? - Find your pulse (wrist or neck are easiest). -Record how many times your heart beats in 30 seconds. -How many times would that be in a day? Activity
  18. 18. <ul><li>72 x 60 min = 4,320 per hour </li></ul><ul><li>4320 x 24hr = 103,680 per day </li></ul><ul><li>103680 x 365days = 37,843,200 per year </li></ul><ul><li>37843200 x 75 years = 2,838,240,000 </li></ul>2.8 billion beats per lifetime How many times in a lifetime?
  19. 19. Blood and Circulation The circulatory system consists of the heart (a muscular pump) and the blood vessels (a system of tubes) which carry blood to all parts of the body. Notes
  20. 20. Chambers of the Heart Right atrium Right ventricle Left atrium Left ventricle Internal wall Cardiac muscle
  21. 21. - Look at page 158 of the Torrance text book. - Label the heart valves 1- 4 like figure 17.12 and use the paragraph at the bottom page to describe their job. Chambers of the Heart Notes <ul><li>Label your heart diagram with: </li></ul><ul><li>the four chambers </li></ul><ul><li>the cardiac muscle </li></ul><ul><li>the internal wall </li></ul>
  22. 22. Blood Flow Vena cava: Carries deoxygenated blood from body to heart. Pulmonary Artery: Carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs. Pulmonary Vein: Carries oxygenated blood from lungs to heart. Aorta: Carries oxygenated blood from heart to all body parts.
  23. 23. Use the information on the slide to label your second heart diagram showing the flow of blood. Blood Flow Notes
  24. 24. Construct a summary diagram to show the route of blood circulation from the body, through the heart and lungs, and back. Use the following blocks (remember arrows): Vena cava Right atrium Right ventricle Pulmonary artery Lungs Pulmonary vein Left atrium Left ventricle Aorta Body Notes
  25. 25. Blood Vessels ARTERIES carry blood away from the heart. Thick, muscular wall. Narrow cavity Blood at high pressure VEINS carry blood to the heart. Thin, muscular wall. Wide cavity, with valves Blood at low pressure
  26. 26. <ul><li>CAPILLARIES </li></ul><ul><li>Join arteries to veins. </li></ul><ul><li>Only one cell thick to allow exchange of substances to and from body cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic cavity. </li></ul>O 2 and food CO 2 and waste
  27. 27. Coronary Arteries Artery carrying O 2 rich blood to cardiac cells Damaged artery clogging with fatty deposits
  28. 28. Blood Vessels <ul><li>Fill in and colour the work sheet on blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a summary note describing the features of each blood vessel. </li></ul>Notes Help Success Guide Torrance
  29. 29. <ul><li>It is sometimes helpful to think of the blood vessels like a road map. </li></ul><ul><li>Towns are like organs. The veins and arteries are like motorways going to and from organs . </li></ul><ul><li>Houses are all the cells in the body. The capillaries are like streets going past every house (cell) and dropping of/picking up passengers. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Look at Figure 17.15 on page 159 of Torrance. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the diagram, describe the route (blood vessels, </li></ul><ul><li>heart chambers, organs passed through) for: </li></ul><ul><li>An oxygen molecule going from the lung alveoli to the </li></ul><ul><li>leg muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A urea molecule going from the liver to the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A glucose molecule going from the intestine to the leg muscles. </li></ul>Activity:
  31. 31. Blood <ul><li>The average person has about 5 litres. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood is made up of a pale yellow liquid called plasma which contains: </li></ul>-Blood cells (red/white) -Dissolved substances (glucose, amino acids, salts, vitamins, hormones, urea etc.) -Blood proteins (e.g. antibodies)
  32. 32. You are working in the Blood Chemistry Lab of the Edinburgh Royal Hospital. Research and design a poster about blood cells to display on the walls for new staff. Activity: Things to include: Red blood cells - size, diagram, number/mm 3 blood, function White blood cells – size, diagram, number/mm 3 blood, function Platelets- diagram and function
  33. 33. Red Blood Cells <ul><li>5 million per ml blood </li></ul><ul><li>Carry oxygen to cells </li></ul><ul><li>No nucleus and so short lived. Destroyed and replaced every 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>Biconcave in shape (a dimple either side) </li></ul><ul><li>Increases surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm contains haemoglobin </li></ul>
  34. 34. White Blood Cells <ul><li>5000 white blood cells per ml of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Have nuclei but not haemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Vital for a healthy immune system </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The pigment in red blood cells is called ___________ . </li></ul><ul><li>When concentrations of oxygen are ____, the oxygen binds with haemoglobin to form ____________. </li></ul><ul><li>This would happen in the capillaries of the _______. </li></ul><ul><li>When concentrations of oxygen are ____, the oxy-haemoglobin releases the _________ (e.g near ___ ___) </li></ul>Notes Haemo globin No Haemo goblins